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LIBRARY OF MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 



WOODS HOLE, MASS. 



Of 



Loaned by American Museum of Natural History 




a ^ / -^ 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO VOL. XXXV. 



ALDRICH, PROF. J. M Moscow, Idaho. 

ASHMEAD, DR. WILLIAM H Washington, D. C. 

BACOT, A London, England. 

B.VLL, PROF. E. D., M. Sc Agric. College, Logan, Utah. 

BANKS, XATHAN East End, Va. 

BETHUXE, REV. C. J. S. (The Editor) London, Ont. 

BIRIX HEXRV Rye, N. Y. 

BRADLEY, J. CHESTER. . : Philadelphia. Pa. 

BRITTOX, W. E New Haven, Conn. 

BROOKS, THEODORE Gcan tanamo, Cuba. 

BUEXO, J. R. DE LA TORRE New York. 

CASEY, :\IAJOR THOMAS L St. Louis, Mo. 

CAUDELL, A. N Washington, D. C. 

CLARK, AUSTIN H Cambridge, Mass. 

CLARKE, WARREN T Berkeley, Calif. 

COCKERELL, PROF. T. D. A Colorado Springs, Colo. 

COCKLE, J. WILLIAM Kaslo, B. C. 

COOLEY, R. A BozEMAN, Montana. 

COQUILLETT, D. W Washington, D. C. 

CRAWFORD, J. C, Jr West Point, Nebr. 

DODGE, G. M Louisiana, Mo. 

DYAR, DR. HARRISON G Washington, D. C. 

EVANS, JOHN D Trenton, Ont. 

FERNALD, DR. H. T Amherst, Mass. 

FERNALD, MRS. C. H Amherst, Mass. 

FERNALD. PROF. C. H Amherst, Mass. 

FLETCHER, DR. JAMES Ottawa. 

FRENCH, PROF. G. H Carbondale, III. 

FYLES, REV. DR. THOMAS W Levis, P. Que. 

GIBSON. ARTHUR Ottawa. 

GRAENICHER, DR. S Milwaukee, Wis. 

GROTE, PROF. A. RADCLIFFE Hildesheim, Germany. 

HARRINGTON, W. HAGUE Ottawa. 

HINE, PROF. JAMES S Columbus, Ohio. 

HOPKINS, DR. A. D Washington, D. C. 

HOW.VRD, DR. L. O Washington, D. C. 

JOHNSON. W. G New York. 

KEEN. REV. J. H Metlakatla, B. C. 

KING, GEORGE B Lawrence, Mass. 

LYMAN, HENRY H., M. .\ Montreal. 

MARLATT, C. L Washington, D. C. 

MOFFAT, J. ALSTON London, Ont. 

MORRILL, AUSTIN W .\gric. College, Mass. 

NEEDHAM, PROF. JAMES G Lake Forest, III. 

QUAINTANCE, A. L '. College Park, Md. 

ROBERTSON, CHARLES Carlinville, III. 

SANDERSON, PROF. E. DWIGHT Agric. College, Tex.as. 

SCHAEFFER, C Brooklyn, N. Y. 

SCHWARZ, E. A Washington, D. C. 

SLOSSON, MRS. A. T Franconia, N. H. 

SMITH, PROF. J. B., Sc. D New Brunswick, N.J. 

STEVENSON, CHARLES Montreal. 

SWENK, MYRON H Lincoln, Nebr. 

THEOBALD, FRED V London, England. 

TITUS, E. S. G Washington, D. C. 

WALKER, E. M., M. B Toronto. 

WASHBURN, PROF. F. L St. Anthony Park, Minn. 

W.VS.VIANN, RE\'. E., S. J Luxemburg. 

WEBSTER, PROF. F. M Urbana, III. 

WTCKHAM. PROF. H. F Iowa City, Iowa. 

WILLIA.MS, J. B Toronto. 




VOLUMK XXXV. 




Ephemera siiiirihiiis. Walk. 



EDITED BY 



Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S.C. 



London, Ontario. 



EDITING COMMITTEE : 



Dr. J. Fletcher and W. H. Harrington, Ottawa ; H. H. Lyman, 

Montreal ; J. D. Evans, Trenton ; Prof. 

Lochhead, Guelph. 



ILonOon, ©ntario : 
The London Printing' anJ Lithographing: Company, Limited 



Can. Ent., Vol. XXXV. 



Plate I. 




WILLIAM E. SAUNDERS. 
SECRETARY OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO FROM 1887. 



t>^-^ 






Vol. XXXV. 



LONDON, JANUARY, 1903. 



No. I 



WILLIAM E. SAUNDERS. 

In this issue of our magazine we have pleasure in presenting to our 
readers a portrait of the Secretary of the Entomological Society of Ontario 
for the last fifteen years, Mr. W. E. Saunders, who is well known as a 
prominent member of the fraternity of Canadian naturalists. Mr. 
Saunders's home is in London, where he was born and where most of his 
life has been spent. His father, Dr. William Saunders, Director of the 
Experimental Farms of the Dominion, has always been devoted to 
the study of the natural sciences, and hence the son's attention was in 
early years directed to similar pursuits, interest in them being maintained 
by the making of collections in the different departments. Geology, 
Botany, Entomology and Ornithology all in turn provided object-lessons 
for study, training the mind to habits of close observation and filling the 
leisure of later years with delightful employment. 

After a few years of miscellaneous collecting, Mr. Saunders turned 
his attention more exclusively to Ornithology, and as soon as the use of a 
gun was permitted he commenced a scientifically-arranged collection of 
our native birds, showing male and female in summer and winter 
plumage, with any variations from the types ; also the nest and eggs of 
each species. Year by year the collection is added to, until now it 
numbers over 1,000 specimens. Mr. Saunders's birds are his intimate 
friends, and whether in his own house or on the public platform, his " Bird 
Talks," illustrated with specimens, show to his audience that he speaks of 
what he has learnt by personal experience in the fields and woods. His 
enthusiasm for this study is such that he counts it no hardship to walk 
miles into the country in time to hear some favourite songster greet the 
dawn. He has also been known to spend a night in the woods in the 
depths of winter, just to see what he missed by spending his nights in 
bed! 

About two years ago Mr. Saunders accompanied his father on an 
official visit to Sable Island, a place he had long wished to go to in order 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



to see the only known breeding place of the "Ipswich" sparrow. The im- 
pressions of this trip were given to the public in an article in one of our 
local papers, which has since been adapted for some of our scientific 
magazines. Mr. Saunders was able also to enrich his collection by 
several specimens of the rare sparrow, as well as some other beautiful 
birds which have their habitat on that interesting island. 

Although Mr. Saunders is kejDt fully employed in looking after his 
business interests, he finds a change of work sufficient to afford him the 
rest he needs ; hence, he has employed his leisure time in many pursuits, 
and while Ornithology may be called his principal "hobby," he has gone 
rather extensively into gardening and horticulture generally — extensively, 
considering the size of his lot on Central Ave., but the amount of fruit 
and flowers there produced is a surprise and pleasure to all his summer 
visitors. His well-known love for these pursuits and his knowledge of 
horticulture generally has occasioned his recent election to the chairman- 
ship of the committee who have in charge the care of the street trees in 
London. 

Mr. Saunders received his education principally in London, though 
two or three years were spent in boys' colleges elsewhere. As it was 
considered best for him to enter the drug business so long conducted by 
his father, he was sent for two years to the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, where he graduated with the highest honours. Soon after his 
return to London he was taken into partnership with his father, but on 
the latter being appointed Director of the Experimental Farms of the 
Dominion, Mr. Saunders retired from the retail business and entered into 
the wholesale exclusively. 

On the establishment of the Western University he was appointed to 
the chair of Chemistry, which he held until the claims of his own 
business forced him to relinquish the position. 



We regret to learn that the Entomological Society of Belgium has 
recently lost its venerable President, Dr. Pierre-Jules Tosquinet, 
retired Inspector General of the Health Department of the Army, Officer 
of the Order of Leopold, and honoured with the Civil Cross of the First 
Class and also the Military Cross. He died at Saint Gilles, October 
28th, 1902, in the 78th year of his age. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSORIAL, PREDACEOUS AND 

PARASITIC WASPS, OR THE SUPERFAMILY 

VESPOIUEA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, A. M., ASSISTANT CURATOR, DIVISION OF INSECTS, 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(Paper No. ii. — Continued from Vol. XXXIV., p. 291.) 
Family XXXIV. — Sapygidie. 

The wasps belonging to this family, on account of the emarginate 
eyes in the females, and the abdomen being usually marked with yellow or 
white, closely resembles those in the families Myzinidce and Scoliidce, but 
may be easily distinguished by the great difference in the legs, the middle 
coxae being approximate, the outer face of the tibiae being smooth, 
unarmed, without tubercles or spines, while the tarsi are without strong 
spines or bristles, and unfitted for digging. 

The antennae, too, are different ; they are inserted much farther 
apart, being nearer to the eye margin than to each other. The pronotum 
is broader, abruptly truncate anteriorly, with the front angles more 
acute, while the venation, at least in the front wings, is wholly different 
from the venation in the Myzinidce and the Scoliidce, the stigma being 
distinct, never small^ the marginal cell larger, lanceolate, the basal nervure 
slightly arcuate, with the cells different. The males are easily known by 
the unarmed hypopygium. 

In habits the species agree with those in the Trigonalidce, being 
parasitic in the nests of wasps and bees. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Head normal, without smooth, blister-like swellings along the inner 

margin of the eyes and on the vertex ; ocelli large, distinct 2. 

Head with smooth, blister-like swellings along the inner margin of the 
eyes and on the vertex ; ocelli small, indistinct. 

Antennae at apex similar in both sexes, the last joint in the male 

not enclosed by the penultimate (1) Eusapyga, Cresson. 

(Type E. rubripes, Cr.) 

2. Antennae dissimilar in the sexes, not filiform ; mandibles with unequal 

teeth 3. 

Antennce similar in both sexes, filiform, tapering off at apex ; mandibles 
broad, 3-dentate, the teeth blunt, equal ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, 

labial palpi 4-joinled (2) Polochrum, Spinola. 

(Type P. repanda, Spinola.) 



4 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGISt. 



3. Third joint of the antenna; not longer than the fourth ; second cubital 
cell narrowed above ; antennae in female clavate, in male subfiliform, 
the last joint more or less enclosed by the penultimate ; mandibles 
3-dentate, the teeth acute, the outer tooth a little the 

longest (3) Sapyga, Latreille. 

(Type Apis clavicornis, Fabr.) 
Third joint of the antenna; longer than the fourth ; second cubital cell 
not much narrowed above ; antennai in female subfili- 
form (4) Sapygina, Costa. 

(Type Sapyga decemguttata, J urine.) 

Family XXXV.- -Myzinidae. 

This family is usually classified with the Scoliidce. According to my 
views, it is (luite distinct, although closely allied, and is easily separated 
by the difference in the shape of the eyes in the females, and by the 
totally different armature of the male genitalia. 

The eyes in a female Myzinid are always entire, never emarginate 
within, as in the Scoliidce The males have the eyes emarginate or 
sinuate within, much as in the Scoliidce, but are easily distinguished 
by difference in venation and by the armature of the genitalia, the 
tip of the abdomen always ending in a single upward curved aculeus. 

In the Scoliidce the abdomen in the males terminates in three 
straight spines. 

The family is without doubt parasitic, Init nothing seems to be 
known of llie habits of the many sjiecies already described. 

Many of our species are common in midsummer and early fall ; 
tliey nre conspicuous and easil}' observed, and some of our younger 
entomologists should make an effort toward unravelling their life- 
histories. 

The genus Menisus, Du Buysson, I do not know ; it may be 
Sapygid, but I am unable to place it from the description. 

The species in our catalogues, under the genus Myzine, do not 
belong to it, but should be removed to the genus Plcsia, J urine. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Females : eyes entire, Jiot emarginate within 2. 

Males : eyes more or less emarginate within 11. 

2. Wings fully developed, normal 3. 

Wings much abbreviated, the apex pointed, incised or bilobed 9. 



THE CA.NADUN ENTOMOLOGIST. 5 



3. Front wings with three cubital cells, rarely with tivo cubital cells . . 4. 
Front wings with two cubital cells. 

Second cubital cell receiving both recurrent 

nervures Poecilotiphia, Cameron. 

(Type P. albomaculata, Cam.) 

4. Marginal cell not at all or only slightly separated from the costa ; 

three cubital cells, the second and third each receiving a recurrent 
nervure 8. 

Marginal cell widely separated from the costa, nearly to the stigma, 
and directed forward into the disc of the wing, so as to occupy the 
place usually occupied by the third cubital cell. 

Two cubital cells 5. 

Three cubital cells 6. 

5. Thorax elongate, the pronotum long ; hind tarsi twice longer than 

their tibiae ; cubitus in hind wings originating before the transverse 

median Hemimeria, Saussure. 

(Type Myzine Savignyi, Guer.) 

6. Second cubital cell neither small nor petiolate 7. 

Second cubital cell very small, longly petiolate ; hind tarsi not twice 

longer than their tibiae Myzine, Latreille. 

= Tachus, Jurine. 

= Meria, lUiger. 

(Type Tiphia tripunctata, Rossi.) 

7. Second cubital cell large, longer than wide, trapezoidal, receiving the 

recurrent nervure far beyond the middle ; hind tarsi al)out twice as 
long as their tibiai ; cubitus in hind wings originating behind the 
transverse median nervure ; mandibles long, sickel-shaped, 

edentate Plesia, Jurine. 

(Type Tiphia namea, Fabr.) 

Second cubital cell not so large, receiving the recurrent nervure at the 
middle; mandibles stout, curved, edentate. . Dimorphoptera, Smith. 

(Type D. scoliiformis, Smith.) 

8. Cubitus in hind wings originating beyond the transverse median 

nervure ; hind tibiae elongate, triangulate ; last joint of hind tarsi 
not smaller than the fourth . . . . Micromeria (Westwood) Saunders. 

(Type Meria, Llugii, Westwood.) 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Cubitus in hind wings originating (?) before the transverse median 
nervure ; hind tibiie globose ; last joint of hind tarsi very 

minute Parameria, Guerin. 

(Type P. femorata, Guer.) 

9. Wings glabrous, ?iot hairy 10. 

Wings hairy, strongly fimbriate. 

Apical lobes of front wings unequal ; stigma and veins 

absent Komarovia, Radoszkowski. 

(Type K. victoriosa, Radoszk.) 

10. Apex of wings bilobed, the marginal cell wanting; one cubital and 

two discoidal cells ; mandibles at apex bifid ; hind tibial spur 

moderate, straight and acute Pseudomeria, Saunders. 

(Type P. graeca, Saund.) 

Apex of wings pointed ; otie or two discoidal cells ; mandibles 

at apex simple, edentate ; hind tibial spur very long, slender, 

acute (Africa) Pseudotiphia, Ashm., g. nov. 

(Type Tiphia brevipennis, Lucas.) 

11. Front wings with three cubital cells 12. 

Front wings with two cubital cells. 

Second cubital cell receiving both recurrent 

nervures Poecilotiphia, Cameron. 

12. Marginal cell at apex not at all or only slightly separated from the 

costa ; second cubital cell large, irregularly quadrangular, 

trapezoidal or pentagonal, longer than the third 13. 

Marginal cell al ajiex widely separated from the costa ; second 
cubital cell small, longly peliolate Myzine, Latreille. 

13. Marginal cell shorter, rounded or truncate at apex ; second cubital 

cell long, in outline triangular 14, 

Marginal cell long, its apex oblique and with a slight curve inwards 
near the costa ; three cubital cells, the second cell large, the 
second and third each receiving a recurrent nervure, or the 
second recurrent is interstitial with the second transverse cubitus; 
cubitus in hind wings originating before the transverse median 
nervure Plesia, Jurine. 

14. Apex of marginal cell narrowly rounded; second cubital cell 

receiving the first recurrent nervure at or a little before the 
middle, the second recurrent nervure received by the third cubital 
cell before the middle Micromeria, Saunders, 



THE CANADIAN ENTO!\[OLOGIST. 



Apex of niargiiKil cull biictly truncate ; second and third cubital cells 
each receiving a recurrent nervure at or a little beyond the middle; 
cubitus in hind wings originating a little before the transverse 

median nervure Mesa, Saussure. 

(Type M. diapherogamia, Sauss.) 

Family XXXVL— Scoliids. 
This family is very closely allied to the Myzitiidce, but may 
be easily separated by having the eyes in the females distinctly 
emarginate within. The males also have emarginate eyes, but are 
more easily distinguishable by abdominal peculiarities, the tip ending 
in three straight spines, but never in a single upward curved aculeus as in 
the Myzinidce. 

The species are parasitic upon the larvns of beetles belonging to the 
family Scarabaeid(E, and probably also upon other ground-inhabiting 
beetle larv?e. 

Two subfamilies may be recognized : 
Front wings with only one recurrent nervure ; if with two, the second 
recurrent is incompletely formed, and bends backwards so as to unite 
with the first, the second cubital cell receiving only one recurrent 

nervure Subfamily I. — Scoliinse. 

Front wings with two complete recurrent nervures, both of which are 

received by the second cubital cell Subfamily II. — Elidinse. 

Subfamily I. — Scoliince. 
In this subfamily the front wings have only a single complete 
recurrent nervure, which is received by the second cubital cell. The 
group is evidently an offshoot from the Elidiiice, which have two 
complete recurrent nervures. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Front wings \\\\.\\foiir discoidal cells, the third usually triangular, often 

petiolate 2. 

Front wings with three discoidal cells. 

Two closed cubital cells Discolia, Saussure. 

(Type Scolia apicicornis, Guer.) 

Three closed cubital cells Scolia, Fabricius, 

= Triscolia, Sauss. 

= Triliacos, Sauss. (partira.) 

(Type S. Havifrons, Fabr.) 

2. Two cubital cells Diliacos, Sauss. et Sich. 

(Type Compsomeris violacea, Lepels.) 



8 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Three cubital cells Liacos, Guerin. 

= Triliacos, Sauss. et Sich (pariim.) 
('ryi)e L. dimidiata, Guerin.) 

SuuFAMiLV II. — Eliding'. 

This subfamily is separated from the Scoliiiue by having two 
recurrent nervures, and both being received by the second cubital cell. 
It is the older type of the two subfamilies, and is clearly shown by 
the more numerous cells in the front wings. 

The present conception of the genus Elis appears to be wrong. 
Elis, as established by Fabricius, was a most composite group, and some 
of the species originally placed in it by Fabricius did not even belong to 
the same family. 

Fabricius, when he established Elis, placed under it seveji species, 
viz.: (i) E. sexciticta, (2) E. interrupta, (3) E. seniles, (4) E. y-cincta, 
(5) E. cylindrica, (6) E. volvulus and (7) E. cochleata. Subsequently, 
some of these were placed in other genera, and the first species, 
Elis sexcincta, became the type of the genus Myzine, Latr. After going 
carefully over the literature, I find that the only species left to which the 
Fabrician name Elis may be applied is Elis (Scolia) y-cincta. This 
must now be considered the type of the genus ; it will throw out 
the generic names, Colpa, Lep.j Compsomeris, Lep., and Dielis, Sauss., 
and what we have been calling Elis becomes Trielis, Saussure. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Front wings with three ox four cubital cells 2. 

Front wings with ttvo cubital cells. 

Three discoidal cells Elis, Fabricius. 

= Compsomeris, Lep. 

= Colpa, Lepel. 

== Dielis, Sauss. 

(Type Scolia 7-cincta, Fabr.) 

2. Front wings with three closed cubital cells. 

Three discoidal cells : Trielis, Saussure. 

= Elis, Sauss. et Auc. 
(Type Elis consanguinea, Sauss.) 

Four discoidal cells Trisciloa, Gribode. 

(Type T. Saussurei, Grib.) 
Front wings w'wh four closed cubital cells. . Tetrascolia, Ashm., g. nov. 

(Type Compsomeris Urvillii, Gue'r.) 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



NEW NOCTUIDS FOR 1903.— No. I. 

BY JOHN B. SMITH, SC. D., RUTGERS COLLEGE, N. J. 

Feralia Columbiana, n. sp. — Ground colour a bright emerald green, 
the maculation black and white. Head with a black interantennal spot. 
Collar with a black patch at its centre and at the base of each primary: 
tipped with whitish. Behind the collar there is a black edging to the 
disc and the loose basal tuftings are black marked. The edges of the 
patagia are black along the disc and at the base of the wings. The 
thorax itself is small and quadrate, the maculation just described forming 
a black square in its centre. The abdomen is deep smoky brown, 
yellowish or whitish at tip. Primaries with all the lines black, prominent, 
yet fragmentary. Basal line single, accompanied by a few white scales, 
becoming diffuse at the inner margin. T. a. line single, followed by a 
white line, Outcurved as a whole and irregularly bent or curved outwardly 
in the interspaces. It may or may not be connected with the basal line 
by a black bar below the median vein. T. p. line very irregularly 
dentate, broad, a little diffuse outwardly, preceded by a white line, the 
tooth on vein 4 carrying the line nearest to the outer margin. The 
median shade line is irregular, broken, almost upright, coming between 
the ordinary spots and tending to become obsolete below the middle of 
the wing. If complete the tendency is to a black powdering through the 
outer half of the median space. There is no s, t. line. The space 
between t. p. line and outer margin is even to a series of large black, 
interspacial terminal spots which are preceded by white scales. Beyond 
these spots the fringes are cut with blackish, the intermediate spaces 
whitish. Orbicular round or oval, more or less completely outlined in 
white and black. Reniform large, upright, a little constricted in the 
middle, an inner, diffuse white line to the incomplete black defining line. 
Claviform indicated by black scales and more or less white filled. The 
secondaries may be entirely blackish with white fringes, or there may be 
a whitish margin and base of indefinite extent. Beneath with a geminate 
extra-median line on all wings ; secondaries with a large black discal 
spot. The primaries have the terminal space green, but within that 
everything is more or less black powdered to the base. A large black 
patch on the costa between the outer line and the terminal space. The 
breast is a mass of smoky blackish long fine hair. The legs are banded 
and ringed with black, while and green. 

Expands 40 mm. = 1.60 inches. 



10 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Habitat: New Westminster, British Columbia, 1896 (Fletcher) j 
Northwest Territory (Ottolengui). 

Two males in good condition, very much alike, yet different. The 
specimen from Dr. Fletcher came some years ago and was associated 
with Momophana Comsiocki, because of the tendency to powder or 
darken the outer portion of the median space. It was realized that the 
wing form was somewhat different ; but this was not without the range of 
possible variation, and I had an example from Oregon that I yet believe 
to be Comstocki. The recei[)t of a fine example from Dr. Ottolengui 
makes clear a close relationship to Feralia Jocosa, than which it is a 
much larger and more intensely coloured form. It is quite likely that the 
secondaries may vary to almost whitish with more or less blackish 
powderings. 

Carneades ciiiereopallidus, n. sp. — Groundcolour a peculiar, very pale 
ashen gray, more or less powdered with bluish dark gray scales ; a little 
washed locally with luteous. Head concolorous. Collar with a blackish 
line across the middle, below which is a whitish line or shade which may 
involve the entire lower half Tip edged with white scales, then luteous 
to the black line. Thorax with disc and patagia more or less whitish, 
the edges of the latter sometimes edged with black : more evidently so in 
the females. Primaries whitish powdered over the costal region ; a 
luteous shading through the cell and in the s. t. space. A black, 
geminate basal line is obscurely marked ; most obvious on and below the 
median vein. Median lines practically lost : the t. a. marked by the 
claviform and a slight difference in shade between basal and median 
spaces ; t. p. a narrow ])aler line whicli is somewhat rigidly oblique. S. t. 
line narrow, whitish, preceded l)y black scales which may form rather 
vague sagittate spots. It is obviously dented by whitish rays on veins 3 
and 4, which do not, however, quite reach the outer margin. \\'hitish 
rays on veins 6 and 7 do not, or only slightly, dent the line. A series of 
smoky, obscure, terminal lunules. A very pale yellow line at base of 
fringes. Claviform narrowly outlined by black scales, concolorous, 
usually with a ])aler shading above and beyond it. Orbicular oblique, 
oblong, varying in width, open to the costa, sometimes outlined by black 
scales, of the palest ground colour or a little whitish. Reniform rather 
narrow, kidney-shaped, pale yellowish, sometimes contrasting ; not 
outlined except by the rather sharp colour contrast. Secondaries white, 
with a very narrow smoky edging in the male, a broader, variable outer 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 11 

shading in the female. Fringes white. Beneath, white with a smoky 
disc on primaries, costal region powdered on secondaries, a smoky 
terminal line on all wings. 

Expands 28-33 mm. = i.i 2-1.32 inches. 

Habitat : Stockton, Utah, in October. Four examples, two of each 
sex, and none of them good, are at hand from Mr. George Franck. 

The species belongs with the 4daitata series ; but is not especially 
well marked and recalls the perso7iata form of pitychrous. It is best 
placed near 4-dentata, and I am not sure that some specimens so marked 
will not prove referable to this new form. 

The antennee of the male have the lateral processes well marked and 
the bristle tufting long. 

Carneades tronellus, n. sp. — Ground colour white with a yellowish 
tinge, ranging from faint lemon to creamy or even very pale luteous ; the 
deeper shades in the females. Head and thorax concolorous, vcstiture 
rather thin, long, patagia not marked. Primaries, in the males almost 
immaculate, the only obvious mark being a somewhat diffuse blackish 
spot at the end of the cell, representing the reniform. On close examina- 
tion, scattered darker scales or slight shadings indicate the maculation 
which is obvious in the female. In the latter sex the primaries are more 
or less powdery and all the normal maculation is traceable, albeit in a 
fragmentary fashion, nor all of it in any one specimen. Basal line 
marked by black scales on costa and median vein. T. a. line geminate, 
the inner line is usually marked on the costa only, broken into imperfect 
interspacial lunules, as a whole a little outcurved. T. p. line geminate, 
inner line narrow, broken, feebly crenulated, blackish, outer line a vague 
shading : the course as a whole well curved over the cell and a little 
incurved below. A dusky costal patch in the s. t. space contrasts a little 
with the somewhat paler apex. Terminal space a little dusky and thus 
indicating a somewhat irregular terminal line. Secondaries white in both 
sexes, in the female with a faint trace of narrow extra-median line. 
Beneath white, primaries with a yellowish tint, practically immaculate in 
both sexes. 

Expands 32-37 mm. = 1.2S-1.50 inches. 

Habitat : Stockton, Utah, in October. Three ^ and three $ , all 
more or less rubbed or otherwise imperfect, from Mr, George Franck. 

The species is allied to citricoior, Grt., but is much lighter in colour 
and in the ^ not nearly so well marked, On the other hand, in the 



12 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



female the maculation is much better written. So great a difference 
between the sexes is not usual in this series, and I believe that more 
material will bring maculate males and more nearly immaculate females. 

Mamestra orida, n. sp. — Ground colour ashen gray, powdered with 
black. Head inferiorly protuberant, a little roughened, yellowish in 
colour. Vague blackish lines across the front and vertex. Collar 
inferiorly a little paler ; a more or less obvious black transverse line. 
Thorax powdery, patagia with obscure submarginal lines. Primaries 
powdery, the maculation obscure, except that the reniform and the s. t. 
line are always conspicuous. Basal line geminate, smoky, well marked ; 
connected with base by a short black line in the submedian interspace. 
T. a. line marked by geminate blackish dots on costa and then lost. T. 
p. line also marked by costal spots and in some specimens by venular 
black dots, never complete. S. t. line whitish, irregular, with small 
outward teeth on veins 3 and 4, emphasized by the darker terminal space 
and a dusky preceding shade. A series of black terminal interspacial 
lunules. Fringes white at base, interlined with smoky, cut with paler on 
the veins, edges a little notch. Veins marked by blackish scales. 
Claviform broad, varying in length, outlined by blackish scales, 
concolorous. Orbicular rather small, oval, somewhat elongate, outlined 
in smoky brown, annulate with yellowish, smoky centered. Reniform 
large, kidney-shaped somewhat dilated inferiorly, and there obscured by 
a blackish, diffuse shading. Secondaries white, with a broad black outer 
margin, the fringes white. Beneath white, more or less powdery over the 
costal region. All wings with a broad, black submarginal band, and 
within this a series of black venular dots. Primaries with a discal lunule, 
secondaries with a discal dot. Tarsi annulate with black and white. 

Expands 30-33 mm. = 1.20 to 1.32 inches. 

Habitat : Stockton, Utah, in October. 

Two (^ and seven y from .Mr. (Icorge Franck, who has others 
which do not materially differ from the series under observation. The 
antennie of the male have the joints a little marked, and are obviously 
ciliated. The genitalia are quite unique, and do not closely resemble 
those of any of the species figured by me in the revision. 

It belongs to the group de/cssa, and may be most nearly associated 
with chartaria, differing obviously in the black-margined secondaries. 
The maculation of the under side is quite characteristic, and in all this 
species should be readily recognizable. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 13 

The protuberant, roughened front is somewhat unusual in this genus, 
but is not so marked as to require a separate generic term. 

Caradrina drasteroides, n. sp. — Ground colour a creamy gray, with 
the yellowish tinge well marked. Head and thorax immaculate. 
Primaries powdered with black scales, which gives the gray tinge an 
emphasis ; most of the s. t. and terminal spaces distinctly and evenly 
gray. The ordinary lines are not well marked. Basal line marked 
on costa only or not at all. T. a. line barely traceable by the absence of 
black scales ; outwardly bent on the median vein, inwardly angled on the 
submedian. T. p. line better defined, geminate, only a little outcurved; 
inner line blackish or brown, sometimes emphasized on the veins ; the 
outer line marked only by the darker s. t. space which relieves the 
pale shade following the inner dusky line. The median shade line 
is smoky or deeper luteous, well removed outwardly, and outwardly 
diffuse to the t. p. line. S. t. line whitish, almost even, a little better 
defined on the costa by a slight darkening in the s. t. space ; well defined 
inwardly, somewhat diffuse outwardly. A series of minute black terminal 
dots, which may be wanting. Orbicular and claviform wanting. Reniform 
oblique, without definite outlines, dusky, obscured by the median shade, 
which crosses and completely involves it. Secondaries snowy white, with 
or without a small dark discal spot and a more or less obvious powdering 
of black scales at the base of the fringes. Beneath, primaries creamy 
white, the yellow most obvious along the costa, with a more or less 
obvious extra-median dusky line, and with or without a discal spot. 
Secondaries white, more or less creamy and powdery along the costa ; a 
partial outer line and sometimes a small discal dot. 

Expands 27-31 mm. =1.08-1.24 inches. 

Habitat: Southern California ; Arizona. Two male examples; one 
in good, the other in fair condition. 

The smaller specimen is from Arizona, and comes from the 
collection of Dr. Ottolengui. The larger specimen is from Southern 
California, and has been in my collection nearly or quite ten years 
awaiting a mate. The reference to Caradrina is not quite satisfactory, 
because of the wing form. This resembles more that of Drasteria. and 
there I expected at first to place it, but the species is obviously a typical 

trifid. 

The vestiture is scaly, just a little roughened, forming no tufts of any 
kind. The palpi hardly exceed the front. The antenna? are very shortly 
ciliated, 



14 THE CANADIA-N ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Siavana rigida, n. sp. — Ground colour a somewhat yellowish brick 
red, through which a luleous base api)ears locally. Head and collar a 
deeper, more rusty red-brown. Thorax and abdomen otherwise immacu- 
late, concolorous. Primaries without strong contrasts. The costa is a 
deeper red-brown, and in the costal area there is a light gray powdering. 
T. a. line single, very slender, slightly irregular, a little outcurved, bright 
red-brown, tending to disappear altogether. T. p. line slender, crenulate, 
single, with or without minute black venular dots ; as a whole, nearly 
parallel with the outer margin. S. t. line a series of vague gray venular 
dots, which may be altogether wanting. The colour deepens a little, and 
becmnes somewhat smoky at the outer margin, where a narrow yellow 
line marks the base of the fringes. Median shade line crimson red, 
rigidly oblique from the costa near the inception of t. p. line, touching the 
lower outer angle of the reniform and reaching the inner margin just 
within the t. p. line. This line tends to disappear and may be entirely 
absent, and there may or may not be a prominent black patch on 
the inner margin, filling the space between the t. p. line and median 
shade line. Orbicular a small blackish dot. Reniform moderate in size, 
rather narrow, slightly oblique, somewhat constricted centrally, narrowly 
brown ringed, the filling luteous, but not contrasting. .Secondaries 
a little paler at base than primaries, but darkening outwardly to the same 
shade. The median shade of primaries is obviously continued across the 
secondaries, and the t. p. line is vaguely traceable. There is also a 
slightly-waved, narrow, yellowish line at the base of the fringes. 
Beneath there is a crimson powdering, which becomes paler along the 
inner margin of the secondaries. A vague, common outer line. 

Expands 45 mm. =t.8o inches. 

Habitat: Huachuca Mts., Arizona. One male and one female from 
Dr. Barnes. 

The species resembles the eastern repanda ( Harveya auripennis, 
Grt.) in general appearance and in colour. In the $ the antenna in the 
new species are decidedly more slender and the ciliation of the joints, 
though longer, is more sparse. So in rigida the apex is marked and the 
outer margin is a little excavated below it ; in repanda the apex is obtuse 
and the outer margin is rounded. In the older species the median shade 
line is smoky, somewhat diffuse, and a little sinuate, almost parallel with 
the t. p. line ; in the new species this line is rigid and crimson. Alto- 
gether, the differences, though not striking, seem to authorize the new 
species. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 15 



ARCTIC SIRICOIDEA AND TENTHREDINOTDEA. 

BV W. HAGUE HARRINGTON, F. R. S. C., OTTAWA. 

The knowledge of our Arctic insect fauna is of so fragmentary a 
character that any contribution thereto is of special interest and value to 
Canadian entomologists. I am indebted to Dr. Hans Kiaer, of the 
Museum of Tromso, Norway, for a copy of an exceedingly valuable 
catalogue entitled " Die Arktischen Tenthrediniden,"* an examination of 
which emphasizes this fact. His introduction points out that in Canada 
little is known of the forms occurring north of St. Martin's Falls, Lat. 51'^, 
whereas in Norway species are recorded from as far north as Lat. 70°. 
Of 228 species enumerated (including 12 of Siricoidea) Arctic Scandinavia 
furnishes 132, Nova Zemlya 18, Spitzbergen 6, Iceland 3, Greenland 2, 
Hudson's Bay region 59, Alaska 8, and Arctic Siberia 11. There is but 
one species common to Europe and America, and only 11 species in all 
occur in any two of the above regions, showing that the circumpolar 
fauna is not so cosmopolitan as is frequently supposed, although 
undoubtedly some forms now listed as distinct species may prove to be 
synonyms. Rhogogastcra viridis, Linn., is the sole link between the old 
and new worlds. Slrex bizo7iatus, Steph., and .5*. caiidatjis, Cress., are 
found in Hudson's Bay territory and in Alaska ; Cimbex /emorata, Zett, 
TricJiiosoma luconim, Linn., and Nematjis iiii/iaris, Pan/., in Arctic 
Scandinavia and Siberia; IV. arcticus, Holmgr., and N'. frigiJus, Boh., 
in Nova Zemlya and Spitzbergen ; N. coiidjuius, Ruthe, and Emphytus 
pallidipes, Spin., in Arctic Norway and Iceland, and N. obscuripes, 
Holmgr., in Arctic Norway and Nova Zemlya. The percentage of 
Nematids to other forms is very large in the boreal and arctic faunas, 
and, apparently, increasingly so northward concurrently with changes in 
the flora. From the Hudson's Bay region this group is as yet not nearly 



"Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenslellung der arkti.schen Tierformen, mit 
besonderer Berucksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes aiif Grand der Ergebnisse der 
Deutschen Expedition in das Nordlicher Eisnieer im Jahre, 189S. Band II., Lieferung 
3, 1902. 



16 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SO well represented as is that of the Tenthredinids, clearly showing that 
the smaller and inconspicuous forms characteristic of the north have 
escaped the attention of the few collectors there, and that extensive 
additions could be made to the list of species, did not the inaccessibility 
of the region at present prevent systematic collecting. 

A notable addition has been made to the knowledge of American 
species, since the preparation of Kiaer's catalogue, in the " Papers from 
the Harriman Alaska Expedition " (Proc. Wash. Acad. Sciences). No. 
XXVIII. (158 pages, 3 plates) is a monograph by Ashmead of all the 
Hyraenoptera, describing 201 new species and enumerating 335 species now 
known from Alaska. No. VII., by Prof Kincaid, deals specially with the 
Tenthredinoidea. This large and successful expedition to Alaska was in 
1S99, ^"<^ Prof Kincaid, as entomologist, made, during the months of 
June and July, very extensive collections. Among these were 56 species 
of sawflies, of which 32 were new species described in his paper. The 
list of Alaskan species was thus raised in one brief season from 7 species 
to 61 species, and the fauna was shown to be comparatively rich. Many 
of the species found on the Alaskan coast will undoubtedly extend 
eastward into Canada, through the Yukon. The Tenthredinids are 
represented by 22 species, of which 6 are new, and the Nematids by 27, 
of which no less than 21 are new, an indication of how little was 
previously known, and of how much remains to be learned. Some of the 
species have a very extensive range, as, for instance, Pxcilostotnidea 
macu/ata, Nort., the well-known strawberry sawfly; Dolerus scriceu^, Say; 
D. aprilis, Nort.; Cinibex ainericajia., Leach, and Trichiosoma 
tria7igulum, Cr., all of which occur tiiroughout Canada and over large 
areas in the United States. It is stated that an especially rich series of 
Nematids may be expected in the Alaskan region " owing to the immense 
abundance, both in species and individuals, of various kinds of willows." 
This will hold good in a great measure all across northern Canada, and 
insects which feed upon birch, spruce and other widely-distributed 
northern plants can also have an extended range. This is shown by the 
occurrence in Alaska of Pachynematus ocreatus, Harrgtn., described from 
Ottawa, and bred from a larva on spruce. One of the few species 
previously known from Alaska, Tenthredo melanosoma, Harrgtn., seems 
to be abundant, as seven specimens were collected, and I have also 
received two males and two females from Mr. W. Simpson, of Ottawa, 
who collected them, in 1894, at Burroughs Bay. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 17 



THE LIFE-HISTORV OF CROCIGRAPHA NORMA NI, CRT. 

BY ARTHUR GIBSON, CP:NTRAL EXPERIMENTAL FARM, OTTAWA. 

On the 6th May, 1901, a cluster of 30 eggs of Crocigraphn 
Normafii, Grt., was found by the writer. Six of these had been 
destroyed and the contents eaten, probably by some hemipterous insect. 
The eggs were laid in rows close together, touching each other, on the 
upper side of a leaf of Caulophyllum fhalictroides, Michx., and formed 
almost a complete square, an average of six eggs being in each row. 
They looked as if they had just been laid. Young maple, ash and birch 
trees were growing near by. 

Egg. — .Almost semispheroidal ; 0.7 mm. wide, 0.6 mm. high, about 
31 ribs rising from almost near the base, which is flattened and pitted, 
making it appear rotighened. The whole egg has a shiny appearance, 
particularly so towards and at the tip of each rib. The ribs are 
acutely angled, and the whole surface, except the base, is distinctly 
marked with wavy, transverse ribs. When found, the eggs were white. 
On the 7th May they were all ringed near the apex with reddish brown, 
and there was also a blotch of this colour near the apex. The eggs 
hatched on the nth May. 

Stage I. — Length, at first, 3.25 mm. Head 0.4 mm. wide, pale 
brown, slightly bilobed, with a shallow furrow down the front ; mouth- 
parts reddish; hairs on face pale. Body cylindrical, pale yellow; after 
feeding, the food contents give a greenish appearance ; skin smooth, 
shiny. The cervical shield is concolorous with head, and bears two rows 
of transverse tubercles, 4 large ones in front and 4 smaller ones behind. 
Tubercles on body shiny black, large, single-haired; tubercles i and iii in a 
line, ii and iv almost in a line, but iv nearer to iii than ii is to i. Spiracles 
very minute, faintly black, and in a line with tubercle iv, and about the 
same distance from tubercle iii as from iv ; setse short and black. A 
faint dark green dorsal vessel is apparent. All the feet are concolorous, 
slightly darkened at tips. The first two pairs of abdominal feel on 
segments 7 and 8 are aborted, only being about half formed. 

The young larvae are " loopers," and spin a considerable quantity of 
silk ; when disturbed on a leaf, they rise up on their prolegs and assume 
a sphinx-like attitude. Apple, beech, willow, elm, basswood, wild goose- 
berry, ash, plantain, birch and wild cherry were offered, and while they 
fed on nearly every one of these plants, elm and beech were the favourite 
food. 



18 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

On the 15th May most of the larvre were swollen and ready for the 
first moult ; on the i6th and 17th ihey cast their skins. 

Stage II. — Length, 5.5 nnn. Head 0.7 mm. wide, brownish yellow; 
on each cheek there are two large dark brown round spots. In some 
specimens these two spots are almost black, and the whole face is 
sparsely mottled with small spots of the same colour; ocelli dark; 
mouth-parts reddish ; antennae faintly reddish. There is now a great 
difference between the larvae in this stage and in last stage. A distinct 
white dorsal stripe is now present, also a lateral stripe of the same 
colour, and a wide stigmatal band, which is double on some segments. 
The whole dorsal surface of the larvfe, just after moulting and for a day or 
so, is dark green, but afterwards becomes less dark in colour, the skin 
below spiracle.^ being still paler. In some specimens the skin between 
the lateral stripe and the stigmatal band is quite dark, almost black. 
The cervical i-hield is concolorous with body. The feet are all pale 
green, the fir^t pair of abdominal prolegs aborted. The thoracic feet 
bear black plates exteriorly. 

On the iQih May several were swollen, and by the morning of the 
20th four had moulted. The remaining specimens had all moulted 
by the 21st. 

Stage III. — Length, 10 mm. The general appearance of the larvae 
in this stage is much the same as just after last moult. Head i.o to i.i 
mm. wide, slightly bilobed, the two spots, one on each cheek, in all 
but a itw specimens are now joined together, and appear as one 
large conspicuous mark shaped like a dumbbell. The face is shiny 
and of the same brownish yellow as before ; the brownish blotches, as in 
last stage, are also present over the whole face ; ocelli black ; mandibles 
reddish. Body of a rather geometrid appearance, colour above spiracles 
dark grayish green, below spiracles lighter green. The dorsal and lateral 
stripes are faintly bluish. The tubercles are black and very small. The 
stigmatal band now appears as a double stripe, joined together at the 
junction of each segment, and resembles a chain of links. The space 
between the double stigmatal stripe and the lateral stripe is darker than 
the dorsal area, and in some specimens this space is almost black, giving 
the appearance of a wide, black, lateral band. The si)iracles are pale, 
ringed with black. Cervical shield concolorous with body. 'J'horacic 
feet and prolegs concolorous with venter, bearing short pale hairs. 
Claspers of abdominal and anal feet reddish. The first two pairs 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 19 



of abdominal feet are fully formed in this stage, and are used by 
the larvEe when walking. Thoracic feet blackish at tips ; abdominal feet 
shaded with black towards base. The larvae do not change during this 
stage, and remain the same colour as just after moulting. They still have 
the habit of assuming the sphinx-like attitude. 

On the 23rd May some specimens were swollen, and by the 25th all 
but four had moulted. These passed the third moult soon afterwards. 

Stage /K — Length, 17 mm. Head r.5 to 1.6 mm. wide, very 
slightly biiobed. The larvis in tliis stage do not show any difference 
from the last stage. The markings are exactly the same, no 
change whatever could be detected. The dorsal area is perhaps a 
little darker than in Stage III. 

On the 27th May four specimens were swollen, and these had 
moulted by the morning of the 28th. The remaining lirvse moulted 
during the next two days. 

Stage V. — Length, 21 mm. Head 2.0 to 2.2 mm. wide. In this 
stage also the larvae do not show any material difference from Stage III. 
The whole dorsal surface is rather darker, and, in coiisequence, the 
black band on the sides does not apiiear so conspicuous. The whole 
skin above the spiracles is a dull-grayish green, finely mottled with black. 
The lateral stripe is fainter than before. The centre of the spiracle is 
pale orange in this stage, but ringed, as before, with black. 

On the 31st May two larvte passed the fifth moult, and the remaining 
specimens within the next few days. 

Stage VI. — Length, 27 mm. The larvK in this stage are very 
different from the last three stages. Head 3.1 to 3.4 mm. wide, 
brownish, very slightly biiobed, shiny ; almost the whole upper surface of 
each cheek consists of one large, black, elongated spot. Between the two 
large spots the face is darker brown than the lower front of head, and is 
reticulated with the same colour. On the lower front and sides there are 
also some darker brown blotches ; ocelli black ; setse pale and slender j 
at base of each hair there is a small dark brown spot. The head in the 
last three stages becomes darker with each moult. Body cylindrical ; 
dorsal and lateral stripes, as well as the black band between lateral 
stripe and spiracles, are very faint now, the dorsal stripe being the most 
perceptible. The whole skin above the spiracles is now one mass 
of beautiful, small, wavy, black dashes, spots and blotches, the skin itself 
being of a dull yellowish gray, a pale reddish brown, or a dull grayish 



20 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



green, the shade varying in ahnost each larva. Superficially, however, 
the colour is much the same, and does not vary to a striking 
extent. On all the specimens there is a distinct purplish or reddish 
sheen between the segments. The venter in all the specimens is paler 
than the dorsum. Cervical shield darker than body. Tubercles small, 
black, normal ; setae pale and slender. Tubercle iv behind the spiracle. 
Spiracles black, with a pale centre. Feet concolorous with venter ; 
thoracic feet shiny ; claspers of prolegs blackish. 

Length of mature larva at rest, 35 rnm.; extended, 42 mm.; width 
at widest part, 5.75 mm. 

On the 13th June four larvae buried, on the 14th two, on the i6th 
two, and the remaining specimens soon afterwards. Pupation takes place 
within an earthen cell. 

Pupa. — Average length, 17 mm.; width, 5.5 mm.; colour almost a 
warm sepia brown, polished ; thorax, wing-cases, etc., finely wrinkled with 
transverse lines ; abdomen polished, the segments pitted anteriorly. 
Cremaster stout, darker than abdomen, rugose, excavated beneath, with 
two slender straight spines, about 0.7 mm. in length, at the tip. These 
spines are pointed downwards, and are distinctly curved at the end. 

The first moth emerged (in a cool cellar) on the 17th Feb., 1902, 
and four other specimens emerged on the 12th May, which is the natural 
time for the imago to appear (Ottawa, April 29, May 4, 7, 10, 21, 23, 
25, 29, Fletcher, Young, Gibson; Toronto, Ont., May 9, 17, Gibson; 
Trenton, Ont., May 24, Fletcher; Chats Rapids, Que., May 24, Gibson). 

On the 25th May, 1901, two larvie of this species were found on the 
common Beaked Hazelnut (Corylus rostrata, Ait. j on the Experimental 
Farm, and had only emerged from the egg a few days. These were reared 
to maturity (the larvie being fed solely on this plant), and the caterpillars 
answered well to those described above, the only apparent difference 
being that in Stage I the cervical shield was partly margined with black. 



THE OCCURRENCE OF THF PHORU^J GENUS AENIG- 

M ATI AS IN AMERICA. 

PY D. W. COQUILI.ETT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The occurrence in Arizona of a lepresentative of a very anomalous 
wingless genus of Phoridie, of which but a single specimen was heretofore 
known, and that found beneath a stone in such a widely-separated 
locality as Denmark, is a problem in geographical distribution very 
difficult of solution. During the entomological excursion of Messrs. E. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 21 



A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber to portions of New Mexico and Arizona in 
the summer of lyoi, while coUecling at the base of a hill at Flagstaff, 
Arizona, Mr. Barber obtained in his sweeping net a single specimen of 
the cockroach-like genus Aenigmatias. This specimen agrees closely 
with Dr. Meinert's original description and figures of his Aenigmatias 
biattoides*, except that it has only six instead of seven body-segments, 
not counting the genitalia. Thinking that perhaps an error had been 
made by the engraver, and that the description had been made conform- 
able to the engraved figure, I addressed a letter on the subject to Dr. 
Meinert, who, under date of November 18, 1902, writes me that, in 
company with his assistant, Mr. Boving, he again examined the unique 
specimen and found that his published figures and descriptions are 
correct, and that the specimen really has seven distinct body-segments. 
In the genus Phora the male has normally six abdominal segments, while 
in the females of the various species the number ranges from four to six, 
according to the species. Dr. Meinert does not state the sex of his 
specimen, but the figures apparently indicate a male, although Prof. Mik 
has expressed the opinion that they probably represent the female, and 
that the winged Platyphora Lubbocki, Verrall, may be the male of the 
same species. The Arizona specimen also appears to be a male, and in 
addition to the fewer number of segments in the abdomen, possesses 
several minor differences, which indicate that it is specifically distinct 
from the Danish species. 

Of its habits nothing is known beyond the fact that it occurred on 
low vegetation in a locality where no ant-nests could be found, although 
search was made for them. No stones nor rocks occurred in the 
immediate vicinity, the nearest approach being the small pieces of lava 
scattered about, but these were too small to conceal an ant-nest. 

The new form may be characterized as follows : 
Aenigmatias Sc/iwarzii, new species. 

Dark yellow, the posterior part of the body-segments brown, most 
extended on the apical part of the abdomen, where it covers the genitalia 
and the greater portion of the last two segments ; upper side of body 
opaque, distinctly whitish pruinose, and with a short, sparse, yellowish- 
white pubescence, a row of short black bristles along the hind margin of 
each abdominal segment and a few shorter ones scattered over the last 
two segments ; first thoracic segment (which comprises the prothorax and 



'Entomolngiske Meddelelser 11., page 213, plate IV,, tigs, i to 6. 



22 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

mesothorax) slightly over twice as long as the second, the latter almost 
twice as long as the first abdominal segment and subeqiial to the second ; 
about two-thirds as long as the third, the fourth segment deeply 
emarginate in the middle, at which point it is slightly shorter than the 
first abdominal segment ; greatest vertical diameter of abdomen scarcely 
more than that of the thorax, venter convex (and without the blackish 
protuberance shown in Dr. Meinert's figure 2); head sparsely clothed with 
a short yellowish-white pubescence, a row of black postocular bristles 
extends from upper end of each eye to the oral margin, apices of palpi 
beset with a dense cluster of black bristles ; legs beset with short, black, 
bristly hairs, femora very robust; length, 1.5 mm. 

Collected July 5, 1901, at Flagstaff, Arizona, by Mr. H. S. Barber, 
at whose request the species is dedicated to Mr. E. A. Schwarz, whose 
careful investigations have brought to light so many rare and interesting 
forms in all orders of insects. Type No. 6703, U. S. National Museum. 



NOTES ON THE COCCIDtE. 

BV MRS. C. H. FERNALD, AMHERST, MASS. 

In an article on the genus Lecanium, published in the Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. 34, p. 177 (1902), I stated that I inferred that Costa 
proposed generic names for the Coccid?e in his Prospetto di una nuova 
descrizione metodica del genera Coccus L., a work I had not seen at that 
time, as no copy could be found in the libraries of this country or in 
London. Mr. Fernald has, however, recently secured a copy of this 
exceedingly rare work, published in 1828, from Naples, Italy. 

Costa in his Prospetto published in 1828 proposed and described 
three genera. These were Ca/ym//iata, Diaspis and Diaprosteci. As 
this last is only a vernacular name, it need not be considered, although 
the author gave Coccus adonidum, L., as an illustration. Calymmata was 
divided into Monaspidae and Polyaspidae. Under this genus the author 
mentioned several species as illustrations. The genus Diaspis was 
described, but as no species were mentioned or referred to, it is without a 
type so far as the Prospetto is concerned. There is therefore nothing in 
this work to affect the classification of the Coccidse. 

In his Nuove Osservazioni intorno alle Cocciniglie, published in 
1835, Costa used Calypticu% hesperiduin in some places and Calyminatus 
hesperidum in others, while he used Dactylopius instead of Diaprosteci 
of the Pros{)etto. In the Fauna del Regno di Napoli, he divided the 
Coccidfe into three genera, Calyptictis, Dactylopius and Diaspis, each of 
which was described and with well-known and fairly well described 
species under them. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 23 



CASSIDA VIRIDIS, LINNRUS. 

In the October number of the Canadian Entomologist, I told 
of the appearance at Levis of a tortoise-beetle new to this Province. 

A question as to the identity of this insect having been raised, 
I asked Professor E. A. Popenoe, of Kansas State Agricultural College 
(to whom 1 was sending specimens), for his opinion upon it. I als<) sent 
specimens to the Coleopterist of the British Museum, with a like request. 
Both gentlemen very kindly answered me. 

Mr. Popenoe wrote : " In Redtenbacher's Fauna Austriaca, the 
only general European work on the species within my reach, there is 
a very good analytical table and fairly full descriptions of the species 
within the limits of the work, and I find your specimens to agree wiih his 
description of Cassida equestris, Fab., of which he places C. viridis, L., 
as a synonym. I am satisfied that your determination is correct. Redt. 
says the margin of the abdomen is yellow, and it is so in one ot your 
specimens, though not distinctly so in the other." 

Mr. Chas. O. Waterhouse replied : " I have carefully examined the 
Cassida you sent me, and I am sure it is our common thistle species, 
Cassida viridis, L." 

I am glad to find that my reading and my early recollections of the 
English insect did not mislead me. 

In Illustrations of the Linnean Genera of hisects, by W. Wood, 
Vol. I., there is a coloured representation of C. viridis, and in the 
Rev. J. G. Wood's Insects at Home, Fig. xxiii., the insect is shown in 
its different stages. 

C. viridis, like the fly, Pegomyia bicolor, and the moth, Metzneria 
lappella, was probably brought out in supplies of fodder for cattle sent to 
this country. — Thomas W. Fyle.s, Levis, P. Que. 



BOOK NOTICE. 



A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera, Vol. III. — By J. 

W. Tutt, F. E. S. Demy 8 vo , 558 + xii. pp. Price, jT^x net. 

Swan, Sonnenschein & Co., Paternoster Square, London, E. C. 
The third volume of Tutt's British Lepidoptera has appeared, and is 
fully up to the standard of the first two volumes. The superfamily 
Lachneides is completed, the superfamilies Dimorphides ( Endromides), 
Atiacides and a part of the superfamily Sphingides are finished, 



24 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The references to literature, ancient and modern, seem to leave 
nothing more to be desired in this respect ; in fact, the amount of labour 
performed and research that has been made seems almost appalling, and 
we wonder whether the author has the strength and endurance to carry 
such an undertaking through to completion. 

This work may well be taken as a model by one who is less 
experienced, provided he does not follow it too closely and thus destroy 
his own originality of thought and plan. 

Under each superfamily is given a very complete history of the 
classifications of the different authors. These are carefully discussed, and 
when the author differs from others, he does not hesitate to express his 
convictions. 

Many of our old familiar names have disappeared, and are to be 
found only among the tail-feathers of synonymy. This is, however, 
strictly in accordance with the law of priority, and if any of us feel 
unreconciled to this, we may well ask ourselves whether we are to keep 
up with the trend of modern scientific thought or fall by the way. 

Under each species is given the synonymy and references to 
literature, so full and complete that we can hardly imagine anything of 
importance to have been overlooked. Then follows the original 
description in the language in which it was published, and this is 
followed by the author's description of the imago. There is then given a 
full account of sexual dimorphism and gynandromorphism, more than five 
pages being devoted to gynandroniorphous examples oi Amorpha popiili., 
L. Variation is also taken up very fully with all the forms described and 
named, and this requires seven pages for A. populi alone. A complete 
account is given of the time, place and manner in which the eggs are laid, 
followed by a full description of the egg, the larva in each "stadium," 
and variations of the larva, pupation and cocoon, pupa, fuod-plants, 
parasites, habitats, time and place of appearance and distribution. 

While this work must prove indispensable to the entomologist who 
desires full information on the Lepidoptera of the British Isles, it will be 
exceedingly valuable to students of the Lepidoptera in the United States 
and elsewhere, because of the exhaustive study of the literature of 
the genera and higher groups, and the careful and conscientious manner 
in which the autiior applies the laws of nomenclatDre. — C. H. Fernald. 



Mailed January 5th, 1903. 



Can, tNT., Vol. XXXV. 



Plate 2. 




CUO))K-vu.tl. dd. 



THE STRAWBERRY ALEYRODES (A, Packardi, M, SP.). 



\\t €anatlmn mntoniolo^bt. 



Vol. XXXV. 



LONDON, FEBRUARY, 1903. 



No. 2 



LIFE-HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STRAWBERRY 
ALEYRODES, ALEYRODFS PACKARDI, N. SP. 

AUSTIN W. MORRILL, B. S., ENIOMOLOGICAL LABORATORY, I\I ASSACHL'SETTS 

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

This species has hitherto been considered identical with Aieyrodes 
vaporariorum, the common greenhouse Aieyrodes of the tomato, 
cucumber, etc. A critical study of all the stages of both the greenhouse 
Aieyrodes and the strawberry Aieyrodes, made at the Entomological 
Laboratory of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, has resulted in 
finding structural differences between the two species in all the stages, 
except the egg and adult. These differences may be tabulated as follows: 
A. vaporariorum, Westw. A. Fackardi, n. sp. 



ist instar. 


18 pairs of marginal spines. 

I St and 3rd pairs of dorsal spines 


16 pairs of marginal 
All three pairs of 


spines. 


2nd instar. 


dorsal 




well developed, though vari- 


spmes mmuie. 






able in length. 
I St and 3rd pairs of dorsal spines 






3rd instar. 


All three pairs of 


dorsal 




well developed, though vari- 


spines mnuite. 






able in length. 






Pupa. 


3rd pair of dorsal spines well 


All three pairs of 


dorsal 




developed, though variable in 


spmes minute;. 


only a 




length. 5-18 (usually 8) wax 


double submar 


g i n a 1 




rods arising well up on the dor- 


series of wax 


ro ds 




sum in addition to a double 


present. 






submarginal series of wax rods. 







In the above table the spines on the cephalic region of the dorsum 
are designated as {\\q first dorsal pair; those on the sides of the first or 
third (first instar) abdominal segment as the .fi?^^?;/^/ dorsal pair; and those 
which occur one on each side of the vasiform orifice the third dorsal 
pair. (In the reproduction of the drawings the second pair of dorsal 



26 THE CA.NADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

spines of the first instar and the first pair of dorsal spines of the pupa 
were, unfortunately, omitted, see plate 2.) 

I have never seen an Alcyrodes vaporariorutn on a strawberry plant 
out of doors. Specimens of Aleyrodes from Kentucky were recently 
received through Prof. C. H. Fernald from Prof. Garman on strawberry 
leave?, and were found to be identical with the common strawberry 
Aleyrodes of this locality. Experiments thus far have shown that 
Aleyrodes vaporariorum when transferred in the first instar to a straw- 
berry plant will live and develop all the characters of those which feed 
on the more natural food-plants of the species, while at three different 
times crawling larvae of the strawberry Aleyrodes were transferred to fresh 
leaves of a growing tomato plant, and all died within a few days, 
apparently without taking any food. That the Aleyrodes vaporariorum 
does not naturally feed on the strawberry is shown by the fact that a 
strawberry plant in a pot remained for over six months in a greenhouse 
thickly infested with that species and less than half a dozen Aleyrodes 
matured on its leaves, upon which even the imagoes were very rarely ob- 
served resting. It does not seem strange that where the natural food-plants 
were so thickly infested an egg should occasionally be deposited on other 
plants. 

Iricidentally it might be mentioned that /// this locality the straw- 
berry Aleyrodes in all its stages, including the egg, averages a little larger 
in size than the greenhouse Aleyrodes (Aleyrodes vaporariorum). 

Egg (Plate 2, Fig. 1). 

The egg is irregularly oval, with one side more or less flattened ; 
attached to the leaf by a short stalk, situated on the basal or more 
broadly-rounded end, usually a little to one side of the centre, toward the 
more rounded side. When freshly laid, the egg is pale green in colour, 
with a rounded orange-yellow body within, in a few days changing to a 
metallic bronze colour. The surface of the egg is unmarked. The length, 
exclusive of the stalk, is from .23 to .24 mm.j greatest width, from .08 to 
.095 mm. The stalk is from yk \.o y^ the length of the egg. 

The length of the egg stage depends upon the weather conditions. 
Those laid in late fall do not hatch until the following spring, while in the 
warm summer weather they Inilch in about eight or ten days. 

First Instar (Fig. 2). 

In the first instar the general form is oval, the anterior end being the 
more broadly rounded, the sides of the thoracic region are approximately 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 27 

parallel, the abdomen narrowing posteriorly. Immediately after hatching, 
the body is flat and thin, but just before the first moult it becomes well 
rounded above. The edge of the body consists of a thin, narrow, 
marginal rim, at the inner edge of which the body is abruptly thickened. 
From the under side of this thin rim many minute, glistening granules can 
be seen. The margin is entire, except for the attachments of tiie spines. 
On each side sixteen spines arise on or near the margin of the body. 
Excepting numbers two, seven and fourteen, counting from the anterior 
end, these are situated at nearly regular intervals. Number two arises a 
short distance from the margin on the under side of the body, quite close 
to the base of one ; it is directed downward, curving toward its mate. 
These spines are best seen from below. Number seven is separated from 
numbers six and eight by greater intervals than occur between other 
adjacent spines. Number fourteen arises a little nearer fifteen than 
thirteen. Number sixteen is very long, varying in length from one-third 
to one-half the length of the body. Number fourteen is from one-third to 
one-half the length of sixteen. Numbers one to seven gradually 
decrease in length. Numbers seven to thirteen are about equal in length, 
being from one-eighth to one-tenth the length of number sixteen. Number 
fifteen is slightly longer than thirteen. A marginal secretion of wax 
appears soon after the young larva settles down. This usually becomes 
wide enough to cover all but the fifteenth and sixteenth pairs of spines. 
The segmentation of the abdomen is quite distinct, that of the thorax very 
indistinct, essentially as in the pupa-case. The vasiform orifice is about 
as wide as long, its form being somewhat similar to an equilateral 
triangle with rounded corners. The operculum is subelliptical in outline, 
flattened on the basal side. The lingula is spatulate in outline, bearing 
a number of longitudinal rows of minute setae, and on the caudo-lateral 
margin two pairs of spines, the posterior pair being the longer. When the 
lingula is in its natural position, the last-mentioned spines do not reach to 
the apex of the orifice. T)ie orifice is bounded laterally by chitinous 
thickenings, which bend toward one another, but do not unite at 
the posterior end of the orifice. Just inside the apex of the orifice is a 
small, glistening, crescent-sliaped structure, which may be simply a 
chitinous thickening or an opening in the integument. There are two 
pairs of reddish-brown eyes, a dorsal and a ventral pair, situated nearly 
opposite each other, just mesad to the thin marginal rim, and about 
equidistant from the fourth and fifth marginal spines on their respective 



28 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



sides of the body. There are at least tsvo pairs of minute dorsal spines. 
One pair is situated one on each side of the third abdominal segment; 
another pair is situated one on each side of and anterior to the operculum. 
Each of these four spines arises from a minute papilla, which, however, in 
certain lights, appear like cylindrical cavities or pores. From a study of 
later instars, it seems possible that another still more minute pair of s})ines 
occurs on the cephalic region, but I have not thus far distinguished any 
such with certainty. The two pairs above located are not difficult to see 
with a one-sixth inch objective. 

On the ventral side of the body the legs, antennae and mouth-parts 
are well developed in this instar. Each leg (Fig. 3) consists of a coxa, 
trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus. The entire length of the leg when 
straightened is about one-half the width of the body. The coxse are short 
and stout, and near the base of each of the two posterior pairs on the 
inner side is a spine about twice as long as the diameter of the coxse. 
Trochanters short, those of the anterior pair of legs are subcylindrical, 
about one-third as long as wide. Those of the two posterior pairs of legs 
appear to be hoof-shaped, and all six trochanters bear a short spine 
anteriorly. The femur is about twice as long as the coxa and trochanter 
together, subcylindrical in form, tapering toward its outer end. The 
tibia is a little longer than the femur, and more slender; in the two 
posterior pairs of legs, bearing on its outer side, near its base, a spine as 
long as the whole tibia itself. This extends obliquely outward, and 
is usually curved near its tip. Under high-power objectives and with 
favourable light the tibiae are seen to bear a number of very minute spines. 
The tarsus is short and knobbed at the tip, with a stoat curved spine one- 
half as long as that borne on the tibia, arising on the outer side near its 
base. Diagonal lines connecting the two anterior pairs of coxte would 
intersect at about the centre of the base of a conical papilla— the rostrum 
— from an opening in the apex of which the mouth setse protrude. The 
length of these setae varies, but when bent backward they usually extend 
beyond the hind coxae. In front of these mouth organs is a prostomial 
plate or shield, subovate in form, the broader end being anterior. It is 
truncate where it touches the base of the mouth papilla, slightly concave 
on the sides posteriorly, broadly rounded anteriorly, with two movable 
papillae on the anterior margin, each of which bears a long spine, about 
equal in length to those on the coxje of the two posterior pairs of 
legs. From the anterior two-thirds of this plate are separated two 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 29 

lenticular side pieces by distinct sutures. On the ventral surface of the 
abdomen, underneath the operculum, is a pair of spines, one on each side, 
about equal in length to those which arise at the anterior end of the 
prostomial plate. These spines extend backward, reaching nearly to the 
caudal margin of the body. The segmentation below is not as distinct as 
on the dorsal surface. Each antenna arises on a line with the coxae of the 
legs of its respective side of the body and about opposite the anterior 
margin of the prostomial plate. They consist of four segments : the 
basal segment is short and stout ; the second segment is twice as long 
as the first and more slender, reaching about to the margin of the body 
when the antennae are directed outward; the third segment is very short 
and with two or three apical spines ; the fourth segment is twice as long 
as the second, bearing a small spine at about two-thirds the distance 
toward the tip, and another larger one at the tip. 

The colour of the larva is pale green, semitransparent, with two 
internal orange-yellow bodies of irregular rounded form, situated one on 
each side in the basal abdominal region. 

The length in this instar varies from .29 to .35 mm.j the greatest 
width, from .16 to .18 mm. 

The young larva is capable of crawling as soon as it emerges from 
the egg. It may crawl a short distance before settling down, or it may 
settle down quite near its place of birth. It is seldom able to crawl over 
the larger ribs of a leaflet, being prevented by the thick hairs of the leaf. 
After settling down it soon loses the use of its legs, and in the course of a 
day or two the lateral wax secretion appears. The first moult takes place 
in about five or six days. Lateral growth of the body between the moults 
is not appreciable, increase in size seeming to result almost entirely from 
growth in thickness. This is true of all the immature stages. Preliminary 
to moulting, the skin appears to split around the anterior margin of the 
body. It is then gradually moved back, aided by up-and-down move- 
ments of the abdomen, and usually drops off entirely, sometimes, 
however, remaining attached to the leaf Moulting appears to be a slow 
process, two or three hours or a whole day intervening before the insect 
is entirely freed from its moulted skin. As each portion of the body 
becomes free from the skin, it seemingly flows out over the surface of the 
leaf, and immediately assumes the form and horizontal dimensions which 
continue throughout the instar. 



30 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Second Instar. 
In this instar the form is more variable than in the first ; broadly oval 
to elliptical, usually with a slight incurving on each side of the thoracic 
region. When oval, the anterior end is the more broadly rounded. The 
margin is finely crenulate, but there is no thin marginal rim as in the first 
instar. Immediately after moulting, the body is flat and thin, but before 
the next moult it becomes well rounded above. Three pairs of marginal 
spines are present: the first pair on the latero-cephalic region, one on each 
side ; the second pair on caudo-lateral region, one on each side ; and 
the third pair on the caudal margin. These probably represent spines 
number one, fourteen and sixteen, respectively, of the first instar. The 
third pair is a little more than one-tenth the length of the body, the 
second pair is about one-fourth the length of the third pair, and the first 
pair is even smaller than the second pair and may be difficult to distin- 
guish. There are three pairs of minute dorsal spines : the first pair is on 
the cephalic region, one on each side of the middle ; the second pair is 
on the first abdominal segment, one on each side; and the third pair 
is near the vasiform orifice, one on each side, opposite the operculum. 
These last are somewhat larger than the first and second pairs, which in 
some specimens may be difficult to distinguish. They are most readily 
seen immediately after the insect has moulted. A marginal wax secretion 
is present as in the first instar, appearing shortly after the moult. The 
segmentation of the abdomen is fairly distinct in the middle, that of the 
thorax more obscure. The vasiform orifice is relatively farther forward in 
this instar than in the preceding one. This is indicated by the com- 
paratively greater distance from the apex of the orifice to the caudal 
margin of the body and by the fact that the spines on the dorsum, near 
the orifice, now lie opposite the operculum, instead of anterior to it, as in 
the first instar. The vasiform orifice is of about the same general form 
as in the first instar. The lingula is spatulate with two pairs of side lobes 
arid one terminal lobe. On each side of the terminal lobe arises a seta 
or spine about one-half as long as the entire vasiform orifice. Between 
the two pairs of side lobes on each side a smaller spine arises. The 
upper surface of the lingula bears longitudinal rows of minute setae, as in 
the previous instar. When in its natural position, the lingula reaches 
nearly to the apex of the orifice. The chitinous ridges which bound the 
orifice laterally do not meet behind, though the intervening space between 
them is comparatively smaller than in the previous instar. The eyes are 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 31 



proportionally smaller than before, and are now situated internally, 
instead of at the surface, as in the tirst instar. The eyes on each 
side are about on a line with and outside of the two dorsal spines which 
have been mentioned as present on the cephalic region. The vestigial 
legs and antennae can be distinctly seen, their relative position being 
as before. The antennae are directed directly backward, reaching a little 
over one-half the distance to the base of the fore legs. They are thick at 
the base, narrowing toward the apex, covered with numerous minute 
papillfe. Their segmentation is indistinct, sometimes two and sometimes 
three segments being evident. They are immovable in this as well as the 
following immature stages. The legs are short, similar to a truncated 
cone in form, transversely wrinkled, with no distinct segments, terminating 
in a rounded knob, which, perhaps, functions as an adhesive disc. A few 
minute spines occur near the bases of all three pairs of legs. The 
mouth-parts are as before. The pair of spines at the anterior margin of 
the prostomial plate is wanting in this instar, but the pair on the ventral 
surface under the operculum is present as in the first instar. The colour 
remains as in the first instar. The length varies from .41 to .45 mm.; the 
greatest width, from .22 to .26 mm. 

The second moult takes place in from four to five days after the first. 

Third Instar. 

In this instar the form, marginal and dorsal spines, marginal wax 
secretion, rudimentary legs, ventral spines, eyes and colour of the body 
are as in the second instar. The vasiform orifice is longer than wide, 
in form resembling a triangle with rounded corners. Operculum nearly 
semicircular, reaching about one-half the distance to the apex of 
the orifice. Lingula essentially as in the second instar. The antennae 
arise nearer to the bases of the fore legs than in previous instars. They 
are indistinctly segmented, thick at the base, tapering toward the tip, the 
basal two-thirds of each is directed directly inward toward the antenna of 
the opposite side, while the apical tiiird is bent backward toward 
the base, the whole forming a figure not unlike the letter J. 

The length varies from .56 to .63 mm.; the greatest width, from .32 to 
.38 mm. 

The third moult takes place in about five or six days after the second. 

Pupa* (Fig. 4). 
The form of the pupa is broadly elliptical, the margin finely 

*As is customary in describing species of this genus, the specific characters are 
derived from the pupa. The description of this stage is therefore made complete in 
itself, and is sufficient to distinguish this from all other described species, 



o 



2 IHE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



crenulate ; when freshly moulted, flat and thhi, without wax secretions. 
The bodies of the mature pupaj appear to be raised from the surface of 
the leaf by a vertical wax fringe, the height of the body then being about 
one-third of the width. The dorsum is rugose and nearly flat. There are 
two pairs of marginal spines : llie first pair occurs on the caudo-lateral 
margin, and the second pair on the caudal margin. The second pair in 
length is between one-tenth and one-eighth the length of the body, and the 
first pair less than one-fourth the length of the second pair. These last are 
readily seen by clearing the pupa in xylol and mounting in xylol balsam, 
or by boiling the pupa-case in KOH and mounting in glycerine. The 
second pair curve upward and backward, diverging at the base, usually 
converging posteriorly. There are three pairs of minute dorsal spines as 
in the previous instars : the first pair is on the cephalic region ; the second 
pair, one on each side of the first abdominal segment ; and the third pair 
one on each side opposite the operculum of the vasiform orifice. Of the 
three pairs, the third pair is slightly the largest. The segmentation of the 
abdomen is fairly distinct in the middle ; that of the thorax less so. The 
vasiform orifice is longer than broad, in form similar to a triangle with 
rounded corners. The orifice is bounded laterally by chitinous ridges, 
which unite posteriorly, thus differing from previous instars. The 
operculum is hemielliptical (in the form of an ellipse cut through 
its shortest axis), reaching from the anterior margin of vasiform orifice to a 
little over one-half the distance toward the apex. The lingula has 
one apical lobe and three pairs of side lobes, and is densely covered with 
longitudinal rows of minute setfe. From the sides of the apical lobe from 
below arise two spines, one on each side, which extend caudad beyond the 
apex of the orifice, their length being a little less than one-half the 
greatest width of the operculum. A second pair, less than one-fifth as 
long as these, arises one on each side between the first and second side 
lobes. The anterior pair of side lobes is frequently hidden by the 
operculum. A shallow furrow extends caudad from the apex of the orifice 
to the margin of the body. 

There is no lateral wax fringe in this instar. The dorsal wax 
secretion consists of a double submarginal series of glassy waxen rods. 
The rods of the inner series are never farther away from those of the outer 
series than the width of their bases. The outer series consists of from 
about sixty to one hundred (sixty-six to ninety-eight are the limits actually 
observed) rods of variable length, some being very short, while others ^r^ 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 33 

three-quarters the width of the body in length. In mature pupse the rods 
of the inner are usually longer than those of the outer series. These (the 
inner series) are usually directed upward, and curve inward over the 
dorsum of the body. Their length varies, rarely exceeding the width of 
the body. The rods of the inner series usually alternate with from two to 
five rods of the outer series, ihe average number of rods in the inner 
series being about twenty. Irregularities in the position of the wax rods are 
frequent; in fact, no two pupaj are exactly alike in this respect, but of the 
hundreds examined none have been found to arise farther mesad from the 
outer series than the width of their bases. 

On the venter the legs are indistinct, most readily seen in specimens 
which have recently moulted. Each is short and thick like a truncated 
cone, with a rounded disc or knob at the tip. They are transversely 
wrinkled, and bear minute spines as in the two previous instars, and their 
relative position remains unchanged. The rostrum (a conical, fleshy 
papilla, from the apex of which the mouth setae protrude) is situated 
on the middle line of the body, about one-third the distance from the 
cephalic to the caudal margin, and nearly equidistant from the bases of the 
four anterior legs. The antenns; now lie partly hidden in pockets 
situated one on each side, just outside of the anterior pair of legs. They 
are directed backward, and are straight, conical in form, the diameter of the 
base being about one-half the length. They appear to be transversely 
wrinkled near their apex ; no other signs of segmentation are visible. 
There is a pair of spines situated on the ventral surface, one on each side, 
below the operculum of the vasiform orifice, as in previous instars. 

Colour : greenish yellow ; empty pupa-cases white. Internal organs 
in the basal abdominal region, one on each side, give to this part of the 
body a bright yellow colour, as in previous instars. No eyes can 
be distinguished when freshly moulted, but as the pupa matures, the 
imaginal eyes appear as two brownish s[)ots in tne cephalic region. 

The length varies from .748 to .88 mm.; the greatest width, from .407 
to .54 mm. 

The imagoes appear in from twelve to sixteen days. Thus, the time 
which the insect spends in the immature stages, including the egg, is from 
four to five weeks. 

Adult. 

$. The length of the body of the adult female varies from 1.15 to 
1.20 mm. The colour of head and thorax is pale yellowish buff; 



34 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 

abdomen pale lemon yellow ; tip of rostrum black ; legs, rostrum, except 
the tij), and the antennae, are of same colour as head and thorax. The 
whole body, including appendages, is covered with a white, flour-like 
substance, which is absent at the time of emergence from the pupa-case, 
but appears in the course of an hour or two. This substance, presumably 
waxy, is soluble in ether and xylol, but insoluble in alcohol and water. 
The eyes are completely divided into an upper and a lower pair, both of 
which are reddish brown in colour. The upper pair is smaller and 
composed of smaller-sized facets than the lower pair. The antennae 
consist of seven segments : first segment short and stout ; second segment 
three times as long as the first, club-shaped, stout, with a iew slender 
spines near the apex ; third segment over twice the length of the second, and 
more slender ; segment four about one-fourth the length of the third and 
narrower than it, cylindrical at the base, slightly enlarged at the tip; 
segment five one-half as long again as four, of the same form, but 
more elongate ; segment six slightly shorter than five, but longer than 
four, club-shaped, more slender ; segment seven is slightly shorter than 
six, spindle-shaped, with a small spine arising from a tubercle situated a 
little beyond the middle, and another smaller spine arising from the tip of 
the segment. All the segments of the antennae, except the first two and 
the tip of the last, are ringed with chitinous ridges. The hind femur is 
about two-thirds the length of the tibia, the tarsus is about one-third the 
length of the tibia, and the second tarsal segment is about two-thirds the 
length of the first tarsal segment. Average length of thfe hind femur 
about .275 mm.; of the tibia, about .38 mm. The trochanters of the 
posterior pair of legs are deeply grooved on the caudal side, and at the 
bottom of the cavity thus formed arises a single stout spine, which 
is directed upward and outward. The vasiform orifice is subcircular in 
outline. The operculum is concave on its caudal margin, and covers the 
anterior half of the orifice. The lingula is protruding, setose, gradually 
enlarging distally, and squarely truncate at caudal end. The fore and hind 
wings are each provided with a single unbranched median vein. The 
margin of the wings is beaded all round, each bead consisting of a minute 
globule, from the outer side of which two or three minute §etae arise. The 
length of the fore wings is about i mm.; width, about .5 mm. The 
rostrum is three-jointed. Ovipositor ordinary, usually bent upwards 
when not in use. 

$. Average lengiii aoout .90 mm. Proportionately smaller than 
female, otherwise differs only in the sexual organs. 



THE CANADIAN KNTOMOLOGJST. 35 



I have named this insect in honour of Dr. A. S. Packard, who first 
called attention to its occurrence on strawberry plants at Amherst, Mass. 

All stages described from numerous specimens. Types of pupje and 

adults deposited in the collection of the Massachusetts Agricultural 

College. 

Bibliography. 

Aleurodes vaporarium, Pack. Am. Nat., Vol. IV., p. 686 (1871). 

Aleurodes vaporarium, Pack. Guide, p. 712 (1883). 

Aleurodes vaporarium (?), Garman. Ann. Rept. Ky. Exp. Sta., 

p. 37 (1890). 

Aleurodes vaporarium (?), Garman. xAgric. Science, Vol. V., p. 264, 

(1891). 

Aleyrodes, sp. (?), Riley. Insect Life, Vol. II., p. 17, (1892). 

Aleurodes sp. (?), Webster. Ann. Rept. Ohio Exp. Sta., p. xxxv. 
(1894). 

Aleyrodes vaporariorum, Britton. 19th Rept. Conn. Exp. Sta., p. 203 
(1896). 

Aleyrodes sp. (?), Slingerland. Bui. 19, Cornell Exp. Sta., p. 155 
(1901). 

Aleyrodes vaporariorum (?), Britton. Bui. 140, Conn. Exp. Sta., pp. 

3, 10, 14, 17 (1902). 

Explanation of Plate 2. 

(All Figs, greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. I.— Egg. 

Fig. 2. — First instar. 

Fig. 3. — Right hind leg, first instar. 

Fig. 4.- -Dorsum of the pupa. 



AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 
I desire, on behalf of the Entomological Society of Ontario, to 
publicly acknowledge its indebtedness to Mr. H. Bird, Rye, N. Y., for a 
series of recently-bred specimens of Hydrmcia, and his magnanimous 
liberality in so freely parting with such rare species for its benefit, that 
cost him so much patient labour, valuable time and industrious research to 
secure. The expertness he has attained in discovering the food-plants 
and obscure breeding habits of this difficult genus is remarkable ; whilst 
the perfection of scale and colour in the specimens that leave his hands is 
indescribable, and must be seen to be fully realized. 

J. Alston jMokfat, Curator. 



36 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

IN MEMORIAM— R. J. WEITH. 

Born September 15th, 1847, i" Wroutke, Prussia; died September 
15th, 1902, in Elkhart, Indiana. A (ew words of biography, together 
with the sad intelh'gence of his death, have already appeared in these 
pages ; but it seems fitting that the life of one who was well known to 
many entomologists in America and Europe as an accurate observer, an 
indefatigable worker, a valued correspondent, and a sincere friend, should 
receive more than a passing notice. 

From his son, Mr. Louis E. Weith, I have obtained some further 
facts. At an early age he was apprenticed as a barber, and from the age 
of thirteen until a short time before his death he followed this business. 
It was while at school, prior to his thirteenth year, that he acquired that 
love for nature which was ever afterward the passion of his life. 

At twenty-five he came to New York ; thence he went to New 
Orleans, afterwards to Memphis, to Chicago, and then to South Bend, 
Indiana, where he was married. Thereafter he removed to Elkhart., where 
he resided until his death. 

His knowledge of entomology and his skill as a field naturalist were 
obtained by the devotion of all his spare moments (which were all too few) 
to these ends. His chief subject of study was the parasitic Hymenoptera. 
Of his work in this field I will leave others to speak. During the last few 
years of his life he took up, with great enthusiasm and success, the study 
of the life-histories of Odonata, Plecoptera and Ephemerid?e ; and it is of 
some of the qualities of the work he did in this field that I wish to speak. 
He began by collecting and contributing data for Williamson's Dragonflies 
of Indiana. My correspondence with him began when he, having learned 
that I was seeking to obtain the immature stages of a dragonfly of peculiar 
and restricted distribution that he had found near his home, wrote me, 
offering to find these stages for me, if I would direct his efforts. I gladly 
wrote the few suggestions necessary, and he found the specimens wanted. 
At mv solicitation he recorded his observations of that time for the readers 
of this magazine, in Vol. XXXIII., pp. 252-254. During the summer of 
1902 he studied with great diligence the life-histories of the Stoneflies and 
Mayflies of his own locality, and made here other important discoveries 
that still remain to be published. 

His letters, which came thick and fast during the collecting season, 
for he was continually sending specimens, were marked by an impetuous 
desire to know where were the gaps in our knowledge, in order that he 



THK CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 37 

might endeavour to fill some of them. Once he wrote me : "Would it not 
be well if older students would oftener publish notices of what observa- 
tions are needed to clear up mysteries in the life-history of this or that 
species ? There are those, like myself, who are interested in natural 
history and who have collected for many years, who have many good 
chances to observe important biological facts, but who have no means of 
knowing which of their observations are new. I have seen many things 
the knowledge of which would have saved professional entomologists 
much time ; but, not knowing this at the time, and not wishing to print 
to be laughed at, I have let the observations slip. Had I not seen your 
note on unknown dragonfly nymphs in the Canadian Entomologist 
some time ago, the nymph of Na?inothemis had probably not yet been 
found." And again : " I shall be glad to contribute my mite toward 
widening the scope of our knowledge of natural history." And again, 
when I had written him about some of Say's species of Perlidfe, unheard 
of since Say's day, he wrote : " I am anxious to find some of the 
missing ones." 

His diligence and application were remarkable, and his care to keep 
his statements within the limits of his observations was most exemplary. 
He was the best type of unprofessional entomologist. He so loved 
nature, and trusted in the value of accurate knowledge of her ways, that 
he was willing — nay, happy — to work and to wait, to observe and to verify 
again and again, in order that he might be able to tell in the end the 
simple truth. American entomology was honored by his methods, and has 
lost one of her ablest field naturalists by his untimely death. 

James G. Needham, Lake Forest, 111. 



MALE WASP WITH FEMALE ANTENNA. 

BY W. HAGUE HARRINGTON, F.K.S.C, OTTAWA. 

Among some hymenoptera recently received from Mr. A. Gordon 
Leavitt, of St. John, N. B., is a very interesting male of Thyreopus latipes. 
Smith. The sexes of this genus are readily separated, as the males have 
the anterior legs remarkably modified; the tibiie especially being developed 
in broad shields, or leaf-like expansions. The antennae are simple in the 
female, but those of the male have the flagellum fusiform and compressed. 
In T. latipes the basal joints are broad, and the flagellum narrows from the 
second joint tp the apex. Mr. Leavitt's specimen, taken at St. John, N. 



38 THE CA.NADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

B., on 29th June, 1901, was at once recognized as belonging to this 
species, and it was only on transferring the specimen to another box that 
it was seen to have simple antennie instead of those so characteristic of 
the species to which it belongs. Examination with a lens established that 
they are the 12-jointed simple antennae of a female. Indeed, the whole 
head approaches more closely that of a female than of a male. On com- 
paring the head carefully with those of three males at hand, it is found to 
be less narrowed behind the eyes and somewhat flatter on the front. 
Such aberrations may not be uncommon, but have not been observed 
by me, and in a large proportion of the hymenoptera the sexes are so 
alike in structure that similar modifications would not attract attention. 
T. latipes has a wide distribution through Canada and the United States, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, but the male only is known. In " The 
Crabroninae of Boreal America," Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXII., i 29, Fox 
says that T. (Crabro) vici?ius, Cress., will probably be placed as the 
female of latipes eventually. I have not examples of this form, but the 
description of it supports such a view, and it is known only in the female 
sex. It is recorded by Fox from Colo., Nebr., Nev., Ariz., Cal., Oreg., 
Mont, and Wash. In Mr. Leaviti's specimen the scape of the antennae 
is yellow, with a black line above, as in other males of latipes ; in 
vicimis the scape is described as yellow, sometimes spotted behind wiih 
black. 



THE COCCINELLID GENUS SMILIA, WEISE. 

BY T. D. A. COCKEREI.L, E. LAS VEGAS, N. M. 

The small Coccinellid?e commonly known as Smilia are among the 
more important natural enemies of the Coccida\ The name Smilia 
properly belongs to a well-known genus of Homoi)tera, so in Science 
Gossip, 1900, p. 606, I proposed to call the Coccinellid genus Epismilia. 
I now learn from the Index Zoologictis that Epismilia was used in 1859 
for a genus of Coelenterates. I therefore propose another name for 
Smilia, Weise, namely, Microweisea. The North American species are 
Microweisea misella (Lee), M. tnarginata (Lee), M. coccidivora 
(Ashm.), M. ovalis (Lee), M. atronitcns (Casey), J/, minuta (Casey), 
M. planiceps {CAsey), M rcversa (Fall); all standing in our lists under 
Smilia. 

Stictomela, Weise, from E. Africa, and Platylcemus, Weise, are also 
homonyms, and will have to be changed. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 39 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSORIAL, PREDACEOUS AND 

PARASITIC WASPS, OR THE SUPERFAMILY 

VESPOIDEA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, A. M., ASSISTANT CURATOR, DIVISION OF INSECTS, 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(Paper No. 12. — Continued from Vol. XXXV., p. 8.) 
Family XXXVII.— Tiphiidns. 

By most systematists this family is still classified with the Scoliidce, 
although separated as a distinct family by the Swedish entomologist, C. G. 
Thomson, as early as 1874. I agree with Thomson, and believe ihe?e 
wasps form a distinct family, easily recognized by the characters made use 
of in my table of families. 

The genus Engycistus, Fox, based upon Myzitie rufiventris, Cresson, 
was classified by Cresson, Cameron and Fox with the Scoliidce. Mr. Fox 
has kindly sent me specimens for examination, male and female, and I 
find them true Tiphiids ; they have nothing to do with the Myzinidce or 
Scoliidce as now restricted. 

The genus Pteroinbus, Smith, still unknown to me in nature, also 
evidently belongs here. 

Mr. Peter Cameron, in Biologia Centrali-Americana, has described a 
number of species under the genus Epomidiopteron, De Romand. Those 
of his species that I have recognized, however, do not belong to it, but 
belong to the genus Paratiphia, Sichel. Epomidiopteron, De Romand, 
is something quite different, and is apparently closely allied to Engycistus, 
Fox. 

In habits the Tiphiidce agree with the ScoliidcB, being parasitic upon 
ground-inhabiting beetle larvae. Tiphia inornaia, Say, attacks our 
Lachnosterna larvfe, but it is widely distributed and must have other hosts. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Females 2. 

Males "• 

2. Marginal cell open at apex 5. 

Marginal cell closed a.i apex ; first transverse cubitus complete, tlie first 

and second cubital cell separated. 

Cubitus in hind wings interstitial with the transverse median 
nervure, or originating Just before it ; three cubital cells in 
front wings 3. 



40 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Cubitus in hind wings originating before the transverse median 
nervure 5. 

3. Hind femora not produced at apex beneath 4. 

Hind femora produced at apex beneath. 

Hind tibiae very strongly serrate on the outer 

face Engycistus, Fox. 

(Type Myzine rufiventris, Cress.) 

4. Hind tibiae denticulate or tuberculate on outer face ; the front tibiae 

produced into a long, acute spine at the 

middle Epomidiopteron, De Roraand. 

(Type E. Julii, De Romand.) 
Hind tibiiB 7iot serrate on the outer face, the front tibite normal, 

unarmed Pterombrus, Smith. 

(Ty]3e P. aenigma, Smith.) 

5. Front wings with two cubital cells 6. 

Front wings with three cubital cells. 

Cubitus more or less obliterated at its origin ; second and third 
cubital cells each receiving a recurrent nervure, the first 
recurrent nervure strongly curved or angularly broken by 
a stump of a vein and received by the second cubital cell at 
its basal third ; tegulffi abnormally large ; mandibles bidentate ; 

claws cleft Paratiphia, Sichel. 

(Type P. albilabris, Sichel ) 

6. First transverse cubitus entire, not angularly broken by a stump of a 

vein; middle tibiae with only oie apical spur Tiphia, Fabricius. 

(Type T. femorata, Fabr.) 

7. First transverse cubitus entire, not obliterated at base, the first and 

second cubital cells distinctly separated 8. 

First transverse cubitus obliterated at base, the first and second cubital 
cells more or less confluent 9. 

8. Cubitus in hind wings interstitial with the transverse median nervure 

or originating just before it; hind tibise serrate, the tarsi very 

long Engycistus, Fox. 

Cubitus in hind wings originating a little before the transverse median 
nervure. 

Hind tihia2 denticulate or tuberculate on outer 

face Pterombrus, Smith. 

Hind tibiae not serrate on outer face, the tarsi 

normal Epomidiopteron, De Romand. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 41 



9. Three cubital cells, the second not longer than the 

third Paratiphia, Sichel. 

Two cubital cells, the second very transverse Tiphia, Fabricius. 

Family XXXVIIL— Cosilid*. 
This family is based upon the genus Cosi/a, Gue'rin, described in 
1839 from Chile. The affinities are most perplexing, although apparently 
closely allied to the Myzinidcp., Scoliid(z and Tiphiidce. The middle coxae, 
however, are much closer together than in those families ; the eyes in both 
sexes are etitire, not eniarginate within ; the venation of the wings, too, 
is different, while the male genitalia is quite characteristic and totally 
different from that in the families mentioned. In having the eyes entire 
in both sexes, it agrees with the family Tiphiid(Z, but may be easily 
separated by coxal characters, by venation and by the unarmed hypopy- 
gium of the males. 

I have also placed in this family the genus Fedtschenkia, Saussure, 
unknown to me in nature. Both Saussure and Andre', however, place it 
with the Mutillidiv, and Mr. Ernest Andre has even gone so far as to 
make it the type of a subfamily — the Fedtschenkiince. My reason for 
differing from these eminent authorities is that the female is winged, while 
all known females in the Thynnido', Myrmosidce. and MutillidiE are 
always wingless, never winged. The abdomen in the male, too, is unarmed 
and totally unlike that in the Mutillidce and allied families, a most 
important character, which, in my opinion, is sufficient to exclude it from 
any of those families. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Front wings with two cubital cells 2. 

Front wings with three cubital cells 3. 

2. First cubital cell about thrice as long as the second, receiving the first 

recurrent nervure at its apical third ; pronolum shorter than the 
mesonotum ; scutellum ivith lateral keels ; metathorax striate, the 

sides toothed • • Nursea, Cameron. 

(Type N. carinata, Cam.) 
First cubital cell about twice as long as the second, receiving the first 
recurrent a little beyond its middle ; submedian cell slightly shorter 
than the median ; pronotum not shorter than the mesonotum ; 
parapsidal furrows distinct ; scutellum without lateral keels ; meta- 
thorax not striate, but with a delicate median keel and keeled at 
sides, the spiracles small, rounded ; abdomen fusiform, with a 



42 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

constriction between the first and second segments, the first segment 
trapezoidal, convex above, not longer than wide at apex. ^ ( $ 

unknown) Sierolomorpha, Ashmead. 

(Type Sierola ambigua, Ashm.) 

3. Second and third cubital cells each receiving a recurrent nervure.. . .4. 
Second cubital receiving both recurrent nervures. 

Claws cleft ; marginal cell not separated from the costa at apex ; 
first joint of flagellum a little shorter than the second. 

S • Cosila, Guerin. 

(Type C. Chilensis, Guer.) 

4. Claws cleft, or with a tooth or lobe at base beneath 5. 

Claws simple 6. 

5. Claws with a tooth beneath ; head large, quadrate or nearly, armed 

with a tooth on each side beneath Dicrogenium, Stadelman. 

(Type Pristocerus rosmarus, Stadelm.) 
Claws usually cleft ; head transverse, unarmed. 

Claws not dilated into a rounded lobe at base ; hind tibiae serrate; 
marginal cell at apex rounded, separated from the costa and 
usually with an appendage ; cubitus in hind wings originating 

before the transverse median nervure. $ Cosila, Sichel. 

Claws dilated into a rounded lobe at base ; hind tibiae with the 
superior margin tuberculate, crenate and pilose or spined 
between the tubercles ; third cubital cell anteriorly not dilated. 

Marginal cell at apex entire Callosila, Saussure. 

(Type Myzine signata. Smith.) 
Marginal cell at apex strongly truncate. . . Colobosila, Sichel. 

(Type C. fasciculata, Sich.) 

6. Head not large, quadrate, quite differently shaped 7. 

Head very large, quadrate; ocelli subtriangularly arranged ; mandibles 

short, stout, bidentate ; antennas short, inserted on the anterior part 
of the face, the scape stout; marginal cell hardly as long as the first 
cubital cell, rounded at apex, the submedian cell much longer than 

the median Maurillus, Smith. 

(Type M. australis. Smith.) 

7. Head subglobose, the ocelli close together in a triangle ; mandibles 

tridentate ; antennae inserted close to the anterior margin of the 
head, filiform, tlie scape longer than joints 2 and 3 united ; marginal 
cell long, subtruncate at apex ; median and submedian cells equal ; 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 43 

cubitus in hind wings originating beyond the transverse median 

nervure Fedtschenkia, Saussure. 

(Type F. grossa, Sauss.) 
Head transverse, seen from in front longer than wide; the eyes large, 
occupying the whole side of the head, and extending from base of 
mandibles to vertex ; mandibles bidentate, the outer tooth much 
longer than the inner; maxillary palpi 4-jointed, labial palpi 3-jointed; 
antennfe 12-jointed, rather long, the flagellum subclavate, inserted 
on the anterior margin of the head ; pronotum considerably longer 
than the mesonotum, the latter with two widely separated furrows ; 
scutellum fully one-third longer than the mesonotum ; metathorax 
long, obliquely rounded off posteriorly ; abdomen fusiform, a little 
longer than the head and thorax united, with a constriction between 

the first and second segments Isotiphia, Ashmead, gen. nov. 

(Type I. nigra, Ashm.) 
I. Isotiphia nigra, sp. nov. ? . — Length 4 mm. Polished black, 
the head and the mesonotum with some sparse punctures, the metathorax 
rugulose ; antennse brownish, towards apex black; tips of tibiae and 
tarsi testaceous ; wings hyaline, with a fuscous cloud through the 
discoidal cells, and another through the second and third cubital 
cells and the disk of the wings. 

Brazil : Sanlarem. One specimen. 

Family XXXIX.— Rhopalosomidse. 

The writer established this family in 1896. It was based upon Rho- 
palosoma Poeyi, Cresson, a most singular looking wasp, that, on account 
of its colour, the subemarginate eyes and the prominent ocelli, resembles 
an ichneumon-fly of the subfamily Ophionime. Mr. Cresson described it 
as a Braconid. It is, however, a true aculeate, and shows some affinity 
with the Myrmosidct and Mnti/Iidce, through such genera as Brac/iyci^tis, 
Tric/iolabioides, Fhoiopsis, Magrettina, etc. 

The family was very fully discussed in my paper entitled " Rhopalo- 

somidye, a new family of fossorial wasps," published in the Proceedings of 

the Washington Entomological Society, Vol. III., 1896, pp. 303-9. 

The only genus known may be recognized by the following charac- 
ters : 

Eyes emarginate within; antenn^ie long, slender, the joints of the flagellum 
long, cylindrical, each joint with two spurs at apex within ; front wings 
with two oblong, closed cubital cells, the second receiving the recurrent 



44 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

nervure a little before the middle ; abdomen long, clavate, the petiole 
very long; legs long, the tibial spurs i, 2, 2, very long and straight; 
tarsi long, the middle and hind tarsi with joints 2-4 broad and dilated, 
densely pubescent beneath, subemarginate and armed with some stiff 

spurs at apex ; claws long, curved Rhopalosoma, Cresson. 

(Type R. Poeyi, Cr.) 



TUTT'S "BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA " — A REPLY TO DR. 

DYAR. 

It is in no spirit of carping criticism that I write in reply to Dr. 
Dyar's remarks on the 3rd volume of Mr. Tutt's British Lepidoptera. 
Far otherwise, for I have always considered myself as one of his disciples, 
as it was his and Dr. Chapman's stimulating work on Lepidopterous 
larvfe that first aroused my interest in this branch of entomology, and my 
chief object in the following remarks is a desire to arrive at a clearer 
understanding, in view of future work. Unfortunately, owing to the 
extremely limited time at my disposal, I am not nearly so well versed in 
the literature of my subject as I should be, it being a question of choosing 
between first-hand work, at the risk of repeating through ignorance 
of what another has already done, or acquiring a fuller knowledge of what 
other workers are doing. I have chosen the former, and this must be my 
excuse if I have missed some important work of Dr. Dyar's that has 
already settled some of the points I raise. 

With regard to tubercle v of the Sphinges, I gladly acknowledge that 
the error which led Mr. Tutt astray was chiefly mine, as Mr. Tutt was in 
this instance largely relying on my notes. I am the more ready to take 
this action in that by so doing I find myself in company with Dr. Dyar 
himself, my mistake being, perhaps, somewhat analogous to the mistake so 
readily acknowledged by him with reference to his statement of the 
absence of tubercle iv. in the Saturniids (" Additional Notes on the 
Classification of Lepidopterous LarvK," Transactions of the Neiv York 
Academy of Sciences, 1894, Vol. XIV., p. 51). Tubercle v. on the 
abdominal segments of Sphingid larvae is, normally, not only moved up to 
the level of the spiracle, but is, in addition, shifted forward until it is 
situated almost on the verge of the anterior edge of the segment, and it 
was owing to this unusual position and the fact of there being an accessory 
tubercle in this position in Lachneid larv{« which led me astray. Almost 
before the volume had left the binder's hands, an examination of some 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 45 

notes I had made some time previously, but forgotten, with regard to the 
ist instar of Sesia ( Macroglossa) stellatarum, caused me to doubt the 
correctness of our conclusion, and the opportunity of examining larvae of 
Bemaris tityiis (bomhyliforini:) and Hyles ( Deilephila) eiiphorbice in 
their first skins has proved to me that Dr. Dyar's view is undoubtedly 
correct. In its first instar, the larva of Sesia stellaiarmn has tubercle v. 
on the first abdominal segment below the level of the spiracle, although 
still at a higher level than iv. It is definitely situated on the lateral 
flange, which on this segment bends upwards towards the anterior margin. 
Much the same condition also obtains in the same segment in Hemaris 
tityus, V. being on the lateral flange in front of iv. and below the level of the 
spiracle ; while \\\ Hyles eiiphorbite iv. and v. on the first abdominal segment 
are consolidated at base, the two setai being a very short distance apart 
and both rising from a small oval plate beneath the spiracle. 

The next point raised is with regard to the union of tubercles iv. and 
v., or, more correctly speaking, their inclusion within the limits of a group 
of hairs on a raised skin area or wart beneath the spiracle, on the larva of 
Lasiocampa querais and Pachygastria trifolii. This union or inclusion 
is a condition which, as Mr. Dyar himself has shown, is of not infrequent 
occurrence in some groups of Lepidoj^tera, and is met with in many 
different stages of development, e. g., from the condition obtaining 
in Anthrocera (Zygoma), where, in the second stadium, iv. and v., without 
becoming appreciably nearer together than they were in the ist larval 
stage, are surrounded by an irregular group of secondary setae, the whole 
group being situated on a slightly-raised skin area, to the definite sharply 
outlined and more or less raised wart, a condition such as obtains in 
Saturniids or certain larviB of the Pterophorina. In at least one species of 
the latter group (I think Mai-asmarcha phceodaciyla is an example) this 
inclusion of iv. and v. is beautifully demonstrated owing to the primary 
setae having black bases, while the secondary setae have pale ones. Now 
Dr. Dyar, without directly contradicting such an union or inclusion of iv. 
and V. within the limits of a single subspiracular wart in Pachygastria 
trifolii, calls it in question, and I would ask if he has examined the larva 
of this species in its first instar. Fortunately, I have by me specimens of 
this larva roughly mounted for the microscope, and I have carefully 
re-examined the same, and can find only the three many-haired warts 
mentioned near the spiracle, viz., iii. above it, the accessory perpen- 
dicular, and the subspiracular wart which I take to contain within its 



46 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

limits the primary setae iv. and v. I can find no trace of any small 
tubercles, single-haired or otherwise, in proximity to the spiracle or these 
warts. I may here remark that the ist stage oi P. trifolii shows a much 
more primitive condition than that of Z. guercus, the warts being smaller 
and bearing fewer hairs, while the absence of any secondary hairs arising 
from the general skin surface obviates the difficulty of discriminating 
between primary and secondary characters that one finds in the last named 
species. Had I not examined the larva of P. trifolii I should not have 
written " iv. + v. almost post-spiracular " with regard to Z. quercus, as 
without this key, any of the numerous secondary hairs in proximity to the 
spiracle might be taken for either iv. or v., or single hairs might have been 
chosen for both and the large wart designated as a secondary character. 
Unless, therefore, my eyesight is greatly at fault we must either consider 
iv. and v. to be included within the subspiracular wart of P. trifolii, and 
by analogy within tiiat of L.querms^ox conclude that one of them has been 
lost ; and, in view of what Dr. Dyar has said in regard to the possible loss 
of V. in the Sphinges and what we know as to the ready tendency of iv. 
and v. to become members of a common group of sette in certain groups 
of larvae, and the ])ossibility of their becoming consolidated on a single 
segment of a larva of one species or tribe (see previous remarks re Hyles 
( Deilephila) euphorbice), tiie line of least resistance is surely greatly in 
favour of the first-named conclusion. My slide showing a ist stage larva 
of P. trifolii is at Dr. Dyar's disposal should he care to examine it. 

On the (juestion of whether the first stage of Aglia tan is to be 
considered a specialized one, I must join issue with Dr. Dyar on two 
points: firstly, as regards the very restricted meaning attached by him to 
the words " Primitive first stage." This would bring the first skin larvae 
of such species as Staiiropus fagi and Dicramira vinula within the 
category of having a primitive or unspecialized first stadium. Even if it 
were possible to get a majority of entomologists to accept this sense, it 
would still be entirely at variance with the sense in which these words 
would be understood by biologists at large. Secondly, even if we accept 
the special meaning in which Dr. Dyar uses the term, the condition 
implied is >iot present in the ist instar of Aglia tau. Not only are the 
large horns identifiable with tubercle i. on the meso- and meta-thoracic 
segments and the transversely conjoined i.+i. belonging to the 
right and left sides of the 8th abdominal segment bear set^e on their 
lower lateral branches, besides those on the terminal forks, but the raised 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST; 47 

bases of iii. and iv. are forked and bear two setae and there are alsa 

additional secondary set?e rising from the general skin surface that are in 

no way associated with the primary tubercles. I have preserved but 

unmounted larvse of this species in their ist instar, and as with P. trifolii 

I shall be glad to forward them to Dr. Dyar if he desires to examine 
them. 

There does not appear to be any issue between us with regard to 

Dimorpha, but I should like to enquire as to what is inferred by the 
remark " but it does not suggest the Laclmeidce nor Liparidce proper.'' 
Are we to understand this as denoting a relationship between these two 
groups other than the general one in that both belong to the same order? 

A. Bacot. 
154 Lower Clapton Road, London N.E., England, Dec. 7th, 1902. 



A NEW SPECIES OF HYPOL.EPUS, KIRBY. 

BY J. CHESTER BRADLEY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

HypoicBpus Viereckii, sp. nov. — -Dark, abdomen white beneath, legs 
partly white, wings hyaline, nervures white at base. Length, 7-8 mm. 

9 • — Head shining black ; face below the insertion of the antennae, 
a narrow band between the antennae and the eyes, head above the eyes, 
and the temples, white; antennae black, nine-jointed, third slightly arcuate, 
thicker and longer than the fourth, which is in turn longer than the fifth, 
and so on to the last. Thorax shining black, laterally in front of wings 
white ; wings hyaline, nervures brown, whitish at base of wing ; first 
transverse cubitus transparent, without colour, second submarginal cell 
receiving two recurrent nervures, lanceolate cell petiolate, only one 
marginal cell ; legs dark brown, all coxae and trochanters, tibiae except 
tips and basal third of posterior femora, white ; posterior tibiae slightly 
enlarged, longitudinally sulcate, first joint of posterior tarsi as long as the 
other three combined, the last joint being especially short. Abdomen 
cylindrical, slightly angled laterally and more so dorso-medially ; dorsal 
segments dark brown, ventral segments entirely white. 

The paratypes have the second transverse cubital and the first recur- 
rent nervures interstitial; the first transverse cubitus is often coloured, and 
the anterior two pairs of larsi are often pale. 

Habitat. — Westville, N. J., Sept. 12. Mr. H. L. Viereck, 7 specimens 
( $ ). Type in the collection of the American Entomological Society. 
Paratypes in the collection of the Wagner Institute in this city, the collec- ' 
tion of the LT. S. Nat. Museum, and the author's collection. 



48 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A NEW DIASPII) GENUS. 

BY R. A. COOLEY, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, BOZEMAN, MONTANA. 

In Professor T. D. A. Cockerell's " First Supplement to the Check-list 
of the Coccidc'e " (published in the bulletin of the Illinois State Labora- 
tory of Natural History, 1899), the following footnote occurs on page 
398 : " Phenacaspis, Cooley and Ckll., will be a new genus, to include 
P. fiyssce, C/iinensis, eiigeniiB, etc., hitherto placed in Chionaspis. Mr. 
Cooley and the present writer agree that these forms have no generic 
relationship with genuine Chionaspis except through Atilacaspis and 
Diaspis. I leave Mr. Cooley to publish the generic characters, and classify 
the species." 

The present paper gives the generic characters of Phenacaspis. 

Phenacaspis, gen. nov., Cooley and Ckll. 

Scale of female elongated, with the exuvige at the anterior extremity, 
white. Scale of male much smaller than that of female; elongated, with 
the scales nearly parallel. With two longitudinal grooves on the dorsal 
surface, causing one or three carinse, which vary in prominence in different 
species. Pygidium with the terminal pair of lobes more or less sunken 
into the body, and having their inner edges serrate or crenate, and strongly 
divergent, leaving a distinct notch on the median line. 

The colour and shape of the scales of the two sexes, together with 
the median notch of the pygidium, are the essential characters of the 
genus. 

Since in Professor Cockerell's note nyssce is the first species named, I 
suggest that this species be considered as the type of the genus. 



CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF NORTH AMERICA. 

The new Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of North America which I 
have prepared has been issued as Bulletin No. 52 of the United States 
National Museum. It comprises 740 pages. The edition is being dis- 
tributed by the Smithsonian Institution, without charge. Those not 
receiving the publications of the National Museum regularly, and who 
are interested enough in entomology so that this publication would be of 
practical use to them, will be cheerfully recommended by me to receive a 
copy, on making application to the undersigned. 

Harrison G. Dvar, Washington, D. C. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 49 

BOOK NOTICE. 
Species des Hym^nopteres d'Europe et d'Algerie : Les Mulillides — Par 

Ernest Andre. A. Hermann, 6 et 12, Rue de la Sorbonne, Paris, 

France. 
This work, representing the 8th volume of Andre's great work on the 
European Hymenoptera, begun in 1888 by Edmond Andre, is now 
completed by the publication of fascicle 81. 

The volume before us is devoted to a consideration of the family 
Mtdillidce, a large family of parasitic wasps living principally in the nests 
of bees and predaceous wasps, and is written by Ernest Andre, a brother of 
Edmond, contains nearly 500 pages, 25 plates, and gives full descriptions 
of all the Mutillidce. occurring in Europe and Algiers ; the first fascicle 
appeared in 1899. 

After a brief preface and the definition of the family, Mr. Andre gives 
a good historical sketch of the family, which is based upon the genus 
Mutilla, Linne, established in 1758. From this sketch one may gain an 
excellent idea of the vagueness and confusion that existed among earlier 
authorities respecting genera, the great difference of opinion held by the 
more distinguished, and the slowness with which the modern and the more 
correct conception of a genus became established. 

Mr. Andre devotes many pages to thoroughly defining the structural 
characters of these wasps, their life evolution and biology, and their 
geographical distribution. He finds that they are distributed over the 
entire world, and estimates that 1,600 species are known ; of this number 
about half are found in America, the others being distributed in Europe, 
Africa, Asia and Australia. 

After a good bibliography, in which 209 works and papers, treating 
on these wasps, are listed, he enters into a systematic account of the 
family, genera and species. He divides the family into /(?//;- tribes: I., 
Fedtsche7ikii7icB\ H., Aj>terogy?un(p ; III., Methocince; and IV., Mutillince. 
No one, probably, will object to Mr. Andre's groups ; they are natural 
and well characterized. But most decidedly some will differ with him 
as to their rank and the position assigned them ; I do. 

In my opinion three of these tribes do not belong to the family 
Mutillidce (sens, str.) ; they differ too widely in many important charac- 
ters to be included in the same family, although probably all are natural 
minor groups in other families. Fedtschenkia is winged in both sexes, and 
I have placed it in the family Cosilidce; the male has not the characteristic 
genitalia of a Mutillid. The Apterogynincv should be placed in the family 



r 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Myrmosidce, the female having the thorax divided and the male having the 
hypopygium ending in an upward curved aculeus ; while the AFethocince, 
excluding the genus Milhita, which is a genuine Myrmosid, belong to the 
family T/iyjinidce^ and are the only representatives of the family found in 
Europe. 

Milluta, Andre, only superficially resembles a genuine Methocine, and 
falls in naturally with many genera in the Myrmocidfe. In the supplement 
terminating the volume, Mr. Andre thinks the characters upon which my 
recently established genus Magrettina were based rather specific than 
generic, and makes it a synonym of Milluta, Andre. This, however, is 
merely an opinion, but coming from one who has done such excellent 
work in the Mutillidte as Mr. Andre, has weight and should receive con- 
sideration. I must, however, differ from him. In my original diagnosis I 
called attention to the close relationship Magrettina had to Milluta, and 
still thmk it distinct. When my revised generic tables of the Thynnida^ 
Myrmosidce and Mutillidce appear, in my classification of the Vespoidea, 
now in course of publication in the Canadian Entomologist, I feel 
convinced Mr. Andre will also think differently. I shall make use of 
characters that are generic, not specific, at least in my estimation. 

In the opinion of Mr. Andre, Alloneurioji, Ashmead, which was 
founded upon Agama Kokpetica, Radoszkowski, is based upon an accident 
of venation, and is absolutely not distinct from Pseudophotopsis, Andre. 
Who knows? All specimens I have seen have the venation alike in 
both wings ! 

Mr. Andre has subdivided the genus Mutilla, Linne, although he 
calls the divisions only subgenera ; it is a move in the right direction, and 
is destined to be universally followed. On page 129 he tabulates 10 
subgenera, as follows : Ephiitomtna, Ashm. ; Pseudophotopsis, Andre ; 
Tricholaliodes, Radosz. ; Myrmilla, Wesm. ; Platy mutilla, Andre, n. g. ; 
Nanomutilla, Andre, n. g. ; Mutilla, Linne; CystomutiHa, Andre; Dasy- 
mutilla, Radosz.; and Stenomutilla, Andre. Each subgenus is then taken 
up in order, fully described in both sexes, when known, and followed by a 
table of the species. Full notes on distribution and habits accompany 
every description. 

The work terminates with a methodical and synonymical catalogue of 
the species. In all 116 species have been recognized and fully described, 
besides many varieties. Mutilla maura, Linne, according to Mr. Andre, 
has 14 varieties ; M. rufipes, Fabricius, has 9 varieties, and other species 
have a less number of varietal forms. 

The very full tables and descriptions of all the European species, and 
the numerous plates, make the work invaluable to all students of the 
Hymenoptera. It is the best and most important work yet published on 
the family. William H. Ashmead. 



Mailed February 6th, 1903. 



Can. Ent,, Vol. XXXV. 



Plate 3. 




EDMUND BAYNES REED, 

ORIGINAL MEMBER OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO, 

1863-1903. 



\\t €mdm\ Jntoittolff^bt. 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, MARCH, 1903. No. 3 

EDMUND BAYNES REED. 
The older members of the Entomological Society of Ontario will, 
no doubt, welcome with much pleasure the portrait of Mr. Edmund 
Baynes Reed, which is prefixed to this number of our magazine. He 
was one of the small band who originated the Society on the i6th of April, 
1S63, and is one of the few survivors who may expect to commemorate its 
fortieth anniversary next month. 

Mr. Reed came to Canada from England when a young man, and 
took up his abode in London, where he, for some time, practised his pro- 
fession as a lawyer. Later on he became Secretary-Treasurer of the Synod 
of the Diocese of Huron, and continued to occupy this position till he left 
for British Columbia in 1890. He was always devoted to Natural His- 
tory, and especially to the collection and study of insects. His leisure 
time was largely given up to these pursuits and to the work of the Ento- 
mological Society, in which he took the warmest interest. He and Dr. 
Saunders were instrumental in forming the London Branch of the Society 
and keeping up the enthusiasm of its members. When the headquarters 
of the Society were removed to London, and there was, in consequence, no 
further need of a Branch, Mr, Reed took an active part in everything that 
was done, and gave most material help in the formation and increase of 
the Library and collections. He was Secretary-Treasurer of the Society in 
1871-2-3, and from 1880 to 1886; Vice-President in 1874, 1877, and 
from 1887 to 1889; member of the Council from 1874 to 1876, and in 
1878-9; and during many of these years Librarian and Curator in addi- 
tion. The following extract from the report of the Council for the year 
ending August 31st, 1890, bears testimony to his usefulness and services : 

"In consequence of the removal of Mr. E. Baynes Reed from London 
to British Columbia, to take charge of the Dominion Meteorological 
Station at Victoria, it will be necessary to make some new arrangements 



02 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

for the care of the Library and collections and the performance of the 
official work of the Society .... The Cuuncil desire to ]>lace on record 
their feelings of deep regret at the removal of Mr. Reed from this Province 
and the loss which the Society thereby sustains. Mr. Reed is one of the 
original members of the Society, and for more than a quarter of a century 
has been one of the most active and zealous of its officials, filling at differ- 
ent times the positions of Vice-President, Secretary-Treasurer, Librarian, 
Curator, and Auditor. To him it is especially due that the Library has 
grown to its present dimensions and value and that so much progress has 
been made by the Society in many directions. The Council beg to thank 
Mr. Reed for his services in the past, and wish him all possible success 
and prosperity in his new and important sphere of labour." 

Mr. Reed was a constant contributor to the pages of the Canadian 
Entomologist from the very first volume, in which appeared five articles 
from his pen. His papers, largely collecting notes, records of rare cap- 
tures, etc., were always interesting and valuable ; he also furnished de- 
scriptive articles on larvns, an Accentuated List of Canadian I^epidoptera, a 
report to the Ontario Department of Agriculture (jointly with Dr. Saun- 
ders) on the Colorado Potato-Beetle, which had then invaded Western 
Ontario from the neighbouring State of Michigan, and popular papers on 
common insects. 

Li the preparation of the early Annual Reports of the Society he took 
a large share, and contributed elaborate and valuable papers, as follows : 
Insects affecting the Plum, Report i. (1870), pages 53-63, and Report ii. 
(1871), pp. 22-26 ; Insects injurious to the Potato, ibid, pp. 65-81 ; In- 
sects attacking the Cucumber, Melon, Pumpkin and Squash, ibid, pp. 
8Q-92 ; Insects affecting the Maple Trees, Report iii. (1872), pp. 35-43 ; 
Insects affecting the Peach, ibid, pp. 44-47 ; Insects affecting the Potat^, 
ibid, pp. 48-50 ; Some common Insects which affect the Horse, Ox and 
Sheep, Report iv. (1873), pp. 34-41 ; Entomological Contributions, Re- 
port V. (1874), pp. 11-16; Sphingidae — Hawk-Moths, Report xii. (1881), 
pp. 48-70 ; Diptera — Two-winged Flies, Report xiii. (1882), pp. 45-53, 
and short articles in several of the volumes. From the above list it will 
be seen that Mr. Reed gave much attention to Economic Entomology, 
and did some very excellent work in that department. It was quite 
fitting, therefore, that he should have been one of the company who, in 
August, 1889, formed the Association of Economic Entomologists, and 
signed its original Constitution. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 53 



Another valuable and important work that Mr. Reed performed for 
the Society was the compilation of a General Index to the first thirteen 
Annual Reports, 1870-1882, which proved of the greatest use for many- 
years to the members of the Society and others who had occasion to refer 
to these publications. 

For some time before he left London, Mr. Reed took a great interest 
in meteorological observations, and in connection with the Observatory 
at Toronto established a local station and installed the necessary instru- 
ments. His anemometer and vanes were placed on the top of the Cathedral 
tower and connected by wires with his residence on the corner of Park and 
Queen's Avenues. The work that he thus performed was so accurate and 
satisfactory that he was selected to take charge of the Pacific Coast Divi- 
sion of the Dominion Meteorological Service, and since 1890 he has con- 
tinued to fill the office of Superintendent of the Observatory at Victoria, 
B. C. Though his time is fully taken up with his official duties, he con- 
tinues to be interested in Entomology, and is a member of the Britisli 
Columbia Natural History Society. His many friends will, no doubt, 
heartily join with us in the wish that he may enjoy the blessings of health 
and well-being for many a year to come, and retain the vigour and vivacity 
which have alwavs been his characteristics. C. J. S. B. 



THE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE AMERICAN ASSO- 
CIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, C. L. MARLATT, 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 30, 1902, and Jan. 2, 1903. 
The members of the Association of Economic Entomologists and tlie 
local Entomologists of Washington connected with the Entomological 
Society of Washington, at the conclusion of the meeting of the first-named 
Association, met in an informal reunion and smoker at the residence of 
Mr. Wm. H. Ashmead, on the evening of December 27th, 1902. At 
this meeting the subject, first broached in the concluding session of the 
Association of Economic Entomologists, of reviving the Entomological 
Club of the A. A. A. S. was considered, and, in the absence of the last 
President of the Club, the Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Mr. Schwarz was made 
Chairman of the meeting for the purposes of this discussion. A general 
desire was manifested on the part of tliose present to have the Entomo- 
logical Club revived or some other similar organization instituted. To make 



54 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



the preliminary arrangements a committee was appointed, consisting of 
Mr. Schvvarz as Chairman, and including also Messrs. Fletcher, Herbert 
Osborn, Kellogg and Hopkins. This committee held a meeting at the 
Cosmos Club on the afternoon of December 28th, and arranged for a re- 
vival of the old Entomological Club of the American Association, and 
fixed the first meeting for Tuesday evening, Dec. 3othj at 7.30, in a room 
provided in the Columbian Law School. 

This meeting of the Club was called to order at the hour named by 
Mr. Schwarz, as Chairman of the Provisional Committee. The following 
persons were present : 

Henry A. Ballou, Amherst, Mass.; J. Chester Bradley, 2221 Spring 
Garden St., Philadelphia, Pa.: H.. E. Burke and A. N. Caudell, Washing- 
ton, D. C; E. P. Felt, Albany, N. Y.; F. W. Foxworthy, Ithaca, N. Y.; 
Otto Heidemann and W. E. Hinds, Washington, D. C.; Jas. S. Hine, 
Columbus, Ohio ; A. D. Hopkins, Washington, D. C; Chas. W. John- 
son, Philadelphia. Pa.; W. G. Johnson, New York ; Vernon L. Kellogg, 
Stanford University, Cal.; B. Pickman Mann and C. L. Marlatt, Wash- 
ington, D. C.; Geo W. Martin, Nashville, Tenn.; Herbert Osborn, 
Columbus, Ohio ; Raymond C. Osburn, New York ; A. L. (^uaintance, 
College Park, Md.; Wm. D. Richardson, I'ledericksburg, Va.; E. A. 
Schwarz and C B. Simpson, Washington, 1). C.; Otto H. Swezey, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, 

Mr, Schwarz called attention to the fact that the old Entomological 
Club was still in existence, and all that was necessary to put it in opera- 
tion was to proceed to the election of three officers : President, Vice- 
President, and Secretary. On motion of Mr. Ashmead, Mr. Schwarz, one 
of the oldest members of the Club and the one most familiar with the 
organization, was nominated, and duly elected President of the Club for 
tile ensuing year. On motion of Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Ashmead was duly 
elected to the office of Vice-President. On motion of Mr. Felt, Mr. 
Marlatt was elected Secretary x-^f the Club. 

Following the election of officers, a historical review of the Entomo- 
logical Club of the A. A. A. S. was read by Mr. Schwarz, the different 
meetings of the Club being dwelt upon and described individually. It is 
deemed advisable to include this paper entire, as portion of the minutes 
of this meeting. 

A Sketch of the History of the Entomological Club of 
THE American Association. 

BY E. a. schwarz. 

Since the majority of the Entomologists present at this meeting be- 
long to a younger generation, who have never attended any of the meet- 



THE CANAblAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 55 

ings of the old Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S., a short history of 
the Club may not be out of place on this occasion. These notes I have 
prepared from a hasty persual of the most readily available entomological 
literature, and more especially from the volumes of the Canadian Ento- 
mologist, to which periodical the Club is deeply indebted for the faithful 
preservation of its records through a long number of years. 

The first movement looking toward the formation of a purely ento- 
mological organization within the A. A. A. S. took place at the 21st meet- 
ing of the Association, held at Dubuque, Iowa, August 21-27, 1872. 
No definite action was taken at that time, and the only record of this 
movement is preserved in the Can. Ent., Vol. IV., 1872, p. 182. 

In the following year the Association met at Portland, Me., and its 
proceedings, as far as entomology is concerned, were briefly reported by 
Mr. P. R. Uhler, elected to act as Secretary during the three meetings 
held by the entomologists on August 21st, 22nd and 23rd. The subject 
of forming a sub-section of entomology was then reconsidered, " but the 
number of entomological papers offered being so small, it was not then 
deemed advisable to go into sub-section." (Can. Ent., Vol. V., 1873, 
p. 165.) 

At the following meeting of the Association, held at Hartford, Conn., 
in August, 1874, an unusual number of Entomologists was brought to- 
gether, and, after mature deliberation, it was resolved to organize under 
the name of " The Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S.," and the fol- 
lowing constitution was adopted, which is printed in the Can. Ent., Sept., 
1S74, p. 161. 

[At the request of the President, the constitution was then read by 
the Secretary.] 

In the year 1S75 the first meeting of the Club was held in Detroit, 
Mich., on August loth, I'resident Dr. J. L. LeConte in the chair, Prof. C. 
V. Riley, Secretary, and the minutes of this meeting are published in the 
Can. Ent., 1875, pp. ijj-Jjg- 

The minutes of the meetings of the Club held in 1S76 in Buffalo, N. 
Y., occupy nearly ten pages (pp. 176-185) in the Can. Ent., and, for the 
first time, a short address of the President, Dr. J. L. LeConte, is published. 

The records of the next meeting, held in Nashville, Tenn., are very 
meagre, on account of the absence of both the President and the Secre- 
tary, and occupy a little more than two pages in the Can. Ent. for 1877 
(pp. 172-T74.) 



56 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



The meetings of the Chib held at St. Louis, Mo,, in August, 1878, are 
fully reported upon in the Can. Ent. of that year, and, for the first time, 
an elaborated address by the President, Dr. J. A. Lintner, on the progress 
of American Entomological Science, is published. 

The same remarks hold true for the Saratoga, N. Y., meeting in 1879 
(see Can. Ent., pp. 163-177), and for the Boston, Mass., meeting, held 
in 1880 (see Can. Ent., pp. 161-174). The minutes of the latter meet- 
ing were also published in the Amer. Efitomol.,'Wo\. III., pp. 272-274, and 
pp. 284-286. 

For the year 1881 the proceedings of our organization are published 
in the Can. Ent., pp. 179-189, and pp. 214-216, and in American 
Naturalist, pp. — , under the heading, " Meeting of the Sub-section of the 

A. A. A. S.," Rev. J. G. Morris being President. 

As a sub-section, the Entomologists of the A. A. A. S. do not seem 
to have been successful, for I fail to find any record of its meetings in 
1882, when the A. A. A. S. met at Montreal, Can. 

However, in 1883, when the Association met at Minneapolis, Minn., 
it was decided to reorganize the Entomological Club. The following 
officers were promptly elected : President, D. S. Kellicott ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Herbert Osborn ; Secretary, O. S. Westcott. A large number of 
valuable and interesting communications were presented, which are re- 
corded in Can. Ent. for 1883. 

The 1S84 meeting of the Club, held at Philadejjhia, Pa., was also a 
very successful one, as is apparent from the full record published in the 
Can. Ent., pp. 169-179, and pp. 181-186, the Secretary of the Club 
being Mr. J. H. Smith. 

The minutes of the Ann Arbor, Mich., meeting in 1885 were fully re- 
l)orted in Vol. I. o'i Entomologica Ainerica}ia,:\r\d for the first time, papers 
read by members are printed in full in these records. 

In Vol. n. of the same periodical we find published the minutes of 
the Buffalo, N. Y., meeting, held in August, 1886. In Vol. III. are the 
minutes of the New York meeting, held in August, 1887. 

In spite of the fact that the Cleveland, O., meeting in 1888 was at- 
tended by a small number of Entomologists, a large number of valuable 
papers were read, besides an elaborate address of the President, Mr. John 

B. Smith, all of which is published in Vol. IV. oi Etitoiiio/ogica Americana, 
while the Can. Ent. also published a full account of the proceedings. 

At the Toronto, Can., meeting of the Association, in 1S89, which was 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 57 



not very largely attended by the Entomologists, the Association of Official 
Economic Entomologists was founded, and held its first meeting in con 
junction with the Entomological Club, the result being that most of the 
papers read were of an economic nature. The minutes are published both 
in the Can. Ent. and in Entomol. Amer. 

At the Indianapolis, Ind., meeting in 1S90, the Entomological Club 
was again well rei)resented, and a successful meeting was held, as can be 
seen from the very full account published in the Can. Ent., while the 
Entonu Amer. brought out a short abstract. 

The number of members of the Entomological Club present at the 
Washington, D. C, meeting in 1891 exceeded that at any previous meet- 
ing, and the full record of the proceedings occupies 48 pages in the Can. 
Ent. of the same year. 

The Rochester, N. Y., meeting in 1892 was also very successful, and 
its record fills 61 pages of the Can. Ent. The following officers were 
elected for the next meeting : President, Rev. Chas. J. S. Bethune \ Vice- 
President, Mr. H. G. Hubbard; Secretary, Mr. C L. Marlatt; but this 
" next " meeting was never held, nor is there any record of any subsequent 
meeting of the Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S. 



Following the reading of this communication and the constitution of 
the Club, the question of membership was brought up by Mr. Marlatt. 
The subject was discussed by Messrs. Bradley, Schwarz, Ashmead, Hop- 
kins, Felt and Marlatt. Mr. Marlatt moved to make section three of the 
constitution read as follows : " All members of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science who are interested in entomology, 
and all members of the Association of Economic Entomologists, shall be 
ipso facto members of the Club. Other Entomologists may be elected to 
membership at any regular meeting." This motion, seconded by Mr. 
Ashmead, was carried. On motion of Mr. Hopkins, the following pro- 
vision was added to this section : " Members of local entomological so- 
cieties at the meeting place of the American Association of any year shall 
be considered as members of the Club." 

The business of reorganizing the Club having been completed, Mr. 
Kellogg was invited by the President to give a report on the entomolog- 
ical work done under his direction on the Pacific Coast. 

Mr. Kellogg first called attention to a very creditable piece of mono- 
graphic work on Aleurodes by one of his students, exhibiting some espe- 
cially well-executed plates illustrating these insects. This work is soon to 



58 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



be published. He exhibited also a pair of primary royalties of Termopsis 
angusticollis, the Pacific Coast Termite. He had found no difficulty in 
securing a number of these royal pairs, and one of them he had brought 
alive from California in some decaying wood. The true royalties of this 
kind are certainly very rare, and these forms excited much interest. 

Mr. Kellogg followed with an account of his work with the Blepharo- 
ceridse, a family of Diptera, which inhabit in the larval stage swift-running 
mountain streams. These Diptera have hitherto been considered very 
rare, and only fifteen species were known in the world — five of them in 
North America and six European, the remainder subtropical or tropical. 
To this number he had added four new species which he had studied in 
all stages, and added much to the information of the early stages, which 
had previously been little known. He described the manner of attach- 
ment of the larvge to the rock beds in swift streams, the insect not oc- 
curring in still water, and gave an account of the habits of the larvje, the 
remarkable specialization in the larval and pupal characters, and also the 
habits of the adults, together with some details of the structural peculiar- 
ities of the latter. He urged all collectors to be on the lookout for these 
curious insects. He reported that the results of his investigations were in 
press, and included a revision of the family in North America, giving full 
details of all his studies, and he promised to send this paper to any one 
interested in the subject. A miscellaneous discussion followed this com- 
munication, bearing on these Diptera, in which some additional facts and 
explanations were given by Mr. Kellogg. Concluding the discussion, 
Mr. Schwarz stated that he was not familiar with any matter contained in 
the Entomologica Americana bearing on these insects, but that in com- 
pany with his late friend, Mr. Hubbard, and also later with Mr. Barber, 
he had made examinations covering two years in Arizona, and had never 
found an example of Blepharocera. He believed this to result from the 
fact that none of the mountain streams in Arizona can be called perma- 
nent. Every other season, at least, these streams dry up. Both Mr. Hub- 
bard and himself, he stated, were well acquainted with these forms, and 
would have recognized them if they occurred there. The Simulium flies, 
on the other hand, maintained themselves under the conditions noted ; in 
other words, they were able to live in these streams and to survive the dry 
period, by what means he was not able to discover. 

Dr. H(jpkins presented the following account of recent work in Forest- 
insect Entomology : 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 59 

Forest-insect Explorations in the Summer of 1902. 

[revised by DK. HOPKINS FROM THE STENOGRAPHIC NOTES.] 

Dr. Hopkins gave an account of his preliminary survey, during the 
past summer, of the forest regions of different sections of the country to 
determine the primary enemies of forest trees and locate the areas of 
principal depredations. Between July and November he was in 27 States 
and two territories. His first trip was made through the South-eastern 
States, to determine the area of a recent outbreak of Dendroctonus 
frontalis. He found in the southern Appalachian region that this, one of 
the most destructive insects of American coniferous forests, was com- 
mencing its ravages as it did a few years previous to the great devastation 
wrought by it in the Virginias. He spoke of the probability that some of 
these insects, which are for a long lime exceedingly rare, then suddenly 
make their appearance in vast numbers, taking the character of an inva- 
sion, are varieties of the typical forms which, on account of favorable 
variations, are capable of extending their range into new areas, and also to 
overcome the resistance exerted by the living trees attacked by them, 
which could not be overcome by the typical forms. He gave as an ex- 
ample the results of his study of Detidroctonus frontalis, in which he 
found that the form which was so exceedingly common and destructive in 
the Virginias was a variety of the form described by Zimmerman many 
years ago. 

After locating the trouble in the vicinity of Fletcher's and Tryon, 
N. C, he travelled southward through South Carolina and Georgia to 
Tampa, Florida, and returned by another route, to determine the extent 
of this new outbreak. Returning to Washington from this trip, he pro- 
ceeded to the Black Hills, in South Dakota, where a vast amount of pine 
timber has been killed by Dendrocto?ius fonderosce,3.?, has been mentioned 
in Bulletin 32, new series, Division of Entomology. This species, he 
said, is another example of apparent variation from a western type, D. 
tnonticola, Hopk. MS. It has distinctive and constant characters of 
structure and habit which are sufficent to entitle it to the rank of a species, 
and he believes that it is possibly of recent development. D. vionticola 
attacks the mountain pine ( Fifius vionticola) in Idaho, and the sugar pine 
(P. Lambertiana) in Oregon. The smaller size of this species, the more 
primitive character of its gallery, and its wider distribution, indicate that it 
is the stock from which Dendroctonus ponderosa: has sprung. The latter 
is apparently more restricted in its range, having been found only in the 



60 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Black Hills and in Northern Colorado. This is simply offered as a sug- 
gestion of the probabilities, and to call attention to this feature, which 
should be considered in future investigations. 

From the Black Hills he went further west, through Wyoming and 
Montana to Spokane, Washington, thence to the Priest River Reserve, 
where he found Dendroctonus vionticola doing considerable damage to 
Finns monticola in the vicinity of Priest Lake. He also found D. 
pseudotst(g(c, Hopk. MS., intimately associated with the dying of the large 
red fir ( Fsendoisuga taxifoUa). This latter species of Dendroctonus, he 
said, was one which for a long time had been confused with D. similis, 
Lee, but upon examination of the type o( D. simiVis he found it to be 
quite a different thing, and undescribed, while D. similis is a synonym of 
D. obesus, Mann. 

He found also the pine-defoliating butterfly occurred in considerable 
numbers, flying around the tops of the pine trees. The fact that this but- 
terfly was almost exterminated by its parasites a few years ago, and is now 
apparently on the increase, suggests that it may again become destruc- 
tive within a few years. Returning from Priest River, by the way of 
Spokane, he visited Sand Point, Idaho, where, in 1899, he discovered a 
young six-year-old entomologist, in whom he was very much interested. 
His name is Charley Boyers. From Sand Point he went to Seattle, and 
thence into the Cascade Mountain range, where, among other finds, he 
made the discovery of a large Prionus larva boring in the living sapwood 
of a red fir, which four or five years previous had been injured by fire, but 
not killed. This was of interest, from the fart that this species is not 
supposed to bore into the living sapwood of standing trees. He also spoke 
of the great windfalls in the forests of that region, and the extreme ditificulty 
met with in penetrating the forests thus obstructed by the great trees 
lapping over each other, making it necessary sometimes to climb from one 
tree to another, until one was twenty or thirty feet from the ground. He 
also spoke of the rich field for the Scolytid si)ecialist in these wind-felled 
trees, which were infested by many species ; and spoke of such windfalls 
being the cause of serious depredations by insects which bred in them. 
Returning through Washington and Oregon to San Francisco, he found 
that the Phlceosinus mentioned by Mr. Fowler, under the name of P. 
punctatus*, as destructive to the Lawson cypress, was x\o\. punctatus, but 
an undescribed species which he had found in a Cryptomeria when there 

^* Report of work of the Agr, Exp. Sta., Univ. of Calif., 189S-1901, Part I., page 80. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 61 

in 1899, and also in Sequoia. Going from San Francisco to De! Monte 
and Monterey, California, he found the same thing in living Lavvson's 
cypress on the grounds at Del Monte, and especially abundant in the 
broken branches and recently-felled trees of the Monterey cypress in the 
original grove at Cypress Point. He thinks that the original home of the 
species is in the ancient grove, but it has been distributed further north 
with the tree, which has been extensively planted for hedges and as an 
ornamental tree. We have here another example of a beetle which in 
its original host plant and distribution is not destructive, but becomes so 
under different environments and with change of habit. He also found 
Dendroctoiius valeiis working serious damage to the Monterey pine, and 
associated with it a number of species of Tomicus, Pityophthorus, etc., 
which appear to be causing considerable trouble. He mentioned also the 
timber which had been destroyed by fire, mentioned by Mr. Schwarz at a 
previous meeting, and spoke of the great number of beetles breeding in 
the injured trees and spreading their depredations into living ones. Re- 
turning from Monterey on the Santa Fe R. R., he visited Williams, 
Arizona, to examine a trouble there reported by Mr. Schwarz, which was 
causing the death of a considerable number of pine trees. This was found 
to be caused by Dendroctoiius approximatus, Dietz., and also by two un- 
described species of Dendroctonus, which are closely allied to D. fron- 
talis. He found also that among the Pinon on the rim of the Grand 
Canon, and between there and Williams, individual trees were dying and 
infested with Tomicus and other bark beetles. 

(To be continued.) 



NEW ORIENTAL ALEURODID.^. 

BY A. L. QUAINTANCE, COLLEGE PARK, MD. 

Aleurodes Marlatti, n. sp. 

Egg. — Size about .1 mm. x .2 mm., exclusive of stalk, which is quite 
short, holding egg in upright position on leaf; regularly elliptical in 
outline. Colour, dirty yellowish brown, as seen on leaf; under 
transmitted light, yellowish. Shell without markings or sculpturing of 
any kind. 

Larva. — Broadly elliptical. Colour, except in first stage which is 
yellowish, brownish to brownish black, varying in some specimens to an 
iridescent blue black ; in later stages, margined all around with a short, 
rather squarely-trimmed, white, waxy secretion, from the marginal wax 



62 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

lubes. Margin of case plainly crenulated, the incisions between wax 
tubes shallow and acute, but furrowed somewhat entad, giving a fluted 
marginal area. Abdominal segments distinct, thoracic segments moder- 
ately so. There is a slight, rounded medio-dorsal ridge along abdomen. 
Vasiform orifice triangular ; operculum subcordate ; lingula well 
developed, subcapitate distally, the stalk rather narrow. A pair of 
moderate, whitish setfe project caudad from caudal end of case. Size 
of larva, probably in second stage, .63 mm. x.5 mm. 

Pupa Case. — As seen on leaf, shiny jet black and considerably 
convex when fully developed. There is a short, uniform, rather squarely- 
trimmed, glassy waxen fringe all around from the marginal wax tubes. On 
dorsum of abdomen there is an interesting " top-shaped " outline, formed 
by a narrow, more or less continuous line of whitish waxy secretion. The 
cephalic end of the figure originates along first abdominal segment, the 
sides curving outward and caudad, but some narrowing, the lines passing 
on either side of the vasiform orifice, caudad of which they coalesce more 
or less, the figure terminating in an acute point at caudal end of case. 
Lines of wax along the sutures of the abdominal segments extend out 
laterally from the more central, top-shaped figure, the whole forming an 
interesting and characteristic pattern. On cephalic end of case there is an 
irregular ellipse of wax, marking ai)proximately the head region of the 
pupa. This dorsal secretion is most evident in the more mature 
individuals, and may be more or less absent in the younger forms. There 
is a very distinct suture all around, which separates from the body proper 
the pronounced fluted marginal rim. This latter is inclined to the 
surface of the leaf at an angle of about 45 degrees. Size variable, but 
about 1. 35 mm. x i.i mm., roundly elliptical in form. Abdominal 
segments distinct, and thoracic moderately so. On cephalic end of case 
the transparent, subreniform " eye spots " very distinct. \'asiform orifice 
triangular, subacute caudad. Operculum subcordate ; lingula difficult to 
make out, but probably as in larva. From caudal end of orifice a distinct 
furrow extends back to caudal end of case. Margin crenulated all 
around, the incisions between wax tubes shallow and acute ; on latero- 
cepiialic margin of case, on each side, a single tubular pore, noticeably 
distinct from adjacent wax lubes. Pupa case of general type of A. 
qucrcus-aquatiae, Quaint., from Florida. 

Aihilt. — 9  Body yellowish, with sutures mostly l)lackish. Length 
about .83 mm.; fore vving, 1.2 mm. x .56 mm.; anlennye and legs usual, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 63 



Fore wings with two irregular, broken bands of reddish, each crossing 
wing about equidistant on each side of caudal flexure of vein. There is 
also a small central spot, almost caudad of flexure, and a more or less 
evident spot at tip of vein. A small, irregular spot also occurs caudad of 
veinlet, near base of wing. 

(^ . Very like female, but smaller. Penis and valves of genitalia 
rather slender, sickle-shaped and acute. 

Specimens on orange ; collected by Mr. C. L. Marlatt, Hakato, 
Japan, May 21, 1901. Adults bred out by Mr. Marlatt. This species 
was also taken at Kumomoto, Japan, by Mr. Marlatt, on May 17, 1901. 
Described from numerous specimens of eggs, larv?e and pupa-cases. 
Adults described from a few imperfect females and one male in balsam 
mounts. Types in U. S. National Museum. 

Alejirodes spinifera, n. sp. 

Egg. — Exclusive of stalk, .2 mm. long by about .1 mm. wide ; 
yellowish, curved, and marked with rather minute, closely-set polygonal 
areas. Stalk quite short, holding egg in more or less upright position on 
leaf 

Larva. — ^Regularly elliptical, appearing brownish on leaf, varying to 
black, with evident, but short, cottony fringe of wax all around from 
marginal wax tubes ; dorsum without secretion. Size, probably in second 
stage, about .4 mm. x .3 mm. Margin distinctly crenulated all around, 
incisions between wax tubes short and acute. Abdominal segments quite 
distinct, thoracic less so. Dorsum set with very strong, heavy spines as 
follows : a row on each side about equidistant between the median 
longitudinal dorsal line and margin of case, of seven spines each or 
fourteen in all. Eight of these occur on the abdomen and six on the 
thorax. More centrally on the thorax are six equally developed spines in 
pairs. Vasiform orifice, which is somewhat elevated on a subconical, 
truncated protuberance, subcircular in outline \ operculum subcircular to 
subcordate, nearly filling orifice. Lingula short, nearly obsolete. 

Pupa Case. — As seen on leaf, with reflected light, jet black, con- 
siderably convex, the strong, dark spines plainly evident. Dorsum 
without secretion, but there is a compact, short, cottony fringe all around 
from marginal wax tubes. Size of mature specimens about 1.33 mm. x 
I mm., roundly elliptical in shape. On dorsum there is a submarginal 
row all around of strong, dark, acute spines, projecting considerable above 
and beyond case, nine or ten on each side. There is also a subdorsal rovv 



64 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



on each side of strong, similarly-coloured, but shorter, spines, ten to 
twelve in number • nearer the medio-dorsal line there are four pairs 
of spines on the thorax, and a pair on abdominal segments i, 2, 3 and 7, 
respectively. Vasiform orifice prominently elevated on an oblique, 
subconical, truncated protuberance, the subcordate orifice opening 
directly upwards. The operculum is similar in shape to orifice, which it 
nearly fills. Lingula obscure. There is a narrow, more or less evident 
marginal rim, composed of the prominent wax tubes, which are bluntly 
rounded distally, the incisions between them being moderately deep and 
acute On ventral surface rudimentary legs may be readily distinguished. 

Adults unknown. 

Specimens collected by Mr. C. L. Marlatt, Garolt, Java, December 
7, 1 901, on Citrus, sp., and Rose. Eggs and pupal stages described from 
numerous specimens ; larvce from two specimens. This species is closely 
related to Maskell's piperis from Ceylon, but differs in the number 
and arrangement of spines in the vasiform orifice, and in the fact 
that the eggs of spinifera are distinctly marked with polygonal areas, 
whereas those oi piperis are striated. Types in U. S. National Museum. 



TWO REMARKABLE NEW COCCI D^. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL, EAST LAS VEGAS, N. M. 

Of the two Coccidfe now described, the first is the type of a very 
peculiar new genus ; the other is a very beautiful and interesting 
lac-insect. 

Stictococcus, n. g. — An aberrant genus of Lecaniin*, with the anal 
orifice in the middle of the back, not connected with the hind margin by 
a slit or groove. Anal ring with six hairs in larva ; none in adult. Anal 
plates so modified in adult as to be unrecognizable. Legs small, but well 
developed. Antenna with 5 or 6 joints. Margin with long bristles, and 
flattened bifid or palmate plates or spines. Dorsum with numerous large 
pits. 
Stictococcus SJostedti, n. sp. (V. D. A. .\: W. P. Ckll.). 

Numerous on small branches. Oval, flattish, about 4 mm. long, 3 
broad, and i }4 high; Lecanium-Wke, smooth and shiny, ferruginous to 
olive-brown ; anal orifice in middle of back ; dorsal region with two 
longitudinal rows of large round pits, single and (in two cases) two 
together : thus, i, r, 2, i, 2, i, 1, and then a single one in the middle line 
where the two rows converge. Subdorsal region with a row on each sidp 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 65 

of similar, but smaller, \V\\.s, about ten in number, no two close together ; 
sides abruptly descending, with submarginal and marginal rows of pits, 
the submarginal quite large, the others very small. Margin with scattered 
hairs. On the under side is a small amount of mealy secretion, arranged 
in radiating lines upon the sides of the abdomen. In some specimens the 
back is more or less coated with an easily deciduous waxy material. 

Mouth-parts small, labium rounded. Margin with long bristles, and 
numerous very broad and rather short palraated or bifid plates. Antennae 
stout, very small and pale, 5-jointed, with a long 3, or 6-jointed by the 
division of 3, in which case 4 is longer than 3, being a trifle longer than 
broad, while 3 is conspicuously broader than long. Legs stout, small and 
pale; tarsus and tibia subequal, but tarsus a little the longer; claw large, 
strongly hooked. Anal orifice dark brown, consisting of a circular 
chitinous plate, in which is a large quadrangular opening filled by two 
subquadrangular plates, each of which has on its surface a pair of 
darkened rounded processes or lobes, and also a pair of foramina, the 
foramina of the anterior plate near its anterior margin, and those of the 
posterior plate near its posterior margin. The hind margin of the anterior 
plate is concave, leaving a slit between the two. No bristles are apparent. 
Skin with many minute circular gland orifices. Ventral surface in the 
abdominal region with a transverse fold fringed with hairs. 

Larva (from body of 9 ) broad-oval, with a similar dorsal anal 
orifice, but it is surrounded by the six long bristles of the anal ring. The 
anterior plate, which bears these bristles, is horseshoe-shaped, with the 
opening directed backwards, and into the opening falls the more or less 
oval posterior plate, which is longitudinally divided in the middle line, 
and no doubt represents the anal lobes. Margin with bristles and large 
flattened bifid or trifid plates as in the adult, only they are much larger 
in comparison with the size of the insect. Antennte stout. 

/:/al>. — Cameroons, W. Africa; very numerous specimens in alcohol, 
collected by Dr. Yngve Sjostedt, of the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum at 
Stockholm. Several of the bottles are only labeled as from the 
Cameroons; a few contain more exact labels — " Itoki, Feb., 1891"; 
" Eskundu," and " Bonze." This is the first Coccid on record from 
the Cameroons. 

Tachardia anraiitiaca^ n. sp. 

On bark of branch ; scales usually sejKirale, sometimes coalescing, 
round, seen from above, 4 mm. long, convex, but flattened dorsally, 



66 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SO that they are not half as high as broad ; surface thrown more or 
less into concentric folds ; colour bright orange ; median dorsal area 
ferruginous, with radiating ridges and the usual orifices, the minutely 
transversely ribbed larval exuvia in the middle. Young, up to about 
2 mm. long, orange-ferruginous, with rather obscure radiating ridges. 

Second stage : female with the cephalothoracic end narrower than the 
abdominal, and with a constriction between the thorax and abdomen. 
Abdomen emarginate posteriorly, as in the same stage of T. Mexicana. 
No spine found. A couple of pale ferruginous (chitinous) triangular 
plates, each presenting near the middle a round patch of greatly crowded 
and very numerous gland-orifices, each of which under a high power 
exhibits a central nucleus, from which radiate five lines. Near one 
corner of the triangular plate is a smaller patch of similar orifices, 
here about twelve in number. Anal ring with ten long bristles ; the ring 
is transversely oval, and is divided into an anterior and a posterior part. 
The anterior part, bearing four bristles, is deeply notched in the middle 
anteriorly ; the posterior part, bearing six bristles, is deeply notched in the 
middle posteriorly. The lac is very hard to dissolve. The insects show 
the usual crimson pigment. 

Hab. — Garoet, Java, Dec. 7, 1901, on grape-fruit (Citrus); collected 
by Mr. C. L. Marlatt. The second-stage females are attacked by a 
parasitic fungus, their bodies being full of the threads in some instances. 
The adults show large parasite holes, and what the parasites have left 
has been almost entirely consumed by a host of small hairy mites, 
evidently a species of Tyroglyphus, as they agree well with Fig. 54 
in Marlatt, Bull. 14, N. S., Div. Ent., Dep. Agr. (1898), p. 103. Owing 
to these conditions I was unable to obtain a good specimen of the female 
adult for mounting. 

The species is easily known from T. decor ell a by the absence 
of ribbing beyond the second stage. 



A CONTRIBUTION. 

Mr. E. P. Venables, Vernon, B. C, thoughtfully considering the 
needs of the Society, has donated to it some British Columbia beetles, the 
most of which are new to its collection, thus increasing by so much its 
powers of usefulness to others for the determination of specimens. 

J. Alston Moff.m', Curator. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 67 



NEW COLEOPIERA FROM THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. 

RV H. F. WICKHAM, IOWA CITY, IOWA. 

All of the species described in the following pages belong to genera 

which are of small extent or have been recently monographed, and it is 

hoped that no confusion will result from their publication. The types are 

in my own collection, and, unless otherwise credited, were captured by 

myself. 

Physorhinus, Esch. 

Hitherto the only species of this genus known from the United States 
was P./uscuIus, Champ. (Anchasi us frontalis, Horn), and the curious 
pale head, which Dr. Horn thought might be accidental, is, according to 
Mr. Champion, characteristic of the genus, which is well represented in 
Central America. I have in my collection a form which seems to be new. 

P. yucca, n. sp. — Elongate, subfusiform, convex, shining, clothed with 
rather dense yellowish pubescence; castaneous, legs rather lighter. Head 
yellow, clypeal margin blackish, the surface deeply but somewhat finely 
punctate ; antennas passing the hind angles of the thorax, second joint 
extremely small, third barely longer, together about equal to the fourth. 
Prothorax a little wider than long, broadest behind the middle, rapidly 
narrowing to apex, sides nearly parallel behind, hind angles just percepti- 
bly divergent, acute, bicarinate, the inner carina straight, oblique, outer one 
very slightly curved and quite near the margin ; surface deeply and dense- 
ly but not very coarsely punctured, the punctuation of the neigiibourhood 
of the anterior angles being the coarsest. Elytra at base not as wide as 
the thorax, becoming rapidly narrower from a point much in advance of 
the middle, sides slightly rounding, apices distinctly finely serrulate, tips 
conjointly rounded, all the stride distinct, but fine, with small distant punc- 
tures at bottom, interstrial spaces finely, irregularly and rather closely 
punctate. Beneath somewhat finely and closely punctured. Dilated por- 
tion of posterior coxal plates rounded at tip. Length 1 1 mm. 

Taken near Brownsville, Texas, by C. H. T. Townsend and myself, 
in heads of Yucca during July. Differs from P. ftiscultis by the closely 
punctured head. It is quite closely allied to the Mexican P. frontalis, 
Cand. The Central American species are said by Champion to occur 
mostly in forest clearings, and are collected by beating branches of trees. 

Chrysobothris, Esch. 

C. "Piiita, n. sp. — Form oblong, subdepressed, bronzed, shining, 
head bright reddish cupreous, front green ; pronolum reddish cupreous, 



68 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

bluish at base ; elytra bronzed, but much less brilliant than the thorax, 
the basal half, excepting the sutural and lateral margins and foveas, dark 
bluish and more opaque ; body beneath dark bronze, with whitish pubes- 
cence, which forms denser patches on the meso- and metathoracic side 
pieces and on the sides of the ventral segments. Antennae greenish- 
bronze, slightly more slender to tip, third joint scarcely equal to the next 
two. Front deeply and quite regularly punctured, the punctures sepa- 
rated by about their own diameters, callosities indistinct, pubescence 
whitish, conspicuous. Clypeus broadly and obtusely triangularly emar- 
ginate, angles of emargination not rounded. Thorax about one-half 
broader than long, front margin slightly bisinuate when viewed from above, 
anterior angles obtuse, slightly rounded, sides nearly straight, but con- 
verging a trifle to near the base, whence they are suddenly sinuately nar- 
rowed to the hind angles ; disc convex, regular, the punctuation deep, 
well separated at middle, but becoming coarser and more crowded near 
the lateral margins and at sides of base, where it appears substrigose, but 
is scarcely confluent, median line obliterated in front, the posterior half 
smooth and shining, not impressed nor channelled. Elytra distinctly 
wider than the thorax, sides nearly parallel to about the apical third, 
whence they are narrowed to the separately rounded tips, serrations fine, 
numerous ; costa^ obliterated, except the exterior one, which is distinct on 
the humerus and near the middle of its length, but becomes evanescent be- 
hind ; impressions deep, arranged thus : a basal bronzed rounded one on 
each side of the scutellum, exterior t(^ which is a shallower crescentic maik, 
not bronzed, extending iVom just within the humeral prominence to the 
suture. Behind this is a transverse bronzed indentation, wider externally, 
reaching. nearly to the suture, while still posterior to this is another less 
distinct impression, which fades gradually into the cupreous area behind 
it. The punctuation of the elylral disc is f.iiily deep and well defined, 
but becomes scabrous at sides and towards the tips. Body beneath 
densely punctured, exce])t on the median area of the abdomen, which is 
more shining. Prosternum lobed, hairy, without median smooth space. 
Last ventral with serrulate margin, coarsely, closely jumctured, tii) with a 
rounded emargination. Anterior tibi:« with apical dilatation about as in 
mail, tooth of femur indistinctly serrulate, middle tibiae slightly arcuate, 
not angulaily sinuate within, hind tibiic straight. Length, 6.5 mm. 

This species belongs in Horn's group IV., and may be i)laced near 
mali, from which it differs by the usually small size, contrasting colours, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 69 



obliteration of the frontal chevrons and elytral costpe, the non-sulcation of 
the median thoracic line and by other characters. The description is 
drawn up from a male ; the female differs thus : last ventral broadly 
triang'ularly emarginate, with an indication of a lobe in the bottom of the 
emargination, as in chrysoela ; however, this structure is a trifle un- 
symmetrical. and nviy be accidental. The prostcrnum is more coarsely 
punctured and less hairy than in the male, the anterior tibiae are not 
dilated at tip, and the middle tibiae are straight, while the front of 
the head is entirely cupreous. 

The name refers to the tribe of Indians inhabiting the neighbourhood 
from which the beetle came. The type was taken with two other slightly 
smaller specimens, by beating desert shrubs near Independence, in 
Owen's Valley, California, during the month of July. A female from 
Williams, Arizona, is somewhat more strongly sculptured, and the under 
side of the body is bluish. 

Agrilus, Steph. 

The species described below seem to be well marked and easily 
recognizable, and thus worth describing separately. It is probable that 
the impetus given to the study of the genus through Dr. Horn's 
monograph will result in the detection of a number of undescribed forms. 

A. pifialicus, n. sp. — Rather more robust and less narrowed behind 
than usual. Head, thorax and scutellum blue-black ; elytra metallic 
green, with a dark sutural stripe. Antennas short, blackish, serrations 
beginning on the fourth joint. Front of head deeply and broadly 
channelled, the sulcus extending from the occiput on to the clypeus, the 
bottom clothed with close, snow-white pubescence ; surface of head 
granulate behind the eyes, the remainder, where visible, transversely 
rugose. Thorax broader than long, wider in front of the middle margin, 
sinuous in lateral view ; surface somewhat irregularly convex, closely 
strigose, the strigte transverse in front, oblique near the base and over 
most of the disc, longitudinal near the sides ; median line fine, distinct 
near the base, interrupted about the middle ; sides slightly arcuate, 
sinuate near the base, hind angles nearly rectangular, not carinate, front 
angles with a longitudinal sjiot of white pubescence, which diverges 
a little from the margin posteriorly and does not reach the middle of its 
length. Scutellum rough, not carinate. Elytra with the sides sinuate, 
apices separately rounded, margin serrulate posteriorly, surface granulate, 
a snow-white spot of pubescence on each side near the scutellum, which 



70 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

may possibly extend at times down the dark sutural space described 
above, as this region shows evidence of scales in places ; costa obliterated. 
Body beneath almost entirely concealed by white pubescence, the ex- 
posed portions imbricate-punctate, the abdomen more finely so. Last 
ventral serrate at sides. Pygidium with a projecting carina, which 
is truncate at tip. Legs sparsely pubescent. Length, g mm. 

The type is a female taken in October at Parker's Well, on the 
eastern side of the Organ Mountains, New Mexico, by Theo. D. A. 
Cockerell, and bears his number, 5295. Another specimen which I 
collected during June, in the Pinal Mountains, Arizona, differs in colour, 
the head being cupreous, the elytra red-bronze with green sutural space. 
The under side of the body and the legs are also brightly bronzed, 
the pleura and margins of the ventral segments darker. In other respects 
the two correspond. 

This beetle belongs near Agrilus audax, Horn, but differs in having 
a non-carinate scutellum and by the arrangement of the pubescence. The 
claws are sharply and strongly toothed beyond the middle, the inner 
division not notably inflexed. 

A. niercurius, n. sp. — Rather robust, olivaceous bronze ; elytra and 
thorax vittate with white pubescence. Head coarsely and confluently 
punctured, front covered with rather long white hairs, median line faint. 
Antennas passing the middle of the thorax, serrate from the fifth joint. 
Thorax broader than long, sides arcuate, but less so than in blandus, 
sinuate in front of the hind angles, which are not carinate, disc gibbous, a 
faint depression posteriorly in place of the median line, surface coarsely, 
densely ])unctate, forming more or less distinct concentric strigae, which 
are stronger anteriorly, margin sinuous in profile ; on each side is a large 
spot of white pubescence, beginning at the anterior angle and extending 
to behind the middle, this s|)Ot confluent above with a longitudinal stripe 
of the same colour, which extends from a point on the thoracic disc op- 
l)osite the apex of the gibbosity to base, where it meets the elytral vitta. 
Scutellum not carinate. Elytra not covering the sides and tip of abdomen, 
coarsely scabro-punctate, not costate, margin serrulate posteriorly, apices 
obtuse, disc of each elytron with a vitta of perfectly white pubescence ex- 
tending from base, where it is confluent with the corresponding thoracic 
stripe, to the apex. Pygidium with a fine carina, which does not project- 
Prosternal lobe well developed, with a broad, slightly indented, rounded 
emargination on front margin, presternum densely clothed with white 



THE CANAPIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 71 



hairs ; the prosternal, mesosternal and metasternal side pieces are densely 
pubescent with white, as is also the vertical portion of the ventral segments, 
there being in addition a row of four rounded spots of the same colour and 
nature on each side of the abdominal region. The visible portions of the 
under surface are distinctly imbricately punctate. Claws with a rather 
broad, sharp tooth, which is not notably inflexed. Length, 6 mm. 

Allied to A. i?/and?is, Horn, from which the gibbous pronotum and 
non-carinate scutellum will separate it. It rather closely approaches A. 
gibbicollis. Fall, but may be distinguished by the emarginate presternum, 
non-carinate thoracic angles, and presumably by the ornamentation, as 
Fall makes no mention of discal thoracic vitt^e, nor of lateral abdominal' 
spots inside of the vertical stripe. 

The type was taken by myself at Deming, New Mexico, August i8, 
and is apparently a male. The first and second ventrals are vaguely 
longitudinally impressed at middle. 

EuGASTRA, Lee. 

In describing a species under the above generic caption, I do 
not wish to be understood as favoring the separation of Eugasira from 
Laclmosterna because of any supposed great structural differences. I am 
merely following the example of Mr. Bates, who, in the Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, expresses the opinion that on account of the unwieldy size of 
the old genus Lachnosterna, it is advisable to retain certain names 
to indicate more or less well-defined groups, which may eventually be 
limited in some more satisfactory manner than is possible at present. 

E. epigcea, n. sp.— Subovate, obtuse behind, convex, nearly black, 
slightly shming. Clypeus barely perceptibly emarginate in front in 
the male, more distinctly so in the female, densely, deeply and coarsely 
punctured, margin reflexed ; front punctured like the clypeus, occiput less 
strongly. Thorax about one-half broader than long, widest about the 
middle, which is rather sharply rounded, almost subangulate ; margin 
coarsely serrate, sparsely fimbriate ; surface coarsely, somewhat deeply 
punctured, densely in the neighbourhood of the anterior angles, more 
sparsely and irregularly on the disc, where smooth spaces are left ; median 
line obliterated. Scutellum shorter in the female than in the male, 
sublriangular in the latter sex, a few large serial punctures along the sides. 
Elytra with basal margin a little elevated on each side of the scutellum, 
form broadly oval, surface even, not sulcate or costate, except that the 
longitudinal line on each side of the suture is well marked ; disc with 



72 THE CANADIA.N ENTOMOLOGIST. 



rather large, deep, coarse punctures, which are separated by about their 
own diameters, but become finer and shallower at sides and towards the 
tip. Pygidium alutaceous, not distinctly punctured, though large, sparsely 
jilaced, shallow punctures are indistinctly indicated. Sterna coarsely, 
not very closely, punctate; metasternal hairs extremely short and sparse. 
Abdomen rather indistinctly and much more finely punctured. Legs 
stout, claws arcuate. Length, 1 2.5-14 mm. 

Male : Body winged. Antennal club shorter than the funiculus. 
Abdomen broadly, vaguely impressed at middle. Spurs of posterior 
tibiae slender, curved, free ; hind tarsi slender, much longer than the 
tibife. Claws not or barely perceptibly toothed. 

Female : Body apterous. Antennal club a little smaller. Abdomen 
more convex, without median impression. Posterior tibial spurs broader; 
hind tarsi shorter than in the male. All of the claws are toothed, 
the tooth being short, sharp and erect, nearer the base than the apex. 

This insect occurs occasionally, crawling on the ground, at Del Rio, 
Alpine and Marfa, Texas, during June, July and August. It belongs near 
E. cribrosa, Lee, but is distinct by numerous characters. 

Ologlyptus, Lacordaire. 

It is well known that our common Ologlyptus anastomosis, Say, varies 
considerably in size and outline, as well as in the distinctness of the elytra! 
costaj. Besides a considerable series of that insect from Kansas, Colorado, 
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, I have in my cabinet anothe.- species 
which seems to be quite different from any of the Mexican forms described 
by Champion in the Biologia Centrali-Americana. It may be recognized 
by the characters noted below. 

O. Texanus, n. sp. — Blackish, covered with yellowish scales. Rather 
elongate, somewhat flattened above. Head covered with yellowish scales, 
which completely conceal the sculpture, antennae much heavier than in O. 
anastomosis. Thorax transverse, broadest at about the middle, disc con- 
vex, bifoveate, a fine distinct median carina, which is bifurcate at base, 
lateral margin thickened, explanate, and rather widely reflexed; the 
anterior margin is dee])ly emarginate, the base slightly bisinuate, 
sides very strongly rounded, more suddenly so posteriorly, a strong 
constriction in front of the hind angles, which are distinctly acute 
and rather i)rominent ; front angles acute, feebly rounded. Elytra 
about as wide as the broadest part of the thorax, almost parallel to 
a point about one-third from the tip, thence suddenly sinuately narrowed, 



tHE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 73 

apices conjointly rounded. The suture is elevated posteriorly, costae three 
in number, arranged thus : first nearly straight, parallel to the suture, 
reaching the base but abbreviated at apex ; second parallel to the first, 
slightly shorter at each end ; third forming an overhanging margin to 
elytron, until it reaches a point just beyond the tip of the second, when it 
curves in and becomes discal, but fades out before attaining the elytral 
apex. None of the cost?e are confluent at any point. Body beneath with 
large scale-bearing punctures, distant on the abdomen, but more approxi- 
mate on the thoracic segments. Legs densely scaly and comparatively 
stouter than in anastomosis. Length, 9 mm. 

This beetle can be separated from O. anastomosis at a glance, the 
thoracic characters alone being amply sufficient for its differentiation, while 
the elytra are unlike those of the former species in shape as well as in 
ornamentation. From the antennae alone, one might doubt the propriety 
of the generic reference, but the deflexed apex of the presternum excludes 
the insect from Astrotus. The type was taken in Cameron Cotmty, Texas, 
during the month of September, by Frank B. Armstrong. 

Pyrota, Lee. 

Several years ago I received specimens of a beetle belonging to the 
above genus, which, by its antennal characters, approaches CantJiaris, 
recalling in its general appearance C. bigutaita, though, of course, not to 
a deceptive degree. After a study of the material, I concluded that the 
species was undescribed, and wrote to Dr. Geo. H. Horn, asking 
his opinion. This coincided with my own, and as the insect seems 
to have been taken in some abundance, and is probably represented 
in numerous collections, I projiose to name it after the State in which it 
occurs. 

F. Dakotana, n. sp. — Elongate, head and thorax shining, elytra 
much less so. Above yellow, thorax with two small blackish discal spots, 
one on each side of the middle line ; elytra each with a narrow, nearly 
straight longitudinal blackish stripe, which does not reach the apex nor 
the base, and is somewhat more distant from the suture than from 
the lateral margin. Head yellow, sjjarsely, irregularly and rather coarsely 
punctured ; sides behind the eyes almost exactly parallel for a short 
distance ; hind angles broadly rounded. Antenna? shorter and stouter 
than usual, blackish, first joint paler at base, third joint longer than the 
fourth. Palpi blackish. Thorax cam])anulate, widest behind the middle, 
sides rounded, less so anteriorly, where they are rapidly convergent; basal 



74 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



margin elevated ; disc irregularly punctate, a rather large fovea in front of 
the scutellum. Scutellum yellow. Elytra distinctly scabrous, subopaque 
to the naked eye, shining under a lens, finely sparsely pubescent ; costse 
faintly indicated. Body beneath alutaceous, very finely scabrous, the 
meso- and metathoracic regions rougher than the rest. Legs yellow, 
knees, tips of tibiae and tarsi blackish. Length, lo to 12 mm. 

Eight specimens are before me, all taken at Pierre, South Dakota, by 
the late P. C. Truman. The principal variation in markings consists of a 
tendency to loss of the elytral stripe, although one strongly-developed 
specimen, with the vitta well marked, has the suture dark for the greater 
part of its length. The under surface of the body is always more or less 
blackish, sometimes almost entirely so except the prothoracic region, which 
remains yellow. In one case, the anterior tibise are blackish to base. By 
the form of the head, this insect is allied to P. hitulata and P. Germari, 
being close to the latter in several respects, but Dakotana has shorter and 
thicker antenn?e. The style of ornamentation and the opacity of the 
elytra will at once distinguish it from bilineata. The maxillary palpi are 
not deformed in the male, the last joint being but slightly modified. 



MY LAST REPLY TO MAJOR CASEY. 

BY E. WASMANN, S. J., LUXEMBURG. 

In Dr. David Sharp's "Zoological Record, Insects," 1901, I find in 
the list of my publications of that year, under the title, 1449, ''On some 
genera of Staphylinidce described by Thos. L. Casey,'" the following note : 
" Casey replies to this, I. c, pp. jj2, 313.'' 

As I do not receive American journals here, I tried to get the 
respective nos. of the Canadian Entomologist from one of my friends. 
Being informed now of the contents of Major Casey's " reply," I 
understand why he did not send it to me, although I had sent him a copy 
of my critic paper ''■On some genera of Staphylinidoi" already, Nov. 
2nd, 1901. 

The manner in which Major Casey has treated our scientific 
controversy differs far from my own in the article cited above 
(Canad. Entom., Sept., 1901, p. 249-252). In an angry tone he 
reproaches me of " disingenuousness," "narrow-mindedness," etc.; he 
even tries to misinterpret my own personal correspondence with him 
in a way (juite new in scientific discussion. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 75 

The psychological connection of my cards written to Major Casey, 
from March to June, 1901, is very simple, and I wonder why Major 
Casey did not find it out himself. The paper containing his new note on 
the genera Homceusa, Myrmobiota and So/iusa was entitled ^''Review of 
the American Corylophidce, Crypiophagidce, Tritotnidce and Dermistidce, 
with other studies,^' comprising 121 pages. I informed him on March 
5th of the receipt of this paper, without suspecting that it contained 
something about Homoeusa and Myrmobiota. Only myrmocophilous 
genera being of special interest for me, I did not examine more closely 
Major Casey's ample paper on Corylophidce. etc.; therefore, when I 
asked Major Casey again (June ist) to send me his last paper, where he 
explained the differences of Homoeusa and Myrmobiota, it was not 
necessary for him to send me a second copy of his paper on Corylophidce, 
etc., but he might have simply informed me that the paper in question was 
pp. 53-55 of his study on Corylophidce. Instead of falling on this 
very simple explanation of the appearing contradiction in my cards. Major 
Casey has given them a rather injurious interpretation, which I much regret 
for Major Casey's own sake. 



ARATUS LUTEOLUS, N. SP. 

BY REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, LEVIS, QUEBEC. 

Length, .35 inch. Head dark fawn colour, scabrous, much prolonged 
between the antennae, the prolongation suggestive of the nose of the 
moose. Eyes upon rounded elevations, black and protuberant. The 
antennary spine stout, sharp and projecting. Antennae reddish brown 
above, olivaceous beneath ; the joint next the spine distinct and square 
cut and of greater diameter than that following it. Beak black, long, 
extending between the front legs. Prothorax dark umber in colour^ 
concave in fronts the concavity ending on either side with a short spine. 
From the bases of these spines the sides (which are finely denticulated) 
run direct to the widest part of the prothorax ; from thence they are 
rounded to the back, forming a pair of clay-yellow epaulets, which extend 
beyond the slightly-curved remainder of the back line. Down the middle 
of the prothorax are two carince, nearly parallel, extending from back to 
front. The shield is narrow at the ba.-^e, and runs back to an acute angle; 
its margins are reflexed. The costal edge of each elytron forms a double 
curve : it is first convex and then slightly concave. The corium is broad 
at the base, narrowed beyond the shield, and rounded at the tips. It is 



76 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Strongly ribbed, and is clay-yellow in colour, mottled with fulvous, and is 
darker towards the tips. The membrane is roseate brown, and has 
a yellow patch on the costa and another at the base. The legs are 
reddish brown above and olivaceous beneath, paler at the joints; the thighs 
are but slightly dilated. The abdomen is ovate, flattened, and extends 
beyond the elytra. It is of a roseate brown. On either side of it are six 
sutures marked with yellow. The anal segment ends in a pair of incurved 
lobes. The whole of the under side is lighter in colour than the upper. 
Taken at Quebec. 



A NEW ANAPHORID, AND A NOTE ON AN OLD ONE. 

BV HARRISON G. DYAR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Eulepiste Kearfottl, n. sp. 

Gray, with a reddish ochreous tint, brighter in an obscure streak 
beyond cell and on submedian fold. A series of black strigse along the 
costa and on fringe : a small dash beyond cell, and an oblique bar 
in submedian fold beyond middle. Hind wing blackish, fringe long, pale, 
interlined with blackish. Below, blackish, with a pale line at the base of 
the fringe. Expanse, 22 mm. 

Two males from Mr. W. D. Kearfott's collection, "Yuma Co., Ariz. 
Desert." 

Larger than the other species of Eulepiste, and differing in the 
genitalia. Uncus a single long spine, curving downward, opposed to a 
broad, concave basal plate. Side pieces strap-shaped or slightly concave, 
curved downward, and with a distinct spine on the lower angle. 

U. S. National Museum, type No. 6734. 

Pseuiianaphora mora, Grote. 

In 1895 Lord Walsingham examined Grote's type in the British 
Museum, and thought it might be the female of P. arcanella, Clem., 
overlooking the description of the true female of this species by 
BeutenmuUer (Ent. Amer. IV., 29, 1S88). I have now before me ten 
females and eight males of mora from localities in New York, 
Pennsylvania and tiie District of Columbia, a majority of them taken by 
Mr. F. A. Merrick, at New Brighton, Pa. (see Proc. Ent. Soc, Wash., V. 
40, 1902). There is a marked sexual dimorphism, the male being nearly 
uniformly blackish, and the female of a light ochreous ground colour. 
The species is very distinct from arcanella. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 77 

NOTE ON CTENUCHA CRESSONANA AND VENOSA. 

BV A. RADCLIFFE GROTE, HILDESHEIM, GERMANY. 

In Sir George Hampson's volume on the Syntomids, Cat. Lep. 
Phalaenae, Vol. I., London, 1898, Ctenucha Cressonana is referred as a 
synonym to C. venosa, but erroneously so. Both species inhabit our 
North American territory, but C. venosa has the wider and more southern 
range, extending probably from Arizona, through Mexico, into South 
America. I know C. Cressonana from Colorado and New Mexico only ; 
this larger form is also variable in the colours of the stripes of the wing, 
whereas C. venosa is quite constant, so far as the examples I have been 
able to examine are concerned. I give liere the comparative descriptions 
of the two species : 
Ctenucha venosa. Walker. Brit. Mus. Lists Lep., IL, 284 (1854). 

Smaller, averaging 38 mil. in expanse ; two terminal joints of palpi 
brownish black, basal joint orange red. Costa of primaries striped with 
yellow ochre, shading into white over apical third ; a similar stripe over 
M \, not reaching margin. Cubitus and the fork of J/ 2 and 3 striped 
with the same shade, as well as an internal stripe over A 2. Fringes 
white, broadly interrupted with brownish black at the middle on both 
wings. 

The material in B. Mus. is probably all C. venosa, 

Ctenucha Cressonana, Grote. Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil, IL, 64 (1863). 

Larger, averaging 45 mil. in expanse. Antennae more lengthily 
pectinate ; only the terminal joint of palpi brownish black, the rest 
■orange red. Costa of primaries striped with yellow ochre, hardly paler 
towards tips. No stripe on M r; at most, in one specimen, a very faint 
and narrow indication. Fringes entirely white, at base showing some 
scattered black scales not medially interrupted. 

Typical form : stripes on primaries pure white ; costa ochre yellow. 

var. hitea, Grote : stripes ochre yellow \ costa orange red. 

It has been suggested to me in a letter that C. sanguinaria is a form 
■ot C CressonaJia with the stripes scarlet. I have not seen this latter 
species, which appears to be a still larger form. 



78 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



A NEW BUTTERFLY FROM TEXAS. 

BY G. M. DODGE, LOUISIANA, MO. 

Nisoniades Llano, n. sp. 

Expanse about one inch. Primaries with inner two-thirds black,, 
marked by a triangular brown patch near base, resting on internal margin;; 
a large similarly-coloured patch at outer end of cell, touching the costa, 
and bordered by a pale-brown line, which, starting from the costa about 
one-third of the distance from the apex, curves outward opposite the 
discal cell, and runs diagonally across to about the middle of the inner 
margin, and is twinned at its lower extremity by a similar line, which 
precedes it, and extends from inner margin to just across the median vein> 

The outer third of the wing is crossed by two bluish-gray, curved 
bands, the inner being about twice the width of the other. They 
are separated by a narrow dark line. The outer band seems to be 
composed of small whitish spots, but that and the fringe are covered by 
bluish-gray scales. At the inner angle the fringe is slightly tipped with 
white. 

The posteriors are crossed by an irregularly-curved band of large 
diffuse pale spots submarginally. A short row of similar spots lies across 
the discal area, and two or three such spots appear between this last and 
the base. The wing is thus transversely divided into three dark and 
three light spaces or bands. The fringe is white, dusky at the angles, and 
with black spots on its base at the extremity of the veins. Below, the 
primaries are dark, with a single small, but conspicuous, white spot near 
apex, between the second and third subcostal nervures. A regularly- 
curved band of pale spots corresponds to the broad band above, 
and beyond this is a terminal row of small, somewhat indistinct, spots. 
The fringe is dark, with white at inner angle and some white spots along 
its base, extending in a row nearly to the apex. Secondaries marked as 
above, but the spots are smaller, better defined, and do not give the wing 
the banded appearance so conspicuous on the upper side. 

One example, Llano County, Texas. 



Mailed February 28th, 1903. 



I|e €aitartiait Jntanialaijbt. 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, APRIL, 1903. No. 4 



THE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OE THE AMERICAN ASSOCI- 
ATION EOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

(Continued from page 61.) 

Friday Evening, January 2, 1903. 
The Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S. was called together for its 
second regular session on Friday evening at 7.30 o'clock, in the Columbia 
Law School, with the President, Mr. Schwarz, in the chair, and the 
following members present : Messrs. Althouse, Barber, Bradley, Burke, 
Currie, Hines, Hopkins, Mann, Marlatt, Herbert Osborii, Osburn, 
Quaintance, Webb. The minutes of the last meeting were read and 
approved. The President called on Mr. Marlatt for some entomological 
notes, and the latter responded by giving an account of an entomological 
collecting trip on a tour of investigation made in the interior of China, 
west of Shanghai, on a house-boat, in the late autumn of 1901. 

A House-boat Collecting Trip in China. 

BY C. L. iMARLATT, 

Mr. President, I can give you some account of conditions in China, 
partly entomological. This is an informal meeting, with no set pro- 
gramme, and what I shall present will not necessarily relate to insects. I 
had some very interesting experiences in China, and perhaps the most 
interesting of these was a trip that I made on a house-boat into the interior 
from Shanghai. I have alluded to this trip on one or two earlier occasions 
without having gone at all into detail. The trip was an entomological 
exploration, but the entomological features were not very rich. 

The region explored in this trip is the flat country lying between the 
Yang-tse river and the Bay of Hangchow and the great interior lake, 
Ta-Hu. It included a trip up the Whang-Poo river, on which Shanghai is 
situated, to its head waters, where it is continued in the considerable canal, 
passing several Chinese cities of some importance until the Grand Canal 
is reached at Ka-Shing. From this point the Grand Canal was followed 
as far as Samen, and then a detour was made through smaller interior 
canals to Haining, a considerable tow  ",ty and in sight of Hang- 



80 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



chow. The return trip was made over substantially the same route. All 
of the territory explored lies in the upper half of the province of Che- 
Kiang. 

The Boxer troubles were all confined to three northern provinces 
about Peking. The region which I explored in this house-boat trip 
was not in the range of the Boxer difiiculty, nevertheless the Chinese 
everywhere were more or less savage over the results of the foreign 
invasions — rightly so, I think — and while in the central and southern 
provinces they were not openly hostile, they were not exactly kindly "dis- 
posed toward the foreigner. 

While in Japan I had made the acquaintance of some very charming 
people who reside in Shanghai, and who promised me that when I came 
to Shanghai they would give me a house-boat trip into the interior. At 
the conclusion of my investigation in North China, the opportunity came 
for this house-boat trip, but the gentleman who was to accompany me, 
Mr. Rainer, was just starting for Europe. Nevertheless, he turned his 
house-boat over to me, and a very comfortable boat it was, and stocked it 
with all sorts of provisions, and employed for me a crew of seven China- 
men, including a " Laodah " or captain who spoke a little English, the 
balance of the crew being coolies who spoke no English at ail. In com- 
pany with Mrs. Marlatt, I started out late one night from the city of 
Shanghai, my little house-boat being attached to a row of seven or eight 
Chinese boats, like a train of cars, all towed by a little steam tug. We 
were thus taken up the river and into the interior canal system. 

It may be said that much of Eastern China is a flat country, raised 
above the level of the sea only a few feet, and all this area is broken up 
by innumerable canals, which take the place of roads. The Grand Canal 
of China runs from Hangchow for hundreds of miles northward, crossing 
the great Yang-tse and Yellow rivers, until it finally reaches Peking. It is an 
enormous canal, running, so far as I know, its entire length without 
locks, on a uniform level. We cannot imagine such a condition anywhere 
else in the world except in China ; nowhere else could a canal be run for 
such a length and across the great rivers on the water level as this and 
others do in China. 

The morning after our start found us in this netvi^ork of canals, 
abandoned by our campanion boats and little steam tug, and making the 
slow progress possible with a single stern oar. We passed many Chinese 
towns and villages, and finally struck the Grand Canal, which we followed 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 81 



for a considerable distance, to leave it again for a long country detour, 
which finally brought us to the town of Haining. This is just below and 
in sight of the great town of Hangchow, situated at the southern terminus 
of tlie (Irand Canal. Some of the branch or interior canals are large and 
important, or perhaps streams widened and straightened ; others are 
narrow, and some of them mere ditches, scarcely large enough for the boat 
to go through, and with numerous stone bridges which offered serious 
obstacles to our progress. 

You can easily imagine that a trip of this sort was very interesting. 
It afforded wonderfully good opportunities to gain an acquaintance with 
the whole interior flat country of this portion of China. It was possible 
any time to leave the boat and get out and walk along the side of the 
canal. As stated, the boat v/as propelled, after the first night, merely by 
tlie single oar at the stern, "eulowing" it is called, and the speed was about 
that of a slow walk, so there was plenty of opportunity to take runs across 
country, see the nature of the vegetation and the system of cultivation, to 
study the orchards and house yards, and to make collections, and this I 
was doing all the time at great risk of being bitten by Chinese dogs, 
which share their owners' antipathy to the " foreign white devil." 

The portion of China explored in this way is about the equivalent in 
latitude with northern Florida and southern Georgia, and is the northern 
limit of the citrus region. Immediately back of Shanghai the peach is the 
important fruit crop; in fact, this is the great peach region of China. I 
examined a great many of these orchards and went into a great many 
house yards, always being threatened viciously by dogs, and stared at with 
coldness, if not savagely, by the Chinese. Very rarely did I find a China- 
man who was at all pleasant in his demeanor, quite the opposite in this 
respect of the conditions in Japan. Collections of scale insects were made 
through this region, but they were very rare. The whole region is exces- 
sively moist and hot in summer, resulting in very general fungous attack, 
so that, with the exception of one or two species, wherever I found any 
scale insects they were simply the remains of small colonies killed by 
fungus. There was scarcely a living scale insect to be found at this season 
of the year — late October. 

The citrus fruits, which began to appear at Haining, were examined 
for scale insects, and here and at some near-by towns and villages a few 
citrus scale insects were collected. A few species also were found on the 
mulberry. The country traversed is a great silk, cotton and rice produc- 



82 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ing region. Cotton is more abundantly grown immediately west of the 
city of Shanghai, and rice in the back country. The tea districts are still 
further westward in the hill country. Another great tea region lies back of 
Hong Kong. 

The scale insects found on the citrus trees were mostly common 
species, now cosmopolitan, such as the Parlatoria ziziphi and Perga/idei, 
and the two Mytilaspis species, M. Gloveri and M. citricola. All of these 
were very rare, usually but one or two examples being found. 

In regard to the climate of the region described, it may be said to be 
characterized by excessive moisture from the early spring to past mid- 
summer, accompanied with very high temperature during July and August, 
100° F. for several days not being uncommon. In autumn the prevailing 
conditions are bright days and dry weather, and the winter temperature 
may fall to 12° F. or lower. Scale insects, as noted, are killed out, with 
the exception of a few species, by this excessive moisture and high tem- 
perature. 

The region to the north, extending to the mountains above Peking and 
connecting with the great Gobi desert, is much drier, the rains all coming 
in the spring and early summer, and a long period of six or seven months 
following, from September to February or March, with no rain, every day 
bright, sunny and dry, except for occasional dust storms from the desert. 
In this northern region it is very cold in winter. 

The only scale insect which seems to thrive in central China, from 
Shanghai westward to the Grand Canal, is one of the Ceroplastes, probably 
Ceroplastes riibefis. This species of wax scale occurs all through this 
region, and is especially abundant on the holly, sometimes absolutely 
covering this plant, leaf and branch. It occurs scatteringly also on many 
other plants. Climatic conditions do not check this scale insect, which is 
kept down somewhat, however, by predaceous ladybirds, especially the 
Chilocorus similis, which was always with it in numbers and feeds on the 
larval scales. 

Other insect damage was very little in evidence. Not being a specialist 
in Coleoptera, I was not fitted to make collections of injurious beetles, but 
in going through the mulberry groves, peach orchards, etc.,. there certainly 
was no evidence of serious insect damage. In other words, I did not see 
any evidence of the work of borers in mulberry or peach. In the case of 
the mulberry the trees were wonderfully healthy, covered with an enormous 
crop of the second growth of leaves. The Chinese at the time of my trip 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 83 

— in October— were busily stripping the trees of these leaves, and carrying 
them away in great baskets, to be used as winter forage — all of the second 
crop of leaves being made use of in that way. 

Wherever I went there was ample evidence of the importance of the 
silk industry. In the little hamlets and farmhouses that I entered I fre- 
quently found the fittings for silkworm rearing. At this season the old 
baskets — great, flat, narrow-rimmed ones — in which the silkworms are fed 
in May and June, were being used to dry the late crop of cotton bolls. 
One frequently saw rows of these baskets in the house yards overspread 
wiih a small lot of bolls exposed to the sun to hasten their opening. 

The mulberry is grown in little orchards or narrow groves lining the 
banks of the canals and irrigating ditches. The trees have the appearance 
of osier-willow stumps from the habit of the natives of cutting off all the 
shoots close to the stump during the feeding season, in May and June. 
These shoots are either stripped at once of their leaves, or are made up 
into bundles and taken home to be stripped afterwards. A traveller 
going through this same region in midsummer has noted that all the mul- 
berries have a wintry appearance, or resemble a collection of dead stumps, 
but the rains which fall copiously during June and July, and the natural 
fertility of the soil, which is increased by cultivation and fertilizing immedi- 
ately after the branches are removed, soon bring out a succulent new 
growth, developing a second and enormous crop of leaves, the same, in 
fact, which were being gathered at the season of the year of my visit. The 
traveller referred to above, Mr. Fortune, says that the worms are fed in the 
numerous little farm cottages, commonly in dark rooms fitted up with 
shelves placed one above another from the ground to the roof of the house. 
The worms are kept in the big bamboo sieves or baskets already described, 
evidently exactly after the manner which I had observed in Japan. The silk 
products of this district are considered among the finest of China, and the 
output must be very considerable. Those interested in the culture of the 
silkworm from the native Chinese standpoint, should see the little transla- 
tion made by a missionary of an old Chinese work on the subject, which 
recently came into the possession of the Department of Agriculture. 

The country penetrated is practically without forest areas. The main 
cultures, as stated, are rice and cotton, with the mulberry growing in little 
orchard strips along the banks of the canals. Usually at each farmhouse 
there would be a few trees — peach, plum, etc. The common shade trees 
are the weeping willow, occurring scatteringly along the canals, a species 



84 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



of elm, and the maiden-hair tree, with occasional small clumps of bamboo, 
usually as yard plants, or in the cemeteries of the rich, where also may 
occur a (evf pines and the Cryptomeria japonica. There is little, there- 
fore, to give a forest clothing to the country, but if one climbs any of the 
many-storied pagodas which occurred from time to time and takes a look 
over the country, the abundance of the mulberry as seen in profile and the 
few trees noted about the hamlets and cemeteries makes the country look 
fiiirly well forested. 

This region, as stated at the outset, had not been reached by the 
Boxer movement, and we felt perfectly safe in going about alone and with 
no knowledge of the language. We took all our provisions with us, and 
were not dependent on the Chinese for anything, except some birds or 
game which our " Laodah " got for us. 

This trip through the interior offered opportunities to study other 
forms of insects, especially mosquitoes. I collected at Hainingsome very 
interesting mosquitoes, including a rare species of Anopheles (A. Sinensis 
va?n(s), as determined by Mr. Coquillett. The nights were spent on the 
canal in the boat, and we were bitten a good many times by these 
Anopheles. They were very difficult fellows to catch; in other words, the 
boat was open, and they would fly out before morning, but I managed to 
get a number of specimens. Mosquitoes, however, instead of being 
abundant, as one would have supposed in an open country devoted to rice 
culture and under water much of the year, and intersected with canals, 
which are permanent waterways, were very little in evidence, and, in point 
of fact, except at Haining, we were not troubled by them at all. 



Mann : Did you find anybody who knew anything about entomology.? 

Marlatt : Tiiere is in Shanghai a Mr. A. Arthur, an Englishman, 
formerly connected widi the Kew Gardens, and now in charge of the 
Botanical Garden, and of all the street reservations and cemeteries, etc., 
belonging to the European portion of Shanghai. He knew a little as a 
gardener would about insects. 

Mann : No native entomologists? 

Marlatt : No native entomologists. A missionary. Dr. Barchet, 
who acts as interpreter for the American Legation, and lives near Shanghai, 
is an amateur botanist of some note, and has collected and studied the 
plants of this region for twenty-five years in connection with a German 
botanist. Dr. Faber, who is to be credited with much of our knowledge of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. So 



Chinese botany. A good many of the plants in the Kew Gardens were 
obtained tlirough these two men, especially Dr. Faber. Some years since, 
Dr. Faber, who was also a missionary, went into the interior of China and 
took his '(lants with him, and died there, and his collection is supposed to 
have been lost. Dr. Barchet has a duplicate, in part, of the Faber collec- 
tion, and I went through it, especially the Rosaceae, and examined the 
wild cherry, apple, pear, Cratjegus, etc., which had been collected in the 
hill country further inland than I had reached, with the hope of finding 
some insects on the herbarium specimens, and also to get some knowledge 
of these wild fruits. But of entomological workers there are none in 
Shanghai. 

Foreign collectors have done a great deal of work in China, notably 
a wealthy Englishman, the late Dr. John Henry Leech, who spent several 
years collecting Lepidoptera in China, and was for a time the owner of 
'• The Entomologist." Much of the results is included in his " Butterflies 
from China, Japan, and Corea," a sumptuous 3-vol. work. I met, oddly 
enough, in going from Shanghai southward, a brother of Mr. Leech, who, 
however, has no special interest in entomology, but is an attache of the 
British Legation in Rome, and was taking a vacation trip around the 
world. 

\Vhile there has been a good deal of insect collecting in China, the 
greater portion of the country is absolutely unexplored entomologically. 
Very few foreigners have ever gone through the interior provinces, and 
in some of these the inhabitants are savage and unfriendly. In the vicinity 
of all the trading towns there has been some collecting, but the interior 
region is practically unexplored by scientists — that is, by collectors of 
plants or insects. Plants have been studied, and especially the horticul- 
tural sorts, more than insects, and explorers were sent out by the Horti- 
cultural Society of England early in the last century to secure new and 
rare plants for the English Gardens, and especially the Kew Gardens. A 
Mr. Fortune, already mentioned, was sent out in this way, and spent three 
years in China, between 1842 and 1845, ^"^ sent home shiploads of 
plants, including plums, peaches, mulberries, etc. His explorations were 
very limited, although reading them they seemed to cover a good deal of 
ground ; but when one comes to examine his itinerary. Fortune in his 
three years saw but little more of the country than I did, although, of course, 
much more minutely. His longest trip into the interior was practically a 
duplicate of the one I have just described, and he made a few explorations 
along the coast region as far north as Peking. 



80 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



I have limited my story to the house-boat trip, and cannot take time 
to describe the horticultural and agricultural conditions of North China, 
which, in fact, I have briefly discussed elsewhere. 

QuAiNTANCE : I should like to ask Mr. Marlatt if anything is' being 
done in entomology in China at all ; if there are any Chinese entomolo- 
gists or collectors in China that he knows of. What is the status of the 
science in China ? 

Marlatt: I know very little about that matter fiom the Chinese 
side. It is very diflicult to get at Chinese knowledge or practices except 
by long residence there. Undoubtedly the Chinese horticulturists do 
something for the control of various insect pests. As a rule, however, 
their interest in insects is chiefly from the standpoint of medicine, and 
most insects are considered useful in the control of disease, their 
ideas being the reverse of views now obtaining in this country, where 
insects are now known to often be the transmitters of disease. If the old 
saying be true, however, that " the hair of the dog cures the bite," the 
Chinese have plausible grounds for their beliefs that insects will cure 
disease ! 

The curious packages of May-beetle larvie with fungus growing out of 
them, illustrations of which most of you have seen, come from this region 
and the jirovinces of the Upper Yang-tse. This fungus, Coj-ydyceps 
Chinensis, is much esteemed as medicine, and is described and figured in 
Vol. IV., Insect Life, p. 217. 

Whenever I was seen collecting insects by Chinamen, they immedi- 
ately supposed I was getting the insects for medicine ; that seemed to be 
the common idea among Chinese everywhere, and they immediately 
wanted to know what I was going to use them for, and undoubtedly I 
could have started the use of insects for any variety of purposes in the way 
of " cure-alls " if I had felt so inclined. The Chinese have a large no- 
menclature of insects — that is, they have names for all the common 
species of insects — and they have treatises relating to the culture of the 
silkworm, but I have never seen any treatise relating to insects other 
than the silkworm. 

Hopkins : Mr. President, I might say in my own ex[)loration, not of 
China, but of Chinatown, San Francisco, I was very much interested in 
the kinds of insects they used for medicine. I noted especially a very large 
pupa shell of a Cicada, quite a large bottle full of them. I think they used 
them as an antidote for rheumatism, or something of that kind. I saw 



:>'? 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 8 

them mixing up a dose for an individual who came into the drug store — 
or whatever they called the place w^here they had this medicine — and the 
druggist took down different bottles of all sorts of things, and spread out 
a paper on the counter and laid out a handful of one thing after another, 
until he had about half a gallon of all sorts of mixtures, which he bottled 
up, and the Chinaman put it under his arm and went off. 

ScHWARZ : Gentlemen, I suppose you are all familiar with the fact that 
the Chinese not only use insects for medicine, but they also use them as an 
article of trade. I think Mr. Mann and many of us must have seen those 
collections of insects which the Chinese have offered for sale to the Euro- 
peans who visit Hong Kong and other ports. I have seen several of these 
sets, always arranged in the same manner and including the same species. 
The insects are pinned on old English needles and arranged in an artistic 
figure in a glass-covered box, opening from beneath. 

QuAiNTANCE : Have insects any real medicinal value ? 

ScHWARZ : Well, if you believe in a thing, it will help you, certainly. 

ScHWARZ : Hong Kong is, of course, one of the best known points 
in regard to entomology, because for many years it has been an English 
settlement. In regard to Shanghai and the country back of it, the French 
missionaries have especially taken pains to collect insects as best they 
could. 

Marlatt : You remind me of something that I had forgotten, in your 
remarks, Mr. President, namely, that I visited this French missionary 
establishment situated back of Shanghai, where for many years a certain 
priest, I think the Rev. Hue, has' studied and collected insects. I went 
out especially to see him, and had forgotten the event until you reminded 
me of it. This considerable French mission lies several miles out of 
Shanghai, and with its big buildings is a very comfortable place, and 
possesses a large museum, in which are specimens kept as we keep them 
in our museums, of all sorts of birds and animals of the country, and a 
considerable collection of insects. The collection of insects was in a 
number of boxes, but in rather bad condition, and I was informed that the 
old priest who had been responsible for the museum and its collections 
was on his deathbed. I did not see him, therefore, but I did examine his 
collection, and it showed great industry and enthusiasm on his part, in 
that out-of-the-way corner of the world. His collections were, however, 
in such a condition that they could not survive very long. 

(To be continued.) 



88 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



LARVAL CHARACTERS OF PACHYGASTRL/^ TRIFOLII AND 

AGLIA TAU. 

BY HARRISON G. DYAR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

I have postponed replying to Mr. Bacot's communication (Can. Ext., 
XXXV., 44-47) until I could examine his preparations. He has kindly 
sent them to me, and they seem definitely to settle the two points 
that remain at issue. The Ag/ia tau is in fluid, and shows a number of 
secondary setas as described by Mr. Bacot. These setae are short 
and unusually weak, so that in my own specimen, which is dried, inflated, 
they had become partly shrivelled, partly broken in transit. I do not 
think, after examining Mr. Bacot's specimen, that they can be regarded 
otherwise than as true set*, and I am very willing to acknowledge myself 
corrected. This correction, if applied to my synoptic table of Saturnian 
genera (Tutt, Brit. Lep., HL, 272), makes my divisions stronger and 
sharper than before, allying Aglia more strongly than ever with Attacus 
and Saturn i a. 

The Pachygastria trifolii, in stage L, was new to me, but it shows 
the normal structure exactly as I had anticipated. Tubercle v, which Mr. 

Bacot professes himself unable to find 
any trace of, "single haired or otherwise,'' 
is present in the normal position below 
and before iv (see figure i). It is small 
and single haired, but I see it distinctly 
on several segments of the best-preserved 
larva (in balsam on a slidej. The general 
wart pattern corresponds with Mala- 
cosoma, but the warts are more nearly 
equal, ii, iii and iv not being reduced ; vi 
is double, the halves well separated and 
V distinct, while the secondary warts at the 
anterior margins of the segments are well 
developed. I do not anticipate that any 
Lachneid will be found with tubercles 
iv and v united. That condition is 
uncharacteristic for the Bombycid phy- 
lum, though it obtains commonly in the 
Tineid lines. On this ground I would criticise Mr. Bacot's citation 
of Anthrocera and Marasmarcha (Can. Ent., XXX V\, 45), which are 




Fig. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 89 



Tineid genera, as analogies for the probable structure of PacJiyi^astni, 
a Bombycid genus, although the matter is not of importance, since the 
actual structure of Pachygastra has no need of interpretation by analogy. 

NOTES ON COLEOPTERA. 

BY CHARLES STEVENSON, MONTREAI-. 

Two good captures in the order Coleoptera were made by the young 
collectors of Montreal last season. One was a single specimen of the 
ground beetle, Calosoma IVilkoxi, Lee, by A. Denny, on the 26th of 
July, when collecting under stones and leaves on the northern slopes of 
Mount Royal. The other was a lamellicorn beetle, Odontceus obesus, 
Lee, three specimens of which were found in a large bottle full of insects 
caught by my son, Kenneth R. Stevenson, at the nearest light to his 
home, on the evening of the 30th of August. 

Through the kindness of Mr. B. Tomlin, B. A., F. E. S., Chester, 
England, I am in possession of four specimens of Cassida viridis, Linn., 
caught by him near Cardiff, Glamorganshire, and I can find no difference 
between them and specimens of the Tortoise beetle caught at Levis, Que., 
last season and identified by Rev. Dr. T. W. Fyles as such. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL BRANCH OF THE OTTAWA FIELD 

NATURALISTS' CLUB. 
The members of this section of the Club are endeavoring to create a 
more active interest in the study of entomology by holding fortnightly 
meetings, at the residences of the members, for the exhibition of 
specimens, discussion thereon, and the presentation of brief papers. The 
movement has so far proved most satisfactory, and the benefit of it has 
been felt by every individual, in reviving and quickening their love for the 
subject, and in aftbrding opportunity for solving of problems which every 
collector meets with in examining insects which he has not specially 
studied. Three meetings have already been held ; the first at the 
residence of Dr. Fletcher, who was the principal mover in organizing the 
meetings ; the second at Mr. Harrington's, and the third at Mr. Hulkett's. 
They were all most enjoyable and instructive, and the two hours allotted 
to each were fully occupied, and the discussions and exhibits will undoubt- 
edly bear fruit in improved work in future by the members. They also 
look forward to more systematic collecting in the approaching season, and 
to the holding of more frequent sub-excursions. 

W. H. H. (Secretary). 



90 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



LEPIDOSAPHES versus MYTILASPIS. 

BY MRS. C. H. FERNALD, AMHERST, MASS. 

The genus Lepidosaphes was established by Dr. Shinier, in the 
Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Vol. I., p. 372, 
Jan., 1868, with one species (conchiforjnis =u/iHi, Linn., 1758). 
Although the generic description is not all that could be desired, 
it is certainly more satisfactory than the descriptions of many genera of 
insects in this and other orders which have been accepted without 
question. 

The generic name Mytilaspis was first pubhshed, without a word of 
description, by Signoret, in his Catalogue of the Coccida^ in the Annales 
de la Societe Entomologique de France (4), Vol. VIII., p. 841 (1868). 
This paper was presented to the Society at the Seance of March 25th, 
but was not published till later in the year. A description of this genus 
was given by Signoret in the above-named work for 1S70, page 91. This 
article was presented to the Society at the same time as the catalogue. 

The genus Mytilaspis was evidently first proposed by Targioni- 
Tozzetti, in his Coccidarum Catalogus, which was published in the 
Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Vol. XL, the title page of 
which bears the date of 1S68, but the volume was published in four parts, 
and the paper covers of these parts bear the following dates : Part L, 
June, 1868; Part II., October, 1868; Part III., February, 1869; Part 
IV., April, 1869. Targioni's Introduzione alia seconda Memoria per gli 
studj sulle Cocciniglie and his Coccidarum Catalogus were both published 
in the third part of this work, and these papers should therefore date from 
1869 rather than from 186S, the date usually given them. 

In his Cocciniglie degU Agrumi in Italia, p. 22 (1891), Targioni gives 
the characters of Mytilaspis, and refers to his Studi sulle Cocciniglie 
(1867) and also to the above-named works. The name Mytilaspis, 
however, does not occur in his Studi, and therefore was not published by 
Targioni earlier than February, 1869. 

Signoret speaks of having received Targioni's Catalogue in Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr. (4), Vol. IX., p. 113 (1869), but as it was not published at that 
time, we must conclude that he received a manuscript copy. 

Under the circumstances it seems proper to use the generic name 
Lepidosaphes as Kirkaldy has done in his late paper on the Coccidiv> in 
Fauna Hawaiiensis, although, of course, we are sorry to give up the 
familiar name Mytilaspis, 



THE CANA.DIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 91 



NEW HISTORIES IN PAPAIPEMA (HYDRCECIA). 

BY HENRY BIRD, RYE, N. Y. 
(Conti lined from Vol. XXXIV., p. ii8.) 

There are certain species here and there among our moths which are 
possessed of a sort of will-o'-the-wisp evasiveness, and one would as soon 
think of encountering them in nature as of finding the mythical pot of gold 
at the rainbow's end. The causes that bring about such conditions are, of 
course, varied, and these species often stand represented by some unique 
type in a distant collection. Tliat the British Museum has long taken first 
rank in sheltering many of these uniques goes without saying, hence the 
matter of a rediscovery becomes of more than ordinary moment. Further, 
an additional satisfaction arises, if at a second meeting with the recluse 
the early history is exposed as well, and we find the way open to a more 
extended acquaintance, the while getting an insight into the specific 
standing, had that ever been questioned. So, in the rediscovery of that 
captivating Noctuid, Papaipema ( Hydrxcia) appassionata, one of our 
most elusive moths has again come to light, and we have the added 
pleasure of perusing an interesting larval history. The species was 
described by Harvey years ago, coming from London, Ontario, and his 
single type in the British Museum has stood perhaps as the only 
positive representative. That it should come to light again at so distant 
a point, seems a little surprising, though other of its congeners are equally 
dispersed, and the insight into its life habit aids in the explanation. The 
food-plant, Sarracefiia, though widely distributed, is native to such 
districts, and flourishes under such wild conditions that these moths, 
whose career runs through but a few days' duration^ would be scarcely 
met with, and we may easily conceive of the rarity of the imago. 

That the larva should have been encountered, stood more in the line 
of probabilities, since the quaint little pitcher plant has ever been a sub- 
ject of interest to naturalists, and of late years especially has been 
receiving the attention of many entomologists. Already the plant has 
furnished details among Noctuid life -histories, those pleasing little Exyria 
larvce having had their habits chronicled by Thaxter and Riley, while the 
current enthusiasm concerning mosquitoes and their developments has 
brought out the fact of a species whose young seem to be propagated in 
the waters of the pitchers exclusively. With such an amount of expert 
scrutiny directed to Sarracenia, we might have expected appassionaia to 
have been met before, and this very fact augurs to the restricted and 
localized range that colonies of the species inhabit. 



92 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



To Mr. Louis H. Joutel, the artist-naturalist, we are indebted for the 
important disclosure, some unknown Papaipema larv?e found by him in . 
the pine barrens of New Jersey ultimately proving this very desirable 
species. The discovery happened at an early stage, and when later 
it became assured that we were dealing with an unknown larva, a 
subsequent visit to the locality extended our acquaintance to a small 
but thriving colony. 

A first visit to the pine barrens is frauglu with many surprises, the 
extremely distinct flora and fauna of such a district being a never-failing 
source of enjoyment. One looks in vain for the usual thick-stemmed 
weeds in which our boring friends are wont to occur, but tlie soil 
conditions debar such a growth • in fact, one looking for them alone 
would soon give up in despair. The herbaceous plant life runs to all 
sorts of odd creations, with orchids and sundews and a host of bright 
flowering plants in a variety of forms that bring joy to the heart of the 
botanist. .Strange noises are in the air, as large, unfamiliar Hymenoptera 
buzz past. Even the Cicada's note sounds queer, and the long-drawn, 
monotonous bur-r-r-r proves to be produced by an unfamiliar form. 
Only the mosquitoes, the untold hosts of mosquitoes, are thoroughly 
familiar, and even here very likely many distinctive species exist, though 
the ordinary mortal is more intent on the virtues of some repellant, rather 
than on the variety of species that may be feasting upon the exposed 
l)ortions of his anatomy. So it is not strange, after all, that such a locality 
should produce some unlooked-for novelty. 

When coming to hand the young larv?e were apparently past second 
moult, the first pair of abdominal legs being still aborted, so that a 
slightly-looping position occurs when moving. It still on occasion would 
spin a silken thread when sliding from an insecure footing or upon a 
sufficient apprehension of a fall. Appearance is very similar to 
purpurifascia, and there exists a way of working that strongly recalls this 
species. There appeared only one difference : with purpurifascia the 
dorsal line is continuous, with our friend of the pitchers it is suppressed 
on joints four to eight. In the succeeding stage developments bespeak a 
greater individuality. We have the typical Papaipema larva, of exceed- 
ingly cylindrical build, the longitudinal stripes queerly broken at its 
middle. The colour is a good shade of sienna, somewhat livid, the dorsal 
and subdorsal lines ]iure white. The tubercles, thoracic and anal plates 
are all very pronounced and follow the usual positions. On joint ten 



THE CANADIAN EN'JOMOLOGIST. 93 



there is no development of the plate IVa, at the upper corner of 
the spiracle, as occurs with some other species. In the penultimate stage, 
conditions are similar, the salient features of comparative value being the 
absence of a continuous dorsal line and of IVa on joint ten. It is by 
these points separable from purpurifascia, which it so closely per.=;onifies 
at first glance. The large dorsal plates preceding the anal one are well 
divided by the dorsal line ; in some other species these plates become 
confluent. .\t maturity the length is 39 mm.; head nearly 2 mm. wide. 
The colour does not fade to translucence entirely, but retains a distinct 
sienna shading. Pupation occurs about the first week in August. The 
chrysalis offers no distinguishing point. Being formed outside the burrow, 
there is not the extreme cylindrical shape caused by a narrow aperture. 
It is of a paler colour than usual, of slender proportions, very active, and 
measures 20-22 mm. The species seems rather a small one, though, 
given a larger food-plant, we might expect better developments. 
Sarracenia is an odd plant to have been selected by a boring larva of the 
size of the species under consideration. There beijig scarcely any stalk, 
the larva must needs use the root, and here the supply is rarely enough in 
one plant for attaining maturity. Workings do not extend to the pitchers 
in any way, for though one young larva was observed to enter the plant by 
the pitcher's tube, it is not likely this is the usual channel, since they so 
often contain more or less water. The little Exyria larvaj can easily 
mount the pitcher's side and keep above any water as occasion requires. 
Indeed, it seems surprising that some insects are immune to these 
dangers, where so many others have fallen. The remains of quantities of 
entrapped insects are to be found in the pitcher's neck, being consumed 
by the acids there secreted. Here is sure to flourish the slug-like maggot 
of the Sarcophaga fly. A little further up an Exyria may have its abode. 
Down in the root appassionata may be seeking the seclusion which has 
stood it in such good stead for so long. An anomaly is surely presented : 
this insectivorous plant now harmless and furnishing food for those insects 
that have grown wise in their own and succeeding generations. 

Though not having personally viewed Harvey's type, the determina- 
tion of the Sarracenia species is due in a measure to courtesies extended. 
While the application of the description may be entirely satisfactory, and 
the aid of coloured drawings has appeared to settle any reasonable doubts, 
we must still bear in mind that species run very close in this genus at 
times, and a single example, as in the case of this particular type, does not 



94 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



always convey all that the species really personifies. The pattern of 
Papaipcma in a ratlier extended group of species is often so similar that a 
verbal differentiation is sometimes difficult, yet appassionata stands by 
itself in some details. The solid red terminal space, the bright yellow 
lower median field, and the large white spots in an apparently restricted 
median space, both in type and would-be duplicate, are a combination of 
features not occurring elsewhere in the same contrast, and offer a rather 
striking individuality when seen in the originals. Then, loo, there is a 
Western form as yet awaiting a better familiarity, which it is expected will 
better cement the species. That larval developments upon a proper 
acquaintance offer such an aid in this genus is one of its satisfactory 
features, and with the widely-increasing interest that is at present 
developing, we may soon be assured of settling any doubtful questions. 



THE TOMB OF THOMAS SAY. 

BY F. M. WEBSTER, UliBANA, ILL. 

Entomologists in general, and Americans in particular, are much 
interested in all that pertains to one who has justly become known as the 
father of American entomology. 

As is generally known, the tomb containing the remains of this 
famous naturalist is on the grounds of the old Maclure home, in the city 
of New Harmony, Indiana.* This has recently changed owners, and the 
old house in which Say died has been remodelled, the older portion having 
been torn down. This was made necessary by the crumbling of the walls, 
but the new owner, Mr. John Corbin, has only allowed this to be done 
where it became absolutely necessary. Fortunately, Mr. Corbin fully 
appreciates and reveres the historic old structure, and, as he stated 
recently to me, "has desecrated it just as little as possible." 

In reply to my question as to his intentions relative to the tomb, Mr. 
Corbin assured me that so long as he lived and possessed the premises it 
should remain untouched, and the tone inv/hich he spoke left no doubt as 
to his sincerity. The ground is in the centre of the city, and hence 
valuable, but Mr. Corbin will keep his word, as I am fully convinced, and 
it will be long years before any change is likely to occur that will affect 
the last resting place of the dead naturalist. 

*See Entomological News, \'ol. VI., Nos. 1-4, 1895. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 95 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSORIAL, PREDACEOUS AND 
PARASITIC WASPS, OR THE SUPERFAMILY 

VESPOIDEA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, A. M., ASSISTANT CURATOR, DIVISION OF INSECTS, 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

{Paper No. 13. — Continued from Vol. XXXV., p. 44 ) 
Family XL. — Thynnid^. 

This family, although quite distinct, is closely allied to the two which 
follow — the Myrmosidce and the Mutillidce — and it will probably be 
difficult for the student to separate at once the wingless females from some 
in the families mentioned. Some authorities, having been unable to find 
good characters to separate these wasps, have classified all together as a 
single large family under the name iMuiillidce ; but I think incorrectly so. 

The middle coxye are not contiguous, as in the Mutillidce and Myr- 
ntosidcE, being separated, usually, by a triangular or bilobed projection of 
the mesosternum, while the thorax in the females is also quite distinct, 
being divided into three parts ; in the Myrmosidce the thorax is divided 
into two parts only, while in the Mutillidce it is undivided, the pro-, meso- 
and meta-thorax being closely united, without distinct dividing sutures. 

The males in the three families, to a certain extent, closely resemble 
one another, and are not so easily separated, although each family has a 
distinct habitus peculiarly its own, which one easily recognizes with prac- 
tice, the shape of the head, the thorax and the abdomen being slightly 
different; the genitalia armature, however, with but {^\\ exceptions, is 
quite different in the three families. 

Many genera have been proposed for these wasps, the majority of 
which I consider good, although Dr. von Dalla Torre, in his Catalogus 
Hymenopterorum, has placed most of them under the genus Thynnus, 
Fabr., causing much confusion. This arrangement throws a great many 
with the same specific name together, and for these he has proposed new 
specific names, which still further complicates matters, burdens our litera- 
ture with names that will not hold, but which must be quoted, and making 
it exceedingly difficult to keep track of 

I find the date of Guerin's Paper on this group, published in 
Duprerry's Voyage de la Coquille, is given as 1830, whereas, although the 
title page is so dated, it did not appear until 1839 ; it also makes certain 
changes in synonymy necessary. 



96 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



The family is very large and widely distributed, but is more exten- 
sively re]jresented in South An\erica, in Australia and Africa than 
•elsewhere, Europe and North America having only a few representatives. 

The study of the genera and species is most difficult on account of the 
great dissimilarity of the sexes, the slowness with which material comes in, 
and the absence of good collectors to take the sexes in coitu, so that the 
sexes can be correctly correlated and the genera more thoroughly 
elaborated. 

I have divided the family into three subfamilies, which may be 
recognized by the characters employed in the following table : 

Table of Subfamilies, 

Females i . 

Males 4. 

1. Body rather short, not elongate: thorax above convex, the metathorax 

very short, obliquely truncate posteriorly, transversely compressed or 

sublamellar, more rarely long 3. 

Body elongate and slender; thorax above more or less flattened, rarely 
convex. 

Metathorax never very short, nor transversely compressed ; 
abdomen smooth, the second dorsal segment without transverse 

folds or carina?, the pygidium and hypopygium normal 2. 

Metathorax very short, obliquely truncate posteriorly, from the 
base or very near the base, transversely compressed or sub- 
lamellar; abdomen not smooth, variously sculptured, the second 
dorsal segment more or less punctured, or rugulose, and usually 
with two or more transverse folds or carina?, sometimes many ; 
pygidium and hypopygium abnormal, variously 
modified Subfamily i., Thynninse. 

2. Head transverse, much wider than long, the eyes large, the ocelli 

distinct Subfamily II., Methocinse, 

Head large, oblong, quadrate or nearly, more rarely subrotund or 
oblrapezoidal, the eyes not large, the ocelli usually 
wanting Subfamily III., Rhagigasterinae. 

3. Metathorax short, usually obliquely truncate from its base ; abdomen 

not wholly smooth, the second dorsal segment pimctate or rugulose, 
and usually with two or more transverse folds or carinae.the pygidium 
and hypopygium abnormal, variously modified, the latter usually 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 97 



dilated into a broad margin at apex, or trumpet-shaped, the former 

often striate or coarsely sculptured Subfamily I., Thynninoe. 

Metathorax not very short ; abdomen smooth, the second dorsal 
segment without transverse folds or caringe, the pygidium and hypo- 
pygium normal, not modified in any 
way Subfamily III., Rhagigasterin^e. 

4. Hypopygium armed with one or more spines or teeth or trilobed. . . 5. 
Hypopygium unartned, at apex truncate or rounded 9. 

5. Thorax elongate ; front wings with radial and cubital cells 6. 

Thorax rounded; front wings without radial and cubital cells 9. 

6. First transverse cubitus distinct, with an appendage 7. 

First transverse cubitus wanting, or if present, a/zV/^^?;;;/ an appendage . . 8. 

7. Mandibles bidentate ... .Subfamily I., Thynninse. 

Mandibles tridentate Subfamily III., Rhagigasteriuii^. 

S. Hypopygium produced at apex into a long aculeus which curves 

upwards Subfamily II., Methocinse. 

Hypopygium armed with a long aculeus which curves upwards, but 

that originates before the apex Subfamily III., Rhagigasterinse. 

9. Mandibles bidendate Subfamily I., Thynninaa. 

Mandibles tridentate Subfamily III., Rhagigasterinas. 

Subfamily I. — Thynninaj. 
The males in this group show a wonderful difference in the structure 
of the mouth-parts and in their genitalia, which, in time, will enable 
the group to be divided into four or more tribes, namely, Thyimini, 
Myrmecodini, Scotaenini, Ai?iblysomini, etc. ; but this had better not be 
done until more of the forms, in both sexes, are known. 

Table of Genera. 
Males 1. 

Females 29. 

1. Hypopygium armed, ending in a single triangular tooth or spine, or 

tridentate or trilobed ; sometimes 5-dentate, a small tooth on each 
side at base in addition to the apical teeth ; sometimes oblong, 

narrowed, tridentate, or trilobed at apex • 2. 

Hypopygium u?iariiied, truncate or rounded at apex 20. 

2. Hypopygium at least tridentate or trilobed, sometimes 5-dentate. . .3. 
Hypopygium ending in a large triangular tooth or single spine, rarely 

with indications of a lobe at the basal angles of same, the lateral 
margins sometimes arcuate or rounded 10, 



98 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Hy]>opygium 3dentate, or trilobed 6. 

Hypopygium 5-dentate, or with 5 spines. 

Clypeus produced and anteriorly truncate or subarcuate, with a 
short, stout tooth or elevation at the basal lateral angles, near 

the base ot the eyes 4. 

Clypeus anteriorly not much produced, rounded, witJiout a tooth 

at the basal lateral angles 5. 

Abdomen fusiform or ovate, not longer than the head and thorax 
united, the segments constricted at the sutures ; segments 2-3, or 
more, with yellow or yellowish-white spots ; first ventral segment 
with a triangular tooth or elevation near the middle, the sixth with 
a tooth at the apical angle ; maxillary palpi 6jointed ; labial palpi 

4-jointed. (Australia) Thynnus, Fabricius. 

(Type T. dentatus, Fabr.) 

Abdomen longer than the head and thorax united, the sides nearly 

parallel, the segments more or less constricted at the sutures, black, 

immaculate, the first and sixth ventral segments normal, unarmed \ 

maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the joints short; labial palpi 4-jointed. 

(Australia.) Thynnidea, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Thynnus fumipennis, Westw.) 

Metathorax with a median tooth at apex ; abdomen longer than the 

head and thorax united, cylindrical, the sides parallel, the segments 

constricted at apex, immaculate ; maxillary and labial palpi both 

4-jointed. (Australia) Iswaroides, Ashmead. 

(Type I. Koebelei, Ashm.) 
Marginal cell at apex pointed or slightly rounded, but never truncate; 

second cubital cell not triangular. . 7. 

Marginal cell at apex truncate ; second cubital cell triangular. 

Clypeus with a median emargination anteriorly; maxillary and 

labial palpi both 3-jointed. (India) Iswara, Westwood. 

(Type I. hiteus, Westw.) 

Hypopygium not narrow, in outline triangular, 3-dentate, the middle 

tooth large, triangular, projecting far beyond the lateral teeth, which 

are usually small 8. 

Hypopygium quite differently shaped, narrower and oblong, as wide 
or nearly at apex as at base, the sides parallel or nearly, the apex 
usually briefly tridentate or trilobed, the teeth or lobes equal or 
nearly, the middle tooth very rarely much longer than the lateral 
teeth 16. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 99 



8. Clypeus produced anteriorly and entirely covering the labrum, or the 

latter only slightly visible 9. 

Clypeus not so produced, the disk thickened, convex, the labrum 
usually large and distinctly visible, rarely partly concealed. 

Head with a prominence above the insertion of the antennie and 
connected with the clypeus by a carina ; antennae of moderate 
length ; fifth ventral segment ivith a tooth at each apical angle; 
pygidium subtriangular, broader at base than long, and longi- 
tudinally striated ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed ; labial palpi 

4-jointed. (Australia) Zaspilothynnus, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Thynnus Leachiellus, Westw. ) 
Head anteriorly with two prominences, beneath which are in- 
serted the antennae; antennae very long; fifth ventral segment 
without a tooth at the apical angles. 

(Australia) Tachynomyia, Guerin. 

(Type Agriomyia spinola% Guer.) 

9. Clypeus trapezoidal, truncate anteriorly. 

Maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the middle joints the longest ; labial 
palpi 4-jomted, the first joint the shortest, without a tuft of 
hairs at apex, joints 2-4 longer, nearly equal in 

length. (Australia) Thynnoides, Guerin. 

(Type T. fulvipes, Guer.) 

Maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the three last joints very long, much 
longer and slenderer than the basal joints ; labial palpi 
4-jointed, the first very long, nearly as long as joints 2-4 united, 
with a tuft of very long hairs at 

apex. (Australia) Pseudaelurus, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Aelurus abdominalis, Guerin.) 

10. Clypeus anteriorly truncate or very slightly arcuate, never emarginate; 

pygidium neither carinate at sides nor truncate at apex it. 

Clypeus anteriorly broadly, shallowly semicircularly emarginate, con- 
cave or excised ; pygidium squarely truncate at apex and usually 
carinate at sides, the apical lateral angles acute 15. 

11. Pygidium at apex rounded, without a median incision or emargina- 

tion 12. 

Pygidium at apex rounded, but with a median incision or emargination. 

Abdomen fusiform, maculate; hypopygium with the sides strongly 

rounded or arcuate, and ending in a rather long spine, which is 



100 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



more than three times as long as thick at base ; maxillary 
palpi 6-iointed ,; labial palpi 4-jointed. 

(Australia) Catocheilus, Guerin. 

(Type C. Klugii, Guer.) 

12. Clypeus produced anteriorly, trapezoidal, the front margin squarely 

truncate and overlapping the mandibles, the labrum invisible : 

abdomen not smooth, more or less punctate   13- 

Clypeus very similar but not so much produced anteriorly, the man- 
dibles wholly exposed, the labrum more or less visible ; abdomen 
smooth, shining, or at most with fine, microscopic lines. 

Labrum narrowly transverse or arcuate, not bilobed ; hypo- 
pygium ending in an acute spine, the lateral margins slightly 
arcuate, the basal angles with usually a slight lobe, but not 
acute enough to be considered a tooth ; mandibles bidentate, 
the outer tooth the longer and larger; maxillary palpi 6 jointed, 
the three last joints much slenderer than the preceding joints, 
the last joint not longer than the penultimate ; labial palpi 

4-jointed Myrmecodes, Latreille. 

(Type Tiphia pedestris, Fabr.) 
Labrum bilobed ; hypopygium ending in a spine which curves 
slightly upwards, the lateral margino almost straight. 

Maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the last joint longer than the pe- 
nultimate ; labial palpi 4-jointed. 

(Australia) Guerinius, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Thynnus flavilabris, Guer.) 

13. First ventral segment unarmed 14. 

First ventral segment armed with a prominent median tooth. 

Head more than twice as wide as thick antero-posteriorly \ 
abdomen maculate ; maxillary palpi 

6-jointed Agriomyia, Guerin. 

('I'ype A. maculata, Guerin.) 

14. .Abdomen ovate, maculate, the hypopygium oval, ending in a short 

spine ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the three last joints longer than 
the first three ; labial palpi 4-jointed, the joints 

short Cephalothynnus, Ashm., gen. nov, 

(Type Thynnus odyneroides, Westw.) 
.A.bdomen fusiform, longer than the head and thorax united, the hypo- 
pygium triangularly pointed, the sides only slightly arcuate ; 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 101 



maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the second and the last joint longer than 
joints 3-5 ; labial palpi 4-jointed, 

short Hemithynnus, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Thynnus hyalinatus, Westw.) 

15. Maxillary palpi 6-jointed, long, the joints, except the first, which is 

very short, long, subequal, the last joint the slenderest and a little 
the longest ; labial palpi 5-jointed. (South 

America) Elaphroptera, Guerin. 

(Type Myrmecodes dimidiatus, Hal. 

16. Hypopygium ending in three small, equal or nearly equal, triangular 

teeth, rarely with the middle tooth much longer than the lateral, or 

spined 17. 

Hypopygium ending in three small, equal, rounded lobes 19. 

17. Clypeus subproduced and anteriorly emarginate, excised or 

bidentate 18. 

Clypeus produced, trapezoidal, the anterior margin truncate, never 
emarginate or excised. 

Abdomen elongate, subcylindrical, smooth, shining, spotted with 
yellow, much longer than the head and thorax united ; first 
joint of flagellum only about half the length of the second ; 
hypopygium at apex 3-spined, the middle spine the 

longest. (Australia) Aeolothynnus, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type A. multiguttatus, Ashm.) 
iS. Abdomen oblong-oval or fusiform, longer than the head and thorax 
united, the segments banded or maculate with white or 
yellow. (South America). . . . Pseudelaphroptera, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Elaphroptera Spinols, Sauss.) 

19. Clypeus broadly, semicircularly emarginate anteriorly, leaving a deep 

concave space ; metathorax with two deep impressions or short 
furrows at apex ; maxillary palpi long, 5-jointed, the first joint 
short ; maxillary palpi 4-jointed ; abdomen elongate, narrowed 
towards base, shining, but microscopically shagreened. 

(South America) Pycnothynnus, Ashm., g. nov. 

(Type Elaphroptera atra, Guer. 

20. Third cubital cell, along the cubitus, shorter than the second or no 

longer 21. 

Third cubital cell distinctly longer than the second 22. 



102 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



21. Clypeus subproduced, with a slight median sinus or incision anteriorly, 

the labrum well developed ; maxillary palpi 5-jointed ; labial palpi 

4-jointed. (Australia) Anthobosca, Guerin. 

(Type A. Australasise, Guer. 

22. Mandibles narrower, curved, the teeth acute ,; abdomen oblong, fusi- 

form or subcylindrical, as long or longer than the head and thora.x 
united 23. 

Mandibles broad, the apical tooth large, obtuse, the inner tooth with 
a long cutting face ; abdomen oval, hardly as long as the thorax or 
no longer. 

Head about twice as wide as thick antero-posteriorly, not wider 
than the thorax ; pronotum short, transverse ; mesonotum 
fully as wide as long, with two furrows ; metathorax short, 

rounded behind Amblysoma, Weslw. 

(Type A. Latreillei, Westw.) 

23. First transverse cubitus with an appendage 24. 

First transverse cubitus without an appendage. 

Abdomen long, cylindrical, the first segment much longer than 
wide at apex, petioliform. (South 

America) Klugianus, Ashm , gen. nov. 

(Type Thynnus haematodes, Klug.) 

24. Clypeus produced and anteriorly broadly truncate, trapezoidal .... 25. 
Clypeus anteriorly not broadly truncate, slightly rounded, subemar- 

ginate, deeply triangularly emarginate, or bidenlate 26. 

25. Clypeus with a median carina; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, slender; 

labial palpi 4-jointed ; abdomen maculate or fasciate with 

yellow. (Australia) Zeleboria, Saussure. 

(Type Thynnus carinatus, Smith.) 

Clypeus without a median carina ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, not 
slender ; labial palpi 4-jointed ; abdomen with white spots, the 
hypopygium near the tip with a pointed and a clavate appendage 

of hairs Psammothynnus, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Thynnus depressus, Westw.) 

26. Hypopygium not prominently projecting, always obtuse or truncate at 

apex 27. 

Hypopygium much narrowed, narrowly rounded at apex, and 
prominently projecting beyond the tip of the abdomen. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 103 



Clypeus anteriorly subtriangularly emarginate or tridentate ; 
maxillary palpi 6 jointed, the first joint short, the following 
joints longer, subequal ; labial palpi 4-jointed, the first joint 
shorter than the 2nd and 3rd united ; abdomen spotted. 

(South America) Spilothynnus, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Thynnus laetus, Klug.) 

27. Clypeus anteriorly subemarginate, deeply emarginate or 

tridentate 28. 

Clypeus anteriorly rounded, not emarginate. 

Abdomen fusiform, a little longer than the head and thorax 
united, maculate or fasciate ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the 
last three joints much longer than the first three, or twice as 
long; labial palpi 4-jointed, joints i and 4 longer and slenderer 
than 2 and 3, which are short, stout. (South 

America x^nodontyra, Westwood.) 

(Type A. tricolor, Westw.) 

28. Clypeus anteriorly subemarginate; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, joints 1-3 

rather short, joints 4-6 long, subequal, five or six times longer than 

thick ; labial palpi 4-jointed, the first joint long and slender, about 

as long as 2-4 united ; abdomen fasciate. (South America.) 

Clypeus anteriorly bidentate ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the joints 

obconical, unequal, the first four short, the third and fourth much 

longer than the second. (South America) Ornepetes, Gue'rin. 

(Type O. nigriceps, Gue'r.) 

29. Pygidium not very narrow, oblong, rounded at apex, usually shagreened, 

punctate, rugulose or striate; if smooth, which is rare, it is curiously 
modified, compressed towards base and broadened into an elevation 
posteriorly ; basal segment of abdomen ivithout a strongly curved 
furrow on each side or a strong transverse furrow before the apex.. 30. 
Pygidium very narrow, smooth and shining; basal abdominal segment 
tvith a strongly curved furrow on each side, or a deep, transverse 
furrow before apex. 

Basal abdominal segment with a strongly curved furrow on each 
side ; second segment with about three transverse folds or 
carinse ; pygidium with two pencils of long golden hairs that 
curve and meet above the narrow elevation on 

its disk Thynnus, Fabricius. 

Basal abdominal segment with a strong transverse furrow just 
before apex ; second segment with three transverse folds or 



104 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

carinse ; pygidium long, lanceolate, broadest at apex, without 

the two pencils of golden hairs Thynnidea, Ashm. 

30. Head seen from above }iot triangular, usually transverse, subtjuadrale 

or obtrapezoidal 31. 

Head seen from above triangular. 

Eyes small, oval, extending to base of mandibles : cly[jeus very 
short, truncate ; mandibles falcate, pointed at apex ; maxillary 
palpi 4Jointed ; labial palpi 3-iointed 3 second segment of 
abdomen with two transverse folds or carinee towards 
apex Iswaroides, Ashmcad. 

3 I. Pronotum;/^/ quadrate, obtrapezoidal, or wider in front than behind.. 33. 
Pronotum quadrate, usually, however, a little wider than long, but not 
wider in front than behind. 

Head not or scarcely wider than the thorax, the latter not 

especially narrow 32. 

Head much wider than the thorax, the latter being very narrow, 
with the sides parallel ; dorsal abdominal segments i and 2 
strongly transversely furrowed ; pygidium oval or nearly and 
longitudinally striate Catocheilus, Guerin. 

32. Clypeus slightly produced, truncate anteriorly, the labrum visible as 
a narrow transverse line, ciliate ; mandibles narrow, acute at apex ; 
maxilary palpi 6-jointed, not short; labial palpi 4-jointed. 

(Australia) Entelus, Westwood. 

(Type E. bicolor, VVestw.) 

Clypeus short, broadly truncate anteriorly, but the labrum not visible ; 
mandibles falcate, rounded at apex; maxillary and labial palpi both 
4-jointed ; first abdominal segment with a broad, finely shagreened 
depression at apex, the second segment with two transverse carinae, 
the intermedian space between the carinse shagreened, opaque ; 
l)ygidium narrowly compressed towards apex and then abruptly 

dilated or trumpet-shaped Spilothynnus, Ashm. 

2^1- Head large, obtrapezoidal, subquadrate or subglobose, the temples or 
the space back of the eyes very broad, without furrows or impres- 
sions extending from the antennae to the vertex 34. 

Head transverse, much wider than thick antero-posteriorly, the 
temples not especially broad, with sometimes two furrows or 
impressions extending from antennse to vertex 41 . 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 105 



34. Head subquadrate or subglobose 35. 

Head large, obtrapezoidal, the temples abnormally broad. 

Abdomen oblong oval, the second dorsal segment with three or 
four transverse folds or carina; ; pygidium long oval, longi- 
tudinally striate; labrum longly ciliated; maxillary palpi minute, 
2-jointed ; labial palpi 4-jointed, the last joint as long as joints 
1-3 united. (Australia.) Cephalothynnus, Aslim. 

35. Head subquadrate or subglobose, the hind angles rounded, the 

temples about four times the width of the eye 36. 

Head almost quadrate, only a little wider than long, the temples only 
about twice the width of the eye. 

Abdomen large, oblong-oval, the second dorsal segment with 
about five transverse carinas ; pygidium long, ellipzoidal, very 
slightly narrowed at the middle and longitudinally striate ; 
labrum hardly visible, ciliate; maxillary palpi minute, 2-jointed; 
labial palpi short, 3-jointed, the second joint the longest and 
thickest (?) Thynnidea, Ashm. 

36. Metathorax with the disk of the oblique truncation flat but not 

concave 37. 

Metathorax with the disk of the oblique truncation concave or sub- 
concave. 

Abdomen large, oblong-oval, the second dorsal segment coarsely 
rugulose,\vith two transverse folds or carinse at apex; pygidium 
longitudinally rugulose Elaphroptera, Guerin. 

37. Metathorax without a hump-like elevation at base just behind the 

scutellum 38. 

Metathorax with a hump-like elevation at base just behind the 
scutellum. 

Second abdominal segment with a transverse fold or carina near 
base and another near apex, the intermediate space very 
coarsely rugulose; pygidium oblong-oval, finely, longitudinally 
aciculated towards apex Pycnothynnus, Ashm. 

38. Metathorax obliquely truncate from the base, without a distinct 

metanotum , 39. 

Metathorax with a short but distinct metanotum, trapezoidal, the 
truncation abrupt, perpendicular ; abdomen with a depression near 
apex and a delicate transverse carina just before apex; the 
depression finely coriaceous; second segment with a depression 



lOG THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

from the middle which is iiigulose ; pygidium oblong-oval, nigulose 
towards base ; mandibles with a sinus before apex, appearing 

bidentate Anodontyra, Westwood. 

39- Clypeus wiihout a trace of a median carina, the anterior margin 

truncate  • 40. 

Clypeus with a. more or less distinct median carina, the anterior 
margin subangularly produced. 

Pygidium oblong-oval, longitudinally striate, and with a -lobe or 
tooth on each side before the apex; first abdominal segment 
with traces of transverse carina or elevated lines at apex, the 
second segment with many transverse folds or carina^, 1 7 or 
more ; metathorax sloping from its 
base Myrmecodes, Latreille (partim). 

40. Pygidium oblong, with a more or less elongate, lanceolate elevation 

on its disk gradually broadened posteriorly, the elevation with 
some longitudinal lines towards base, smooth at apex ; first 
abdominal segment with a depression at apex, the second segment 
with live transverse folds or carina^, metathorax sloping from a little 
beyond its base, leaving a short but distinct 
metanotum Thynnoides, Guerin. 

41. l^ygidium very narrow, or strongly compressed towards base, with an 

elevation towards apex 42. 

Pygidium neither very narrow nor compressed towards base, without 
an elevation or disk, above flat or subconvex, striate, punctate or 
rugulose 45. 

42. Head about twice as wide as thick antero-posteriorly, or three times as 

wide as thick when viewed from above. 

Second dorsal abdominal segment with three or more transverse 

folds or carin^e 43. 

Second dorsal segment with only oiie transverse carina just before 

apex, the anteriorly portion rudely 

punctate Psammothynnus. Ashm., gen. nov. 

43. Second abdominal segment \y'\\\\7nany transverse folds orcarinse. .44. 
Second abdominal segment with three transverse folds or carinae. 

Pygidium elongate, smooth, the hypopygium with two converging 

carinae at base Zelaboria, Saussure. 

(Type Thynnus carinatus. Smith.) 

44. Second abdominal segment with 20 or more transverse carinse, the 

first segment with a transverse furrow just before apex, the third and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 1U7 



following segments smooth ; head with a concave depression above 
each antenna that extends to the vertex ; pygidium strongly com- 
pressed at the middle, and then broadened into an oval plate, the 
basal portion, which is separated from the oval apical portion by 
the strongly compressed portion, is transversely striated, while the 
apical portion is smooth Zaspilothynnus, Ashni. 

Second abdominal segment with about 13 or 14 transverse carin?e, the 
first segment with many oblique strise at the sides towards apex, the 
following segments after the second shining but microscopically 
shagreened, with a few scattered feeble punctures, especially notice- 
able on apex of the two last segments ; pygidium compressed 
basally, dilated apically, but with an emargination on each side at 
apex, smooth and without transverse striae at 
base Tachynomyia, Guerin. 

45. Clypeus without a median ridge 46. 

Clypeus tvith a median ridge. 

Pygidium not very narrow, deflexed apically, longitudinally 
striated, and with a tooth or lobe at each side towards the 
base ; mandibles broad and flat, obtuse at apex, with a longi- 
tudinal grooved line along the inner margin and another along 
the outer margin for a little more than half 

their length Myrmecodes Latreille. 

(Type Tiphia pedestris, Fabr.) 

46. Head without convex impressions extending from the antennas to ver- 

tex, SLibopaque; clypeus transversely narrowed, with a slight median 
tooth anteriorly ; mandibles long, falcate ; second dorsal abdominal 
segment with a transverse carina near base and another near apex, 
the intermediate space multistriated transversely; pygidium oblong- 
oval, longitudinally striated with a notch on each side before apex ; 
maxillary palpi 3 -jointed ; labial palpi 
4-jointed Hemithynnus, Ashmead. 

Head with two convex impressions extending from the antennae to 
the apex ; clypeus transversely narrowed, with a slight median 
sinus anteriorly ; mandibles, falcate, acute ; pygidium strongly com- 
pressed at sides just before the apex, then dilated, and as seen from 
behind appearing as an oval elevation more or less transversely 
aciculated, rarely smooth . Agriomyia, Guerin. 



i08 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 



A FEW LAST WORDS TO DR. WASMANN. 

BY 'IHOS. L. CASEY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

I have read with some interest Dr. Wasmann's " Last Reply '" in the 
March number of this journal (page 74), and hasten to say that I was by no 
means " angry " when I wrote the answer referred to. I was only pained 
to think that a man of Dr. Wasmann's eminence in the scientific world 
would stoop to send to a colleague a specimen without marks of any kind 
for identification, in order to have him commit himself to an opinion when 
deprived of the subtle influence of at least a locality label. 

I feel sure that upon reflection Dr. Wasmann will not hold me 
responsible for his failure to glance over the matter referred to in my 
paper, which, the heading stated, comprised other studies besides the 
revision of Corylophidre, etc., or for my being at a loss to understand the 
correspondence in the light of current events. 

I did not send Dr. Wasmann a copy of my reply, because, as he had 
used this journal as a vehicle of publication, 1 supposed that he was 
accustomed to reading it regularly. Not a single copy of my "extras" has 
been sent out to anyone, it seeming preferable to me that the article in 
question should be known only within the sphere of circulation of the 
journal in which his original article and my reply appeared. Dr. 
Wasmann has evidently misinterpreted the motive of my failure to send 
him a copy, and I therefore make this explanation. 

If I went too far in misconstruini:^ Dr. Wasmann's actions in this 
matter, which is not very momentous from any point of view, it will give 
me pleasure to retract whatever may have wronged him. Our entomo- 
logical friends have the full history of the issue, and can form their own 
conclusion. 

A PRESENT TO THE SOCIETY. 

The Entomological Society of Ontario has been kindly remembered 
by Messrs. j. and H. Comstock, Evanston, 111., in a contribution to its 
collection of a number of butterflies taken by themselves in a trip through 
Colorado during the season of 1902. Carefully done up in papers, named 
and dated, with the localities in which they were taken, these specimens 
are of special interest as representing much-discussed forms of that famous 
locality, which hitherto have been known to us only by name. 

J. Alston Moffat, Curator. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 109 



NOTE ON DEILEPHILA GALII, ROTT. 

Mr. Percy B. Gregson, of Blackfalds, Alta., sends a painting, made by- 
Mr. F. C. Clare, of Edmonton, of the larva of Deilephila gaiii, Rottem- 
burg. Mr. Gregson writes that these large larvai are a luscious treat for 
prairie chickens in early autumn, and are quite often found entire, although, 
of course, dead, in their crops. These larvae in the Northwest feed on the 
Giant VVillowherb \Chanuenerion angustifoliuin (L.), Scop.], and it was 
from this food-plant that its m.ore generally-known name of Chaincenerii 
was derived. I have read that these larvae are also eaten regularly by 
some tribes of Indians in California. Some years ago I examined the 
contents of the crops of four prairie chickens from Western Manitoba, 
and found them stuffed with the hips of the prairie rose, the leaves of the 
alkali-loving Ranunculus \Oxygr aphis cymbalaria (Pursh) Prantl.], and 
many specimens of Chrysomela luiiata, Fab. The specific name of the 
insect under discussion is, I presume, merely the genitive case of Galium^ 
the botanical name of the Bedstraw, one of the food-plants of the larva. 
If this is the case, the usual spelling with the letter / doubled is a mistake, 
notwithstanding that it appears so spelled in most lists. Although 
properly spelled in the index of Dr. Dyar's new list, it is in the inaccurate 
form in the body of the work. I merely mention the matter, because I 
find that the mistake, if it is one, occurs both in European and American 
lists. — J. Fletcher. 

NOTE ON NORTH AMERICAN ATTACI, 

BY A. KADCLIKFE GROTE, HILDESHEIM, GERMANY, 

I repeat here, for the benefit of American readers, the descriptions of 
two abberations, given by me originally in the pages of the Insekten 
Borse, 1902. 

Samia Cali/ornica, ab. pafzihnaciila. — The male specimen is of a 
lighter red than usual, and the lunate discal spots are so reduced on all 
four wings as to appear half the usual size. They are, in fact, narrow, 
and only about 5 mm. in length, squarish in form. The antennae are 
greatly reduced, the usual length being about 20 mm., while here they are 
only about 14 to 15 mm., and the pectinations appear to be proportion- 
ately reduced. The expanse is normal, about 95 mm., but at first sight 
the specimen suggests a diff"erent species. 

I may mention here a female, S. Californica, which has the right 
secondary smaller and of a peculiar translucent appearance, suggesting an 



110 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 

instance of retarded development. It has been elsewhere shown, in a 
similar case, that the undeveloped wings present resemblances to the 
pupal condition. 

Telea polyphanui,z}o.fl.ava. — The colour of the female specimen is of a 
rather bright ochrey yellow. The darker inner shading to the subterminal 
band on primaries is wanting and this outer band itself is white. The 
eye-spots are as usual and thus quite different from the Western form 
ocjilea, Neura. In colour, Telea varies from roseate to olive ochre. I 
have seen a second specimen of this yellow aberration in a private 
collection. 

In the proceedings of the Am. Phil. Soc, Vol. xli.. No. 171, I have 
illustrated an instance of the spinning of a silken attachment around the 
stem of the enveloping leaf in the cocoon of Telea, reminding us of the 
habit of Philosamia cyjithia, or, even perhaps of Anthercea mylitta. I 
have since found three more examples of this hitherto unnoticed habit, 
among a lot of cocoons of Telea, but the false stem in these instances does 
not seem to have been fastened to the branch. It is difficult, however, 
from collected material to be quite certain of the fact, and it would be in- 
teresting if American collectors would observe closely the spinning 
methods of Telea. The silken attachment looks like that of Callosamia 
promethea, but entirely encloses the stem of the leaf. 



ERRATA. 

March No., page 75, for Aratus read Akadus. 

In the Thirty-third Annual Report (1902), page 24, line 13 from the 
lop, for " triangle " read tatigle. 

Page 28, line 15 from the bottom, for "point'" XQa.djoifit. 

Page 60, line 3, after "C. 12-punctatus" read " which has only 
recently been reported as having invaded Canada, has reached London, 
which would seem to indicate that it will soon prove itself to be the more 
abundant and destructive species of the two." 



The 33rd Annual Report (1902) of the Society has been published, 
and is sent by the Ontario Department of Agriculture to the members 
whose subscriptions are paid up for the year 1903, and to those only. 
Any subscriber who has not yet received a copy will understand the 
reason why. 

Mailed April ist, 1903. 



Can. Ent,, Vol, XXXV. 



Plate 4. 










NEW NOCTUIDS— FIGURES OF GENITALIA, 



%l\t imm\m\ %\\HmU^hi 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, MAY, 1903. No. 5 

NOTES O.M CANADIAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS APAJV- 

TESIS (ARCTIA), WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE 

TO THE LARV.-^. 

BY ARTHUR GIBSON, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY, CENTRAL EXPERIMENTAL 

FARM, OTTAWA. 

This paper is not by any means intended to be a full treatment of the 
species of the genus Apantesis^ occurring in Canada. There is so much yet 
to be learned about many of the forms that the preparation of such an article 
is still quite impossible. The intention, therefore, is merely to present the 
rather incomplete notes we have made at Ottawa, with the hope that they 
may be of some use to students who are, or who may become, interested in 
these insects, and also that it may be seen at a glance what work has been 
done on some of the species, as well as what is still lacking with regard 
to others. There is considerable doubt as to the validity of some of the 
species of this genus, and these doubts can only be dispelled by careful 
and extensive breeding from the egg, taking accurate notes of the larvae 
(in their different stages), the pupae, etc. Large series of many of the so-called 
species will have to be bred before definite knowledge can be acquired. 

The larvte of this genus, generally speaking, are much the same in 
appearance. They are usually blackish caterpillars, with spreading tufts 
of black or reddish bristles. Taking each species separately, they are not 
difficult to study, but when one begins to compare large series of closely 
related species, the task is not by any means so easy. Even among those 
species which have been most studied, we do not seem to have any con- 
stant characters whereby to se})arate the larvie, and, m view of our limited 
knowledge of these creatures, a great amount of work is still to be done. 
As it should not be difficult to obtain most of the moths where they occur, 
it is to be hoped that local collectors will endeavour to secure eggs from 
captured females, and thus provide the means for a better knowledge of 
the earlier stages of these interesting insects. 

In Canada there are, as far as we have been able to find out, at least 
20 moths belonging to the genus Apa?itesis, and specimens of all of these 



112 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



have been examined by the writer. Whether some of these are really 
worthy of specific rank can only be found out by breeding. Undoubtedly, 
however, some which are now recognized as distinct by some students, 
will, when they have been reared in numbers from the egg, be found to be 
simply forms of some recognized species, and not worthy of a specific 
name. Doubtless, also, some which. have been buried in synonymy by 
other students, will be found, when their earlier stages are sufficiently 
known, to be worthy of specific recognition. 

The following list covers all forms which we know to occur in 
Canada. Some of these have never been recorded from Canada before, 
and it is not unlikely that other collectors may be able to add further to 

this list : 

1. virgo, Linn. 

" var. (■ifrinaria, Neum. >S: Dyar. 

2. 7'irguni-iiia, Kirby. 

3. Mii/inlw, Grote. 

" var. Nii/n'ci, Slosson. 

4. pariJiejiice., Kirby. 

5. redilinea, French. 

6. /biiia., Grote. 

" var. persef>)ione. Groie. 

7. ojiiata, Packard. 

" var. ac/iaia, G. iV' R. 
" var. oc/iracea. Stretch. 

8. urge, Drury. 

9. Qi/cnse/ii, Paykull, var. turbans, Cliristcph. 
ic. oblitcrata. Stretch. 

11. J:io/an//eri, Stretch. 

12. N'evai/eiisis, G. &: R., var. incorrupta, Hy. Edw. 

1 3. superba, Stretch. 

14. Winiamsii, Dodge, var. determinata^ Neum. 

15. phylUra, Drury. 

16. Cdia, Saunders. 

17. figurata, Drury. 

18. nais, Drury. 

19. vittata, Fabricius. 

20. phalerata, Harris. 

The order of the species as given in Dr. Dyai's new catalogue has 
been followed. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. li; 



Among the Arctians which have been sent in for examination, there 
are nine specimens which we cannot satisfactorily place, and it may be 
that these may prove to be undescribed. It is not advisable, we think, to 
describe new species of this genus from a kw specimens, even if these 
seem to be fairly constant. When any of tliese species which are not now 
very well known, come to be reared in numbers from the same batch of 
eggs, doubtless many surprises will be experienced, and characters which 
in the past have been regarded as important by some students, may prove 
to be anything but constant. In a genus the species of which show such 
a wide range of variation, great care should be exercised in arriving 
at conclusions regarding new forms which may appear, and it will 
only be when every species has been carefully studied from the egg that 
definite knowledge can be had regarding the insects which constitute this 
interesting genus of the Arctiid^e. 

We have been endeavouring to get some idea of the distribution of the 
different species, and such resuhs as we have obtained are given below, as 
well as the dates of appearance of the perfect insects. 

I. Virgo. — This species is well known as a moth, and common in 
many parts of Canada, particularly so in Manitoba and east of that 
Province. The mature larva is a beautiful creature, and, as might be 
expected, is one of the largest of the genus. It is 55 mm. in length at 
rest, 60 mm. when extended, and 8.5 mm. at widest part. In colour it is 
a deep velvety black, with bunches of stout black barbed bristles from the 
tubercles on the dorsum, and reddish bristles from the tubercles 
on the lower portion of sides and on venter. Some specimens 
are without any markings on the skin, but others have a striking dorsal 
stripe, the colour varying — bright yellow, dirty whitish, or orange-yellow. 
This larva also varies as to the colour of the tubercles. In three speci- 
mens the writer bred, tubercle i. was black, ii. black (in one specimen 
this afterwards changed to reddish), iii. black in two specimens, reddish 
in one, iv., v., vi,, vii. and viii. also varying in colour. (Can. Ent., Vol. 
XXXIV., p. 23.) Abdominal feet brownish-red. Specimens of the larvae, 
collected at Rosthern, Sask., by Mr. T. N. Willing, and given to Dr. 
Fletcher, had all the tubercles of a bright reddish colour, the bristles being 
all foxy red, or smoky, and the skin of some specimens mottled with gray. 
Some examples had a creamy yellow stripe down the dorsum, and others 
had this stripe broken up into a double spot on each segment. 



114 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Further examples collected at Rosthern, also by Mr. Willing, changed 
to pupaj on June 17, producing the imagoes on July 15. These larvae 
Mr. Willing says were very plentiful on Thermopsis rhombifolia, Nutt. 
Five specimens which liad been killed by a fungus, and which were still 
attached to the plants, were received at Ottawa, and afterwards one pupa, 
with cast skin attached, and two of the bred moths were sent for examina- 
tion. All the tubercles in these six specimens are distinctly reddish, and 
the bristles conspicuously red, of about the same colour as those of Isia 
Isabella. S. & A. The five dead larv?e all show the dorsal stripe. 

Larvfe which the writer received from Toronto hibernated in the 
penultimate stage. .Specimens which Mr. D. Brainerd collected at Mont- 
real moulted twice in the spring, as did also four larvae found at Ottawa in 
early April, by Mr. C. H. Young. From data at hand it would appear 
that there is only one brood in the year. It would be interesting to rear 
a large number of the larvae from the egg, and note all rlie differences. 

Distribution. — Edmonton, Alta., July (F. C. Clare) ; Blackfalds, 
.Alta.. July I, 2 (P. B. Gregson); Rosthern, Sask. (T. N. Willing); Beulah, 
.\[an. (A. J. Dennis); Cartwright, Man. July 15-30 (E. F. Heath); 

Awenie, Man., July 27 (N. Criddie) ; W'innipeg, Man., July 3-19 (A. W. 
Hanham) ; Rosseau, Ont., July (A. F. Winn); Orillia, Ont., July 3-17 
(C. E. Grant) ; London, Ont. (W. Saunders) ; Hamilton, Ont. (J. A. 
Moffat) ; Grimsby, Ont., July 20 (W. Metcalfe) ; Toronto, Ont., July 15, 
17 (A. Gibson); Port Hope, Ont. (C. J. S. Bethune) ; Trenton, Ont., July 
^3) ^9 (J- D. Evans) ; Ottawa, Ont., June 29, July 7, 12, 15, 22, 24 (J. 
Fletcher, C. H. Young, A. E. Richard, A. Gibson) ; Rigaud, Que. (J. E. 
Desrochers) ; Montreal, (^ue., July 19, 21, 27 (H. H. Lyman), July 6-17 
(Chas. Stevenson), July (A. F. Winn) ; Little Metis, (^ue. (Winn) ; 
Rimouski, Que. (Winn); St. Hilaire, Que., July 15 (Lyman); Quebec, 
Que. (T. W. Fyles; ; Kamouraska, Que. (Winn) ; Bic, Que. (Winn) ; 
Chicoutimi, Que., July (Winn) ; St. John, N. B., June 10, July 2, 17, 21, 
26 (Wm. Mcintosh). 

Virgo, var. citrinaria. — Mr. J. A. Moffat tells me that he has bred 
two specimens of this variety, which differs in having yellow secondaries, 
from a batch of larvae found at the same time at Hamilton, Ont. 

2. ViRGUNCULA has a wide range of distribution. In Ontario it is a 
common species in certain districts, but very rare in others. At Toronto 
during some seasons I have found the moths exceedingly abundant. The 
life-history of this Arctian was published by the writer in the Canadian 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 115 



Entomologist, Vol. XXXIII., p. 325. The mature larva is smaller than 
that of virgo, measuring about 35 mm., and when extended 40 mm. ; 
head black, median suture pale in some specimens, as also the lower half 
of the epistotna. The skin of the body in some examples is wholly velvety 
black, in others the same colour but shading to grayish black subventrally, 
The tubercles are all black, the bristles being distinctly barbed, those from 
the dorsal tubercles being black, while those from the subventral tubercles 
are bright rust-red ; prolegs, upper portion black, lower portion reddish. 
None of the larvae had any markings on the skin. Specimens collected on 
April 8, at Toronto, only moulted once after coming out of hibernation, 
and at Montreal, Mr. Brainerd tells me that larvae which he had, moulted 
only once in the spring before spinning up. From eggs laid in June we 
reared moths in August, but many of the larvae which were mature (Stage 
VII.), instead of changing to pupae as the others did, stopped feeding about 
the middle of August and acted as if they wanted to hibernate. Virgun- 
cula ought to be bred again to see just to what extent the larvje vary, and 
if they ever possess the dorsal stripe. The late Mr. T. G. Priddey, of 
Toronto, made large collections of these larvae, but, unfortunately, did not 
publish any of his observations. Writing on March 20, 1901, he says: 
" Now is the time to get Ardia virguncula larvae. The first soft day after 
the dry grass is released from the frozen snow, they generally show them- 
selves for a short time, along with Spilosovia virginica, basking on the 
tops of grass ; after then they are hard to find, as they hide away during 
the day." 

Distribution. — Calgary, Alta., July 27, Aug. 18 (F. H. Wolley-Dod); 
Saltcoats, Assa., July 12 (Willing); Cartwright, Man., June 29,July3 (Heath); 
Sudbury, Ont. (Evans) ; London, Out. (Saunders) ; Orillia, Ont., July 
5-10 (Grant); Wabigoon, Ont., Aug. 24 (W. Mclnnis) ; Toronto, Ont., 
June 6, 14, 16, 18, 23 (Gibson), June 16, 24 (W. Metcalfe), May 23, 
June 6 (J. McDunnough); Hamilton, Ont. (Moffat); Trenton, Ont., June 
19 (Evans); Ottawa, Ont. Aug. 5 (Gibson); Meech Lake, Que., Aug. 
25, 3 worn sp. (Young) ; Montreal, Que. (Brainerd), July 3 (Lyman), 
May 24, June 13 (Winn); Cowansville, Que. (Fyles) ; St. John, N. B., 
July 9, " rare " (Mcintosh) ; Anticosti Island (W. Couper). 

The specimen of the moth which the writer found on the 5th Aug., 
at Ottawa, was not a complete specimen, but simply one of the primaries 
of presumably a male, which had become caught in the gauze covering 



116 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



one side of a mating cage, in which were two males and two females of 
nais. 

3. IMiCHAUo. — This species must be very rare in Canada, as we have 
records of only four specimens having been taken. A coloured figure of 
the moth is given on plate XLVIII. of Hampson's recent " Catalogue of 
the Lepidoptera Phalajnre in the British Museum." Not having seen a 
good series of this species, I take the liberty of quoting from Dr. Dyar 
(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. VIII., p. 36, as follows : " Michabo is a 
peculiar form, in markings close to virgo, but in colour so near arge that 
the two are liable to be confused, and have been so in some collections. 
It is a simpler form than arge^ the bands retaining their usual shape, only 

the inner one being occasionally somewhat tooth-like " 

" The larva doubtless hibernates full-grown. No description is extant, but 
fortunately I have a blown larva before me from the Riley collection, as 
well as cast skins from the Department of Agriculture, and some notes 
(Dept. Agr. No. 2588). The larva is grayish black, head black, the body 
rather grayish brown, with a broad, distinct, straight, cream-coloured dorsal 
stripe. Hair rather long and, though coarse, somewhat soft and brownish. 
Spiracles white. The notes add a more or less interrupted white subdorsal 
line, but it does not show in the blown or alcoholic specimens nor in the 
cast skins. The larva is a close ally oi arge, but differs in the absence (or 
reduction) of the subdorsal lines. The full life-history is needed." 

Distribution. — Grand Forks, B. C, June (H. Brainerd). This specimen 
is in the collection of Mr. A. F. Winn, of Montreal, who kindly gave me the 
particulars. Calgary, Alta., June 9 (WoUey-Dod); Aweme, Man. (Criddle). 

Michabo, var. minea. — A single specimen of the variety, which has 
been so identified by Dr. Dyar, was sent from Osoyoos, B. C, to Dr. 
Fletcher by Mr. C. deBlois Green. 

4. Parthenice is by no means uncommon. The moths appear 
usually in late July and August, generally about the middle of the latter 
month. Small specimens of virgo are often confused with parthenice, but 
the former s[)ecies can readily be distinguished by the broad lining of the 
median vein, and the two, or more, discal spots of the secondaries. Par- 
thejiice has but one discoidal spot. I have never seen the larva of this 
moth. Saunders describes it as black, with a flesh-coloured dorsal stripe, 
tubercles yellowish, bearing tufts of stiff hairs which are black on the dorsum 
and brown on the sides, and feet and prolegs yellowish, tipped with black 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 117 

The life-history of this species is needed, and, as the moths are fairly com- 
mon, it ought not to be difficult to obtain eggs. Males of the species 
were abundant at light, near Ottawa, in August last, but, unfortunately, no 
females could be captured, or doubtless we could have secured ova. 

Distribution. — Victoria, B. C, June 27 (E. M. Anderson) ; Calgary, 
Aha., July 23, 25 (Wolley-Dod) ; Biackfalds, Alta , August (Gregson) ; 
Prince Albert, Sask., July 6 (Fletcher); Beulah, Man., July 15, 21, 22 
(Dennis); Aweme, Man. (Criddle) ; Winnipeg, Man., July iS, 19, 27 
(Hanham) ; Cartwright, Man., July, Aug. (Heath) ; -Sudbury, Ont., July 
27' (Evans) ; London, Ont. (Saunders) ; Amherstburg, Ont., early Sept. 
(E. B. Reed); Hamilton, Ont. (Moffat); Caesarea, Ont., Aug. 12 (Gibson); 
Grimsby, Ont. (Metcalfe); Toronto, Ont. (Bethune, Gibson) ; Cobourg, 
Ont. (Bethune); Port Hope, Ont. (Bethune), Aug. 13 (Metcalfe); Ros- 
seau, Ont., July 28 (Winn) ; Orillia, Ont., Aug. 10, 17, iS, 31, Sept. 2 
(Grant) ; Trenton, Ont., July 30, Aug. 23-27 (Evans); Ottawa, Ont., Aug. 
6, 10, 13, 14, 16, 19, 27 (Fletcher, Young, Richard, (jibson) ; Meech 
Lake, Que., Aug. 16, 19, 22, 31, Sept. 6, fresh specimen (Young); Rigaud, 
Que. (Desrochers); Montreal, Que. (Brainerd), Aug. 9 (Lyman); Murray 
Bay, Que., .4ug. (Winn) ; Roberval, Que., July 27 (Lyman) ; Little Metis, 
Que., July, Aug. (Winn); Quebec, Que., Aug. 6 (Fyles) ; Jaquet River, 
N. B., August (Winn) ; St. John, N. B., Aug. 1-15 (Mcintosh). 

5. Recti LINEA. — This Arctian is very rare in Canada. We have only 
three records of its occurrence. The species is supposed by some to be 
the same as phyllira, and larvre which the writer had from eggs, with the 
female rectilinea correctly associated, certainly answered very well to the 
description of the larva oi phyllira as published by Packard. The eggs 
of rectilinea above mentioned were received from Mr. A. Kwiat, of 
Chicago, and were laid on the 27th and 28th Aug., and hatched on the 
5th and 6th Sept. The following ootes were taken on the larval stages : 

Stage /.—Length when hatched 1.8 mm. General colour dirty 
whitish, after feeding greenish brown. Head 0.3 to 0.37 mm. wide, black, 
mouth-parts reddish. Thoracic shield black. Tubercles blackish ; bristles 
long, blackish from dorsal tubercles, and silvery from lateral tubercles. 
Tubercle i. very small, ii. and iii. large, of about same size, iv. and v. 
smaller than ii. and iii. ; i., ii., iii., iv. and v. are surrounded more or less 
with reddish brown. In some specimens this colour is hardly, perceptible. 
Bristles from tubercles barbed. Thoracic feet black ; prolegs rather paler 
than venter, semi-translucent. 



118 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Stage II. — Length 3 mm. Head 0.410 0.45 ram. wide, black, shiny, 
sh'ghtly bilobed ; moulh-parts reddish. Body pale brownish, the green 
food contents showing slightly, more or less, through the skin. Tubercles 
all shiny black, and large, with exception of i., which is very small; each 
tubercle but i. bearing a bunch of barbed bristles, those from the dorsal 
tubercles black, others silvery, or whitish. All the segments are marked 
with reddish brown blotches and spots. Spiracles black, very small, 
almost touching tubercle iv. Thoracic feet darker than venter and rather 
translucent ; prolegs paler than venter, setse short and pale. 

Stage III. — Length 6 mm. Head 0.6 to 0.67 mm. wide, black, shiny. 
In general appearance the larvas may be said to be black, with pale, slightly 
yellowish, dorsal, lateral and stigmatal stripes. On examination with a lens, 
however, the skin is seen to be pale, but thickly mottled and suffused with 
dark brown. All the tubercles are shiny black, and, with the exception 
of i., large. Tubercles as before, ii. with a polished base. Bristles black, 
with exception of those from lower lateral tubercles, which are pale. 
Tubercles on dorsum of segments 12 and 13 bear a few extra long 
bristles. Thoracic feet shiny black ; prolegs concolorous with venter ; 
setcG pale and short. Towards the end of the stage the larvae lose their 
dark colour, changing to a reddish brown. 

Stage IV. — Length 7.5 mm. Head 0.9 to i.o mm. wide, black. In 
general appearance black larvje with black bristles, and a pale yellow 
dorsal stripe, also an indistinct lateral stripe. The skin on the sides of 
body shows some green, the venter being paler. Tubercles black, bristles 
barbed, from all tubercles above spiracles pure black. Bristles from lower 
tubercles mostly pale, rather reddish. Dorsal stripe clear pale yellow, 
expanded almost into a spot on the middle of each segment. Spiracles 
small and black. Thoracic feet shiny jet black, prolegs concolorous with 
venter. 

Stage V. — Length 10.5 mm. Head 1.2 mm. wide, black, cheek 
above ocelli brown ; epistoma pale. Body black ; dorsal stripe as in last 
Stage, skin between tubercles ii. and iii. yellowish. Tubercle i. small, ii. 
large, both i. and ii. black, ii. with a polished base ; iii., iv. and v. are now 
partly brownish yellow, vi.. vii. and viii. wholly black. Skin of body below 
tubercle ii. not so black. Spiracles small, black, round, just in front of 
tubercle iv. liristles from tubercles as before, but the pale bristles below 
si)iracles, in some specimens, do not show any red. Thoracic feet as 
before ; prolegs, upper portion shiny black exteriorly, paler below. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 110 



Stage VI. — Length 15 mm. Head 1.6 mm. wide, as before, median 
suture in some specimens pale. In general appearance the larvjxj in this 
Stage are black, hairy caterpillars, either with a dorsal stripe (indistinct or 
absent on posterior two segments of body) of bright yellow, expanded 
almost into spots as in Stage iv., or a series of spots, one on each segment, 
down the middle of the dorsum. In all specimens along the upper por- 
tion of sides is also a series of paler yellowish spots. Tubercles as in last 
Stage, the summits of iii., iv. and v. being pale brownish yellow. Bristles 
from dorsal tubercles black. In most specimens those from iv. are black, 
from v., vi., vii. and viii. pale, slightly rusty. Thoracic feet black, shiny ; 
prolegs, upper two-thirds black, lower third pale greenish brown ; claspers 
blackish gray. 

Stage F//.— Length 21 mm. In general appearance, black hairy 
larvae, with a row of small yellow spots down the dorsum, and conspicuous 
rows of yellowish subdorsal and lateral tubercles. Head 2.0 mm. wide, 
subquadrate, flattened in front, slightly bilobed, shiny black ; ocelli black ; 
epistoma dull whitish-brown ; cheek above ocelli near segment 2 pale 
brownish ; antennse whitish-brown at base, remainder blackish. Body 
cylindrical, segments rather deeply divided. Skin dull grayish black, 
overlaid with patches and streaks of rich velvety black, particularly 
dorsally and laterally, giving a deep black appearance. Dorsal 
stripe broken up into a row of yellow spots. All the tubercles, 
with but few exceptions, yellowish, with a black base, the subdorsal and 
lateral series most conspicuous. Tubercle i. small, about one-ninth the 
size of ii., which has a broad polished base. Spiracles black, with a dull 
yellowish centre, close in front of tubercle iv. Bristles barbed, those on 
dorsum mostly black, on lower portion of sides pale. Thoracic feet black, 
shiny ; prolegs pale, each with a large black shiny plate anteriorly. 

The above larvae when they stopjjed feeding were put outside for the 
winter. Unfortunately, however, none of them came through alive, so we 
were unable to breed a series of the moths. Possibly some of us may 
again be fortunate enough to obtain eggs, and rear the sjjecies to maturity. 

Distribution. — Calgary, Alta. (Willing) ; Beulah, Man., July 14 
(Dennis) ; Awerae, Man., Aug. 6 (Criddle). 

6. Anna. — This species also seems to be rare in Canada. In 1S96 
I collected six specimens of the variety persepJionc, and at that time asso- 
ciated them with virguncula, probably because they occurred at the same 
time, and I thought bore a somewhat close resemblance to that species. 



120 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Persephone, however, is a larger form than virguncula, and the fore wings 
are more h'ke those oiparf/ienice, but the markings are much heavier. Anna 
differs from the variety persephone chiefly in having the hind wings wholly 
black. The larval stages of the /^r.yif///<7«^ form were described by Dr. 
Dyar in Vol. S, p. 53, of Psyche. These larvae were entirely deep black, with 
shining tubercles, and stiff black bristles alike in colour throughout. We 
have never had an opportunity of studying the earlier stages of this species 
at Ottawa, as it does not occur here to our knowledge. Some of our mem- 
bers may be fortunate enough some time to get ova, and if so it would be 
interesting to know just to what extent the larvae vary. 

Distribjition. — Typical Anna has been taken at Toronto, Ont.. June 
20 (Metcalfe), and at London, Ont. ; the vdiXXQiy persephone at Hamilton, 
Ont. (Moffat); Toronto, June 6, 27 (Gibson), June 3, 4 (McDunnough) ; 
June 18 (Metcalfe); Springfield-on-Credit, Ont. (Bethune). 

7. Ornata. — This is a western species occurring in Canada, as far 
as we know, only in British Columbia. It is a rather large, handsome 
Arctian, some specimens measuring i^ inches in expanse of wings, but 
the average width is i^^ inches; a series of the moths will show great 
variation. Typical ornata seems to be rare, most of our specimens and 
those we have seen being either the form achaia or ochracea, of which the 
veins on the primaries are lined. The colour of the secondaries in the species 
varies from yellow to red. During the past summer Mr. J. W. Cockle, of 
Kaslo, B. C, kindly sent us a batch of eggs of ornata.* These were 
laid on the 30th June and hatched on the 8th July. The following notes 
were taken on the larval stages : 

Stage I. — Length at first 2.2 mm. Colour whitish, after feeding 
greenish. Head 0.4 to 0.45 mm. wide, dark brown, shiny. Cervical 
shield concolorous with head. On each segment there is the usual row of 
transverse tubercles; these are black; i, small, ii. large, iii. nearly the same 
size as ii., iv. and v. smaller. Setse long and slender. Tubercles ii., iii., 
iv. and v. are faintly surrounded with reddish brown. Feet concolorous; 
thoracic feet semi-translucent. 

Stage II. — Length 4 mm. Head 0.5 to 0.6 wide, pale brown, dark- 
ened at inside apex of cheeks ; ocelli black ; mouth-parts reddish. Body 
pale greenish, with a light bluish dorsal stripe. Cervical shield and 



*The female which laid the eggs has since been received, and submitted to Dr. 
Dyar, who has confirmed our identification. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 121 

tubercles black, shiny; tubercles ii., iii., iv. and v. as in last Stage, blotched 
anteriorly and posteriorly with reddish brown. Mostly black bristles from 
i., ii. and iii., the others silvery; from lower tubercles mostly silvery 
bristles, only a few black ones. Bristles barbed. Spiracles black, small, 
close in front of tubercle iv. Feet concolorous with venter, semi-trans- 
lucent. 

Stage III. — Length 6 mm. Head 0.75 to 0.9 mm. wide ; inside 
half of cheek dark brown, outer half pale brown; ocelli black; mouth- 
parts reddish-brown ; some heads much darker than others. In general 
appearance the larvfe are brownish caterpillars, with a pale blue dorsal 
stripe. The tubercles are black and shiny ; bristles barbed, from i. and 
ii. all black, except on thoracic segments, where there are a few silvery 
bristles ; from iii. and iv. mostly black, a few silvery; from lower tubercles 
mostly silvery. Tubercle i. small, ii. large and with a polished base. Skin 
of body from the dorsal stripe to lower edge of tubercle ii. pale brown, 
with a greenish tinge. Between ii. and iii. the skin is pale greenish- 
yellow, and between iii. and iv. and below iv. the skin is blotched with 
brown. Venter greenish. Feet semi-translucent. Segments 11, 12 and 
13 bear a few very long silvery hairs. 

Stage IV. — Length 8.5 mm. In general appearance dark brown, 
with a pale, bluish-yellow dorsal stripe. Head i.o to i.i mm. wide, as in 
last Stage. Tubercles and bristles as in last Stage, some very long slender 
hairs from segments 12 and 13. Spiracles small, black, close in front of 
tubercle iv. Later in the Stage the larvaj, under a lens, appear as greenish 
caterpillars, rather densely blotched and splashed with reddish-brown, and 
the dorsal stripe loses to a great extent its bluish-yellow colour, becoming 
rather inconspicuous. The skin along the side just above tubercles iii. and 
iv. has a yellowish tint. Thoracic feet brownish, rather translucent ; pro- 
legs concolorous with venter. 

Stage V. — Length 12 mm. Head 1.2 to 1.3 mm. wide, shiny, black, 
with exception of brov/nish patch just above ocelli. Skin under a lens is 
brownish, bearing blotches of velvety black. A few days after moulting 
the blotches are more of a dark purplish shade, or a dull reddish brown. 
In most specimens the dorsal stripe has disappeared, but in some it is still 
apparent under a lens. Tubercles as in last Stage ; bristles faintly barbed. 
The bristles from tubercles i., ii., iii. and upper half of iv. are black, those 
from lower half of iv., and from v., vi., vii. and viii. pale rusty. Spiracles 
small, black, close in front of tubercle iv. The two posterior segments 



122 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

bear some extra long slender hairs as before. Venter much paler than 
dorsum, of a greenish-brown tinge. Thoracic feet shiny black ; prolegs 
concolorous with venter. 

Stage VI. — Length 17 mm. Head 1.4 to 1.6 mm. wide, subquadrate, 
slightly depressed at vertex; black, shiny; epistoma pale; mouth-parts 
reddish; setip black and slender; cheek above ocelli pale brownish, 
mottled with darker brown. Skin of body velvety black on dorsum, gray- 
ish-green ventrally. No markings on the body. Tubercles black; bristles 
from i., ii., iii. and iv. black, those from v. and lower tubercles pale rust- 
red ; bristles faintly barbed. Some long, slender bristles from dorsum of 
two posterior segments as before. Thoracic feet black, shiny; prolegs 
reddish. Larvse do not vary. 

On tlie 3rd September 21 specimens were living, and as they were not 
feeding very much and looked unhealthy, they were put outside. Later, 
when they were examined (25ih Oct.), every specimen was found to have 
died. Mr. Cockle retained some of the eggs himself, but he has since told 
us that his larvae also suffered a similar fate. Possibly during the coming 
season eggs may again be secured and more successful results obtained. 
Mr. Cockle states that the moths are rare at Kaslo. 

Distribiiiion. — Specimens of orjiata have been taken at Osoyoos, B. 
C. (C. de B. Green) ; Kaslo, B. C, June 30, July 2 (Cockle) ; of the form 
achaia at Osoyoos, B. C. (Green) ; Kaslo, B. C, July 25, 26 (Cockle) ; of 
the form ochracea at Kaslo, B. C, June 8 (Cockle) ; Victoria, B. C. 
(Fletcher), June 7, July 17 (Anderson). 

8. Arge is well known, and rather widely distributed in the eastern 
part of Canada, though I do not think it can, with us, be considered a 
common species. It seems to be double-brooded. We have no records 
of any specimens having been taken west of the Province of Ontario. An 
interesting account of the species has been recently published by Dr. 
Seifert,* accompanied by an excellent plate showing the variation in the 
imagoes. The mature larva measures nearly i^ inches in length, and is 
grayish black, overlaid, especially on the dorsum, with patches of velvety 
black. The dorsal and subdorsal bands are cream colour, shaded with 
pink, and are wide and very distinct. The infra-stigmatal band is nearly 
the same colour, but is waved and broken, and not nearly so distinct. 
The tubercles are dull blackish, not polished. The bristles are faintly 
barbed and rather long, brownish or gray, excepting those from lower 



"JiHiinal oftlie New ^■olk Entomologic.il .Society, March, 1902. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 123 

lateral tubercles, which are rusty. Full-grown larvse have been infrequently 
met with at Ottawa in early October. 

Distribution. — Hamilton, Ont. (Moffat); Toronto, Ont. (R. J. Crew, 
Gibson) ; Trenton, Ont. (Evans) ; Ottawa, May 27, 28 (Young), Aug. 
27 (Fletcher); Rigaud, Que. (Desrochers) ; Montreal, Que.,, July 15 
(Stevenson), Aug. 12 (Norris) ; Beloeil, Que. (Brainerd). 

(To be continued.) 



A DAY'S COLLECTING IN FEBRUARY. 

February 12th (Lincoln's Birthday), of this year, was unusually warm 
and spring-like. The temperature rose as high as 52*^, and the clear sky 
and little wind made it a joy to be out in the open, in the sunshine. 

I went to Staten Island that day, with the intention of working up 
some Orthoptera with Mr. W. T. Davis, but the feel of spring in the air was 
irresistible, and as I was anxious to secure aquatic Hemiptera as early in 
the season as possible, we went by trolley to some woodland ponds near 
Richmond. The fields were very wet on the way, but hopping among 
the dry leaves were young grasshoppers, emerged from their winter's sleep. 
Some Diptera also were hiding among them, and they were quite active 
when disturbed. 

When we arrived at the pond, a disappointment awaited us. It was 
nearly all frozen over ! However, we pushed through the brambles to the 
edge, and began to fish under the thin ice. I took on this side of the 
pond two Corixa Harrisii, active. Working our way along the side to the 
end where the outlet was, we found the water free from ice. On the sur- 
face, two species of Podurans were abundant, and an immature Jassid 
was floating and jumping. We got none of these. Waiter beetles, also, 
were swimming about. 

The sun, meantime, was melting the ice, and as we got to the 
opposite side from where we started, quite half the pond was clear. On 
this side, Haliplidse and Dytiscidae were more abundant, swimming freely 
or else clinging to the stems of the bushes rising from the water, sunning 
themselves. 

On the trunk of a white birch I saw an Aciliiis semisulcatus, about 
six inches from the surface, on the sunny side. It was alarmed by the 
noise I made, and dropped into the water. Contrary to what seemed to 
be the rule, this beetle submerged itself with great ease, 

Here, also, I took a Haliplid from a bush, on which there were a 



124 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



number resting an inch or two from the water. These, however, seemed 
to be somewhat torpid, as they could be brushed into the net easily, and 
lay there motionless. Those that fell into the water seemed to experience 
great difficulty in getting under. We also took two other species of these 
and a small Hydrophilid, swimming. 

As we sat at lunch, several species of Diptera were flying about. 
We also saw a Hemerobian and one of the Microlepidoptera, which we 
failed to catch. 

We had by this time exhausted the possibilities of this pond, so went 
to another about a hundred feet away. This was even more disappoint- 
ing. Tliick ice covered it everywhere, except around the roots of a large 
apple tree, where there was a clear space of about a foot. This was 
swarming vvitli the Crustacean Branchippus. 

I wanted to get some Hydrobatidas, as well as more of the other 
aquatics, and Mr. Davis suggested Richmond Brook, where we went across 
fields. The earth was simply sodden. 

In the brook there was more life and better collecting. Gerris re- 
migis was quite abundant, active, and, in some instances, in copulo. 
Between Mr. Davis and myself we took about 30 specimens. They were 
found in the backwaters under the overhanging banks, or hiding among 
the drift. 

Clinging to the grains of sand or to small pebbles, in the quieter, 
deeper portions of the stream, were numbers of another species of Corixa, 
which I have not as yet determined. These insects were exceedingly 
active and lively, and scurried away before the net like a flock of birds, 
but we caught many, nevertheless. 

On the surface, in some portions, a small Perlid, Capnia necydaloides, 
was to be seen lightly floating. One I took from a Gerris that was feed- 
ing on it. Several others Mr. Davis and I took as they floated on the 
water, and two were caught on the white surface of a recently-cut stump, 
which seemed to have a great attraction for them. When we souglit to 
capture them they ran swiftly away without attempting to take flight, and 
hid in the cracks of the bark, with which they harmonized in colour. 

We also observed some Chironomids resting on the stream ; and 
under stones and among trash at the bottom, Perlid nymphs and Ephem- 
erid larvse were abundant. In a sandy, shallow spot we saw a number of 
tubes, possibly about two inches long, rising into the water from the 
bottom, but we did not find the maker. These seemed to consist of silk, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 125 

and were coated with grains of sand, which made them about tlie thick- 
ness of a pipestera. 

When we left the brook on our return home, we felt that we had had 
a very successful day. We had gone really on a venture, and we had 
found much more than we expected, and had a delightful outing into the 
bargain. 

In the early Spring, on such days as this, aquatic insects can be very 
profitably collected, especially for life-history work. They are active long 
before any others, as soon as the ice begins to disappear, and present a 
practically unexplored field to the earnest entomologist. To the mere 
collector they offer no inducement to compensate for the labour of col- 
lecting them, and are exceedingly uninteresting, being ordinarily incon- 
spicuous, sombre in coloration and retiring in habit. But to the scien- 
tific worker they present some of the most interesting adaptations to 
environment and conditions in the entire field of entomology. 

Two days later I went to the Mosholu locality in this vicinity, and 
my experience there illustrates this point. Although I spent a good deal 
more time there, I saw but few insects flying, all Diptera. My catch was 
all Coleoptera, none active, all hibernating under stones, and consisted 
principally of Staphylinidse, some Carabidae, one Elater ; and also, one 
active Jassid, undetermined. It was not as good in numbers or variety as 
the one of the 12th, although the latter locality in Summer is very rich 
in species and abundant as to numbers. 

J. R. DE LA Torre Bueno, New York. 



^GIALITES DEBILIS, MANN. 

Leconte and Horn, in their " Classification,'' say of this beetle : 
" It is of such extreme rarity as to have been seen by but few entomolo- 
gists." It was with considerable interest, therefore, that I captured my 
first specimen one March afternoon in 1894. I was lying on a pebbly 
sea beach, turning over stones, when I came upon Ai. debili^ on the 
under side of a stone. From Leconte's description I felt pretty sure that 
my identification was correct, and it was subsequently confirmed by Dr. 
Fletcher, of Ottawa. Leconte says the beetle is black, but he had prob- 
ably seen only dried specimens. Freshly-taken specimens show a distinctly 
green tinge. The insect is about .15 inch long, and in general shape sug- 
gests a small carabid. 

Many a subsequent search in the same locality proved fruitless, for 
the insect's proper habitat, as I afterwards discovered, is not among loose 



126 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Stones. It is essentially a rock-frequenting species. It occurs in large 
numbers in some conglomerate boulders on the northern shore of the 
Queen Charlotte Islands. These boulders lie about half-way between the 
tide-marks, and the large pebbles embedded in them have become 
loosened by the action of the water, but still remain in their matrices. It 
is between these pebbles and the matrices that the beetles live, their 
compressed forms admirably adapting them for moving in so confined a 
space. 

On the mainland of British Columbia, opposite the Queen Charlotte 
Islands, the beetle again occurs in considerable numbers. There the shore 
rocks are of a slaty formation, and the action of the tide tends to 
separate portions of them into large flakes, beneath which the beetles find 
congenial shelter. On removing one of these flakes with a chisel a whole 
colony of ^. deb His is disclosed. I feel sure that the insect might be 
discovered in many places along our Pacific coast, if carefully sought for. 
For a long time this beetle was the only representative, not only of its 
genus, but of its family. Professor Comstock states, however, in his 
Insect Manual, that another species has recently been taken in California. 

The beetle is active all the year round. This morning (Feb. 14th), 
wanting to examine a few living specimens, I had no difliculty in procuring 
all I needed, though the ground is frozen hard and covered with snow. 
I have seen it copulating in February, and have taken both larvae and 
pupae in July. It is extremely deliberate in its movements. Its sharp 
claws enable it to adhere so firmly to the surface of the rock that it is 
sometimes difficult to dislodge it without injury. Unlike other marine 
species with which I have experimented, it shows no objection to entering 
the water, but does so readily from the top of a half-submerged stone. It 
seems helpless when floating on the water, but can sink at will when once 
beneath the surface. I placed some specimens on a stone in a dry 
dish, and gradually added sea-water till the stone was submerged, imitat- 
ing the approach of the tide. The beetles remained stationary, and 
allowed the water to cover them, when a large bubble of air could be seen 
under their partly raised elytra. 

I am in want of a few popularly interesting beetles {e. g., glow-worm, 
fire-fly, Egyptian sacred beetle, Pyrophorus, Noctilucus, etc.) for use in 
lectures to young people. I would gladly send a series of y£. debilis to 
any entomologist who might care to make the exchange. 

J. H. Keen, Metlakatla, B. C. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 127 

NEW NOCTUIDS FOR 1903. No. 3— WH^H NOTES ON SOME 

DESCRIBED SPECIES. 

BY JOHN I!. SMITH, SC. D. , RUTGERS COLLEGE, N. J. 

The first paper of this series is in the January number of this 
Journal (pp. 9-14) ; the second is in the April issue of the Journal of the 
New York Entomological Society. The present instalment deals chiefly 
with species found in the Western Provinces of British America and 
a few others that are likely to occur there. The determination of a 
new species of Rancora from Calgary and Manitoba makes , some general 
remarks on that genus timely. There is a number of excellent collectors 
now hard at work on the Noctuid fauna of that general region and ex- 
tending westward to A^ancouver, whose work deserves the greatest praise 
and to whose efforts is due the development of a totally new faunal 
region for this family of moths. 

Acronycta tartarea, n. sp.— Head, thorax and outside of tibise black- 
ish ; orbits of the eyes nearly white. Primaries uniform, very deep 
smoky, almost black ; the maculation neatly written in velvety black. 
There is a black basal streak to the t. a. line, which is most obvious at 
this point, fading toward the costa and inner margin ; there is a little spur 
at the middle of the streak beneath, and above it is bordered by a narrow 
white line. T. a. line almost obsolete, geminate, outwardly oblique. 
T. p. line velvety black, preceded by a whitish shade, broken, squarely 
exserted over the cell, deeply incurved below, the black lunate mark in 
the submedian interspace forming the most {prominent part of the wing. 
A black streak begins just within the centre of this mark, crosses it and 
reaches the outer margin above the inner angle. Three white costal dots 
between t. p. and s. t. lines. S. t. line whitish, diffuse, broken, followed 
by small black interspaceal spots. A series of black terminal lunules, 
preceded by whitish shadings. Fringes smoky at base, outwardly white. 
Orbicular moderate, round, black-ringed, inwardly edged by white 
scales. Reniform rather large, broadly lunate, narrowly outlined in black, 
inwardly edged by sparse white scales, centre a little brown tinged. 
Secondaries white, with a smoky outer border, broadest at apex, and 
nearly lost at anal angle. Beneath : primaries smoky, the margins paler; 
a vague pale extra-median line. Secondaries more powdery, with a dis- 
tinct discal spot. 

Expands. — 1.40 inches-35 mm. 

Habitat. — Calgary, Alberta, June 23, head of Pine Creek. 



\2S THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



One almost perfect male from Mr. F. H. Wolley Dod. This is, to 
my mind, one of the handsomest of our species of Acronycta. It re- 
sembles a somewhat undersized very dark even grisea ; but it is actually 
nearer \.o f alalia in structure and details of maculation. I have never 
seen any tendency in either grisea or revellata to vary in this direction 
and believe I have a good species. 

Nodua Trumani, n. sp. — Ground colour luteous brown, varying a 
little from a rusty to a smoky tinting. The head and the tips of the palpi 
may be paler, more yellowish. Thorax concolorous, collar and patagise 
fairly marked, vestiture rather loose, hairy, with the scaly admixture slight. 
Primaries without contrasts save that sometimes the reniform, and mere 
rarely the orbicular, are obviously paler than the rest of the wing. All 
the usual lines are present, slender, brown, very slightly relieved. Basal 
line single, slender, evenly curved, lending to become lost in the darker 
specimens. T. a. line single, slender, somewhat irregular, a little out- 
curved in the interspaces, and as a whole a little outwardly oblique : it 
tends to become lost in the darker examples. T. p. line single, slender, 
blackish, crenulate, in course parallel to the outer margin, tending to 
break up into a series of venular dots, which are obvious in all the speci- 
mens before me. S. t. line pale, rather even, somewhat diffuse, preceded 
by a slightly darker shading in the s. t. space, and sometimes further 
relieved by a darker tint in the terminal space : the tendency is to obscure 
the line, and in one example it is marked only by the dusky s. t. shade. A 
dusky terminal line and a yellow line at the base of the dusky fringes. A 
dusky, somewhat diffuse median shade is obvious in some specimens, 
extending from the costa between the ordinary spots and from the lower 
edge of the reniform nearly direct to the inner margin. This shade may 
be entirely lost, but usually the darkening of the cell between the ordinary 
spots remains, aud even more generally the dusky shade at the lower end 
of the reniform. Claviform indicated in one specimen only by a line of 
darker scales, and may be said to be wanting. Orbicular round or a 
little oval, moderate in size, more or less completely outlined by dusky 
scales, sometimes annulate with yellowish and scnuetimes entirely paler 
than the ground colour of tlie primaries. Reniform of good size, kidney- 
shaped, the sides defined by dark scales, uj^per and lower margins often 
indefinite, middle of the spot more or less obviously yellow, sometimes 
contrasting quite strongly, sometimes scarcely relieved from the 
ground. Secondaries in the male pale yellowish, veins smoky, 



THE CANADIAN f^NTOMOLOGlST. 129 



with a smoky outer border, through which there is a more or 
less obvious yellowish shade line : in the female the wings are uniformly 
smoky, with somewhat contrasting yellowish fringes. Beneath, primaries 
smoky brown, paler outwardly, more or less powdery, with a more or less 
obvious smoky outer line : secondaries pale dirty yellowish, powdered 
along the costa, with an outer extra-median smoky shade line that may 
cross the costal region only and rarely attains the inner margin. 

Expands. — i. 20-1.36 inches = 30-34 mm. 

Habitat. — Volga, South Dakota. 

Four males and one female, in fair condition. Some time before his 
death the late Judge P. C. Truman sent me several boxes of Noctuids, 
supposedly duplicates, intended to give me an idea of the general char- 
acter of his local fauna. The specimens were unmounted and were 
picked over from time to time to get such species as were being studied. 
Recently the entire material has been spread, and I find in it the species 
here described, obviously resembling the rtibifera series of Noctiia, but 
differing from all in the robust build, subequal stumpy primaries and 
yellowish secondaries, which, in the male, have a broad outer dark shade, 
in which is a yellowish band. The male antennte are distinctly ciliated, 
and the genitalia are unique in having at the lower margin of the harpes a 
prominent tooth-like process. The tip is gradual, somewhat pointed, and 
has a dense brush of spinules. The clasper is very stout, short, curved, 
abruptly drawn into a slender pointed tip. The single median lines, 
and especially the crenulate t. p. line, are characteristic, while the .first 
impression gained by the wing form is that of a Taeniocampa belongmg 
to the rufula series. 

It is more than probable that this species will be found in the col- 
lections of those who have made exchanges with Judge Truman, and it is 
almost certain to be represented in the collection left by him. 

Feltia obliqua, n. sp. — Ground colour ranges from dark luteous brown 
to smoky or even blackish brown. Head rusty brown, with a more or 
less obvious dusky line across the front. Collar inferiorly dark brown, 
limited above by a black line ; upper half pale brown, based by a whitish 
line that serves to relieve the black central line which it borders. 
Thoracic disk paler than primaries, with a grayish tinge. Primaries very 
evenly coloured, except that the upper half of wing to the t. p. line is 
somewhat darker, the markings neatly written and not contrasting. Basal 
line geminate, black, marked over costal area only, very close to the root 



130 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



of the wing. T. a. line geminate ; inner line scarcely defined, outer line 
black, included spaces usually a very little paler ; in course inwardly oblique 
from the costa to the internal vein, then with a long outward tooth that 
nearly or quite reaches the middle of the margin. T. p. line geminate, 
inner line black or blackish, crenulate ; outer line obscure, even, puncti- 
form or entirely lost beyond the costal region : the line as a whole very 
little outcurved over cell. S. t. line very narrow, pale, strongly denticu- 
late, preceded or followed or both by black sagittate marks, which may be 
wanting; the line itself sometimes becoming almost lost. A continuous 
black terminal line, followed by a pale line at the base of the fringes. 
Orbicular oval, deciuiibent, of the ground colour, more or less completely 
outlined by black scales. Reniform small, somewhat kidney-shaped, 
concolorous, outlined in black or brown. The cell between the spots is 
black, and a black line extends beyond the reniform to the t. p. line. A 
black streak or mark extends from the base to the t. a. line, and has 
attached to it a small, black-margined claviform. There is a diffuse 
smoky median shade, variably distinct, which crosses from below the 
reniform close to and parallel with the t. p. line. Secondaries smoky 
fuscous, a little paler basally in the male. Beneath gray, powdery, with a 
more or less complete outer line ; secondaries also with a discal spot. 
Expands. — 1.20- 1.36 inches = 30-34 mm. 

Habitat. — Calgary, Alberta, head of Pine Creek, May 31, June 16; 
mouth of Fish Creek, June 3, at light : Mr. F. H. WoUey Dod. 

This is a small species of the size of gravis, with the general Vau- 
couverensis type of maculation. The very even colouring on which the 
maculation is neatly written will serve to define this form. Mr. Dod has 
sent me two males and two females, no two exactly alike in colour, yet 
forming a pair of light brown and a pair of dark brown examples. It is 
probable that the range of variation will prove greater than the series 
before me indicates. 

Feltia Hudsonii, n. sp. — Ground colour, pale ashen gray. Head 
varying to brown : without distinct markings. Collar brown, with a black, 
central transverse line, above which is a whitish line : the tip also paler. 
Disk and patagiae edged and marked with brownish. Primaries more or 
less suffused with smoky or blackish. The gray shading obtains through 
the costal region, along the inner margin, below the median vein, in the 
subterminal space, and at apex. The orbicular is V-shaped, open to the 
costa, and of the same general gray colour. The reniform is moderate in 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 131 



size, oblique, lunate ralher than kidney shaped, pale yellow in colour. 
The claviform extends almost across the median space, is black margined, 
and filled with blackish. The basal line is gray, margined on each side 
by black scales, obvious on the costa, and inwardly oblique through the 
cell. The t. a. line is obvious as an upright, yellowish line through the 
cell. T. p. line gray through the costal area and over the cell ; then 
chiefly marked by the contrast between the median and s. t. spaces. S. t. 
line marked only by the contrasting dark terminal space, which is crossed 
by white rays on veins 3 and 4. There is a broken, black terminal line, 
and a yellowish line at the base of the fringes. Secondaries white, be- 
coming smoky at the outer margin, glossy, with white fringes. Beneath, 
primaries smoky, except along the inner margin, where they are white. 
Secondaries white, with a smoky patch at apex, which tends to form a 
smoky outer margin. 

Expands. — 1.28 -1.40 inches = 32 -35 mm. 

Habitat. — Calgary, Alberta, head of Pine Creek, August 7, 16, at 
light : Mr. F. H. Wolley Dod. 

One $ and four 9 ? are at hand, all in very nice condition. Mr. 
Dod originally sent me this species among, some examples of subgothica, 
which it resembles at first sight. It is, however, decidedly smaller, more 
slenderly built throughout, much paler in colour, with white secondaries in 
both sexes. The antennae of the male are less obviously '■' brush-like " 
than in the allies, and, all together, the new form is perhaps the best 
defined of any in this series. I cannot recollect having seen this from 
any other or previous source. 

Carneades maimes, n. sp. — Ground colour brown, variably tinged from 
luteous to smoky or ferruginous. Head usually of the suffusing tinge, 
without obvious markings. Collar with a black central line, sometimes 
with a white line below it ; inferior half of collar pale, contrasting in the 
dark specimens, not differing much in those that run to reddish or luteous. 
Thorax ranging from rusty red-brown to blackish without markings, 
except for a diagonal white line which runs from the costal edge of the 
primaries across the patagia. This is variably distinct, sometimes prom- 
inent ; but always traceable in good specimens. Primaries with all the 
maculation obvious, median vein prominently white ; costal region gray 
powdered or with a luteous tinge ; a distinct yellowish bar from the end 
of the claviform to the t. p. line ; ordinary spots prominently pale or 
white-ringed, with usually more or less contrasting centres. Basal line 



132 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

white, more or less obvious, edged with black scales, outwardly angled 
on the sub-costal. A blackish shade below median vein at base. T. a. 
line geminate, defining lines black, included shade white or of the palest 
ground ; inner defining line often obscure or wanting ; outer line some- 
times wanting, the white included space then alone obvious : in course it 
is inwardly oblique from the costa to the median vein, then a little out- 
curved to the submedian, below which it forms a long outward tooth. 
T. p. line geminate, abruptly bent from costa over the cell, then very 
even, parallel with the outer margin : the inner defining line is black or 
blackish, not contrasting, lunulate, broken ; outer line blackish, even, 
broken on the veins, tending to disappear, remaining longest over the 
costal area ; included space pale, sometimes contrasting, sometimes merg- 
ing into the paler tinting of the s. t. space. S. t. line pale, distinct, very 
slightly irregular, almost lunulate, in some cases relieved by the darker 
terminal space and by preceding black spots and dashes in the s. t. space. 
There is a series of black terminal lunules. Fringes pale, with dusky 
interlines. Claviform black margined and more or less suffused with 
black, extending half-way across the median space. The orbicular varies 
from almost round to an irregular oval, is oblique, white-ringed, the 
upper margin sometimes cut by the pale subcostal, the centre brown or 
luteous. Reniform moderate in size, varying from almost lunate 
to kidney-shaped, pale ringed, the upper and lower edges usually 
broken by the white vein, centre brown or luteous. The 
s. t. space on the whole is paler than the median space, and 
on veins 3 and 4 and 6 and 7 pale rays extend to but rarely even 
indent the s. t. line. The apex is pale. A dusky shade is on the costa 
in the s. t. space. The cell is black or blackish around the ordinary 
spots. Secondaries smoky yellow, darkening to blackish outwardly, the 
fringes whitish. Beneath gray, ranging to smoky or to yellowish ; both 
wings with a more or less obvious outer smoky shade line ; secondaries 
tending to become darker beyond the dark line, and with a small discal 
spot. 

Expands. — 1.12 - i 36 inches = 28 - 34 mm. 

Habitat. — Calgary, Alberta, July 27-August 21 (Mr. Dod) ; Colorado, 
July 18 (Mr. Kemp); Brandon, Manitoba (Mr. Hanham). 

Five males and seven females in fair or good condition are before 
me. The species is a variable one, no two specimens at all alike and yet 
evidently all forms of one species. It resembles Ridingsiafia, Grt., and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 133 



so I had it until Mr. Dod sent me a series for comparison. Compared 
with the Colorado species this is smaller, darker, less powdery in the 
female, with rays on the veins even less marked. The oblique white line 
on the patagia is seen in some examples of Rid'mgsiatia, and does not 
seem to be distinctive. With the males only at hand I should hardly 
venture to separate this species, though even in this sex there are minor 
differences that seem constant. In the females the distinction is well 
marked, that ol niaimes differing little from the male, while in Ridingsiana 
all the examples of that sex are paler, more ashen, dusty gray, with less 
contrasting maculation. 

Hadetia (Xylophasia) sora, n. sp. — Ground colour a deep, some- 
what rusty red brown. Head may be a little darker. Thorax may be 
blackish on disk of patagite, the central divided crest lighter. Primaries 
with the maculation all present, but not contrasting. The basal space is a 
little the lightest part of the wing ; next comes the s. t. space from the 
middle to the inner margin, and then the apex ; but the difference is not 
striking, and is more a mottling with yellowish or gray. The basal line is 
geminate, of the brown ground colour. T. a. line geminate ; the inner 
line obscure, the outer narrow, blackish, the included space a little paler ; 
as a whole the line is outwardly oblique, a little outcurved in the inter- 
spaces, a longer outcurve from the internal vein to the margin. T. p. line 
lunate or even crenulate, geminate, the outer line more even ; as a whole 
with a moderate outcurve over cell and an even course below. S. t. line 
pale, irregular, forming a small W on veins 3 and 4 ; emphasized by a 
narrow brown preceding shade and by the dark smoky terminal space. 
There is a series of blackish terminal lunules, beyond which the fringes 
are cut with luteous. In the basal space there is a slender longitudinal 
black line, which runs beneath the sub-median vein, and does not quite 
reach the t. a. line. Claviform small, concolorous, outlined by black 
scales, pointed, giving rise from the tip to a somewhat diffuse black line, 
which extends across the cell to the t. p. line. Orbicular narrow, oval, 
oblique, not well defined, rmged with yellowish, with or without a j^ale 
centre. Reniform large, a little constricted, incompletely outlined, the 
centre a little smoky. Secondaries smoky brown, a little glossy, the 
fringe more yellowish. Beneath, smoky over a reddish base; both wings 
with a more or less obvious discal spot and a smoky outer shade line or 
band. 

Expands. — 1.64 - 1.84 inches - 41 - 46 mm. 



134 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Habitat. — Calgary, Canada, head of Pine Creek, July 2 and 15: 
Mr. F. H. WoUey Dod. 

Two males in good condition. The species is allied to auranticolor 
and Bavfiesii, but is more even than either, and with a more subdued 
brown colouring. 

Xylophasia /erens, n. sp. — Head and thorax smoky brown ; head 
with a pale interantennal line ; collar with a black median line over a pale 
line, the tip pale ; the tips of the thoracic tuftings pale. The tibi?e and 
tarsi are ringed with yellowish. Primaries with all the maculation well 
written, though not contrasting, the central bar connecting the median 
lines in the s. t. interspace being the most conspicuous. There is an 
obscure longitudinal streak, which does not reach the t. a. line at base. 
Basal line geminate, marked by costal spots only. T. a. line geminate, 
outwardly bent in the interspaces and a little outwardly oblique. T. p. 
line geminate, the outer line obscure and partly punctiform, inner line 
lunulate except in the s. m. interspace. S. t. line pale, broken, a little 
irregular, forming a small W on veins 3 and 4 ; apex pale. There is a 
series of black terminal lunules. The fringes are brown, cut with pale at 
the ends of the veins. As a whole the terminal space is dark, except at 
the apex, and the subterminal space is lighter except on costa ; a black 
mark is on the inner margin near base. A broad black bar through the 
submedian interspace connects the median lines and obscures the clavi- 
form. Orbicular small, oblique, outlined by black scales and ringed by 
white; reniform of moderate size, lunate rather than kidney-shaped; 
spots paler than the ground, with a central smoky lunule. Between these 
spots the cell is darker, and the tendency is to form a preceding black 
spot. There is a sprinkling of olivaceous scales throughout the wing. 
Secondaries yellowish smoky, darker outwardly, a smoky terminal line, 
fringes yellowish. 

Expands. — 1.52 - 1.60 inches ==38-40 mm. 

Habitat. — Calgary VII., 11 and 12, head of Pine Creek, Alberta. 

Two good males from Mr. Dod, who has others. At first sight this 
species is very like allecto ; but closer study shows it to be nearer to 
runata, and, as the genitalia make it a Xylophasia, its separation 
from allecto is positive. As a Xylophasia it is readily distinguished from 
its allies by the broad wings and clean maculation. 

Hadena (Xylophasia) cerivana, Sm. — This is the north-western 
representative of the eastern fifiititna, which was at one time considered 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 13; 



identical with the European basilhiea. Recently Dr. Dyar has referred 
cerivana as a variety to the European basilinea. A good series, repre- 
senting all three of the species, being now at hand, I am confirmed in my 
previous opinions, and present herewith figures of the $ genitalia of each. 
They are drawn to the same scale, with camera lucida and from mounts 
not under pressure. The differences are not great, but they are abso- 
lute, and show our own forms to be more nearly related than either of 
them is to the European form. 

Rancora, Sm. 

Since this genus was described in 1894 a number of examples have 
come to hand that confirm the original generic separation, though in some 
forms the collar may be as hoodlike as in Cucullia and the primaries 
nearly as lanceolate. A peculiar ornamental feature, which was not con- 
sidered of importance v/hen only one species was at hand, turns out to be 
quite characteristic and permanent : it is a rigid black line or bar which 
extends through the cell on the under side of the secondaries, from the 
discal spot to the base, and this does not seem to occur in any species of 
Cucullia. 

Some of the species described as belonging to Cucullia are better 
referable here, and two new species are at hand. 

Cucullia serraticornis, Lintner, belongs to this genus without reason- 
able doubt, and it is practically certain that matricaria, Behr., is the same 
thing. The type of matricaria is a (J in the Strecker collection and is a 
Rancora without any doubt. It is a fairly well-marked species and has 
white secondaries. 

Cucullia solidaginis, Behr., also belongs to Rancora, and one of the 
specimens now before me is out of the type lot from the Strecker collec- 
tion. One S and two 9 are from Corvallis, Oregon, taken March and 
April, at light. This is a dull smoky grayYorm, with narrow pointed wings 
and a very obvious hood. The maculation is all very obscure and smoky, 
not a clear black line occurring anywhere on the wing. The secondaries 
in the female are very deep smoky brown, and in the male they are smoky 
outwardly, the base dirty white and somewhat translucent. 

Strigata, Sm., is the type of the genus, and is more robust than 
either of the preceding. The thorax is proportionately much heavier, the 
collar does not form a hood in even the best specimens, and the primaries 
are decidedly shorter and broader. The colour is a clear, dark ashen or 



136 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

bluish gray, and the maculation is clearly written and black. Dr. Dyar 
can hardly have had both these species before him when he wrote strigata 
as a synonym of solidaginis. I have three good males under present 
observation from as many localities in Washington, taken in March and 
April. The type came from Victoria, British Columbia. 

Albicinerea is a very bright gray species, the markings smoky, but 
clearly defined. The median, lines are very much better marked than 
usual in this genus, and in one example the t. p. line is completely trace- 
able. The secondaries in the male are smoky throughout and only a 
little paler at base. Three specimens from Alberta and Manitoba are 
at hand. 

Brucej is a sordid ashen gray form in which the transverse maculation 
is nearly all lost and the black streakings are accompanied by rusty brown 
stains. The head and thoracic disk are also rusty brown. The secondaries 
are dull, even, smoky gray. There is only one male, from Garfield 
County, Colorado, elevation 6,000 feet. 

Cucullia albida, Sm., is also a member of this genus, as is proven by 
a male example now before me. It is distinct from all the others by the 
whitish primaries, on which the markings are very faintly written. It is 
almost as much a Cucullia in wing form as is solidaginis, and, indeed, 
except for the totally different colour, is a closer ally lo it than to any 
other species in this genus. 

In sexual structures the males are very much alike. In all cases there 
is a rather slender harpe coming to an oblique or acute point, and there is 
a long, curved, corneous hook as a clasper. The structure is distinctive 
for each; but the similarity is obvious. In the antennal structure, also, 
there is no striking difference between the species. 

Rancora Brucei, n. sp. — Ground colour a dull, powdery, ashen 
gray. Front, centre of collar, disk of thorax and dorsal tuftings of the 
abdomen tinged with rusty ; other thoracic parts a little paler gray ; 
powdery. Primaries with the transverse maculation practically obsolete. 
The t. a. line is barely indicated by a slightly darker tooth in the sub- 
median interspace. There is a short black streak on the inner margin 
near the base. There is a slender, continuous black line through the sub- 
median interspace from the base to the s. t. space, and this line is a little 
relieved by accompanying pale scales. There is a distinct black curved 
streak above the inner angle, and this is margined with rusty brown. 
Smaller, less conspicuous streaks are in the two following interspaces, and 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 137 



another prominent black, brown-bordered streak is in the space between 
veins 4 and 5 ; small, brown-shaded streaks follow to the apex. There is 
a narrow pale line at the base of the fringes, which are cut with smoky 
brown. The ordinary spots are indicated i)y two pale cloudings con- 
nected by a very narrow black loop. Secondaries dull, smoky gray, 
the fringes white at apex. Beneath, powdery gray, primaries darker on 
disk, with a smoky, discal spot : secondaries more powdery along the 
costal area, and with the characteristic black line in the cell. 

Expands. — 1.84 inches = 46 mm. 

ZTa/^/Vrt/.— Garfield County, Colorado, 6,000 feet ; David Bruce. 

One good male received some years ago. I had considered this a 
washed-out strigata, and it is quite possible that specimens are in collec- 
tions under that name. I am pleased to dedicate so good a species to so 
good a collector. 

Rancora albicinerea, n. sp. — Ground colour whitish ash-gray. Head 
barred and mottled with white and smoky. Collar with a black, trans- 
verse line at lower third, below which the colour is smoky, and above 
which there is a smoky line before and at the tip. Disk of thorax smoky 
brown or blackish : dorsal tufts of abdomen also brown or black. On the 
primaries the maculation is clearly traceable. Basal line indicated on the 
costa only. T. a. line smoky, single, a little diffuse, irregular across the 
costal space, forms a long tooth in the submedian interspace and a shorter 
one above the margin. There is a slender black basal line, which enters 
into the tooth of the t. a. line, but does not cross it. T. p. line forms a 
geminate smoky mark on costa, is faintly traceable in a wide curve over 
the cell, becomes conspicuous below vein 2, and extends obliquely inward 
from vein i. There is a series of interspaceal black dashes; those be- 
tween veins i and 2 and 4 and 5 the longest ; the lines accompanied by a 
smoky shading. At the base of the fringes is a series of blackish spots 
with a gray centre. A median shade is indicated by a curved smoky 
mark from costa over the reniform. The ordinary spots are very faintly 
and incompletely indicated by narrow, black or smoky curved marks. 
Secondaries smoky, a little paler at base, fringes white. Beneath gray, 
powdery ; secondaries with the usual black mark and bar. 
Expands. — 1.68 - 1.76 inches =42 - 44 nim. 

Habitat. — Calgary, Alberta, April 24, at sallows, head of Pine Creek, 
No. 34 (Mr. Dod) ; Rounthwaite and Boucher, Manitoba, end of April. 
Three male specimens, of which those from Manitoba came to me 



138 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



from Dr. Fletcher. All are in good condition and indicate a clear-cut 
species. On the under side of the cell there is a very dense clothing of 
long fine hair, which is present in the males of the other species, but is 
not so well marked. It should be noted that all these species are early 
fliers, and are on the wing as soon as the season opens. March and April 
are the dates for such as have any attached. 



Explanation of Plate 4. 

of (5^ Acronycta tartarea. 

11 (^ Noctua Trumani, 

'I (^ Eueretagrotis inattenta. 

n ($ Scopelosoma Colorado. 

M ^ Hadena tinitima. 

11 ^ 11 cerivana. 

n ^ ti basilinea. 

.1 (^ M runata. 

n ^ 11 ferens. 

11 (J M allecto. 

11 (^ Rancora solidaginis. 

M ^ It strigata. 

-' ^ 11 albicinerea. 

M (J II albida. 

M J M Brucei. 

Eueretagrotis inattenta and Scopelosoma Colorado are not mentioned 
in this paper, but have been recently described from this same general 
faunal region. 



1 


. Harp 


e and 


clasj: 


2 






TI 


3 






II 


4 






II 


5 






II 


6 






II 


7 






II 


8 






II 


9 






II 


10 






II 


II 






M 


12 






II 


13 






II 


M 






II 


15 






M 



THE TOMB OF THOMAS SAY. 

I have just noticed Prof. Webster's note on the tomb of Thomas Say, 
and it may be of interest to your readers to know that I have recently 
visited New Harmony, Ind., and met Mr. John Corbin, the owner of the 
old Maclure home, where stands the tomb of the father of American 
descriptive entomology. Mr. Corbin, as Prof. Webster states, is much 
interested in the proper preservation of this tomb, and is much interested 
also in the history of Thomas Say. In fact, I found many people in the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 139 

little village of New Harmony who knew about Say, and who were dis- 
tinctly of the opinion that his residence in their village sheds lustre on its 
history. The village library is an admirable one, housed in a beautiful 
building, and among the treasures of the library are certain of Say's manu- 
scripts, among others, one written upon the day of his death. — L. O. 
Howard, Washington, D. C. 



NOTE ON THE GENERIC TITLE TRIFURCULA. 

BY A. RADCLIFFE GROTE, HILDESHEIM, GERMANY. 

In my "Descent of the Pierids," Jan., 1900, I have used Tri/urcu/a, 
Staud., Iris., VII., 56, for a genus of Andean Pierids, but this name is 
preoccupied in the Lepidoptera by Zeller, 1848, Staud. & Rebel, Cat. II., 
p. 221. 

Staudinger states (1. c.) that he had at first named the genus 
Piercolias, so this name, though open to criticism, should be used for 
the Pierid genus with the type huanaco, Staud. The morphological 
value of the neurational character of the primaries of Piercolias, which 
led Staudinger to choose the name Tri/urcula, does not seem to have 
been appreciated by him. The gradual progress of R2 towards the 
apices, and of M2 towards the Radius, brings these branchlets in 
juxtaposition. 

SPINNING METHODS OF TELEA POLYPHEMUS. 

In reply to the query suggested by Prof Grote, in the April 
number of the Entomologist (page iio), with reference to the spinning 
methods of Telea, I have discussed the subject with Dr. Fletcher, 
whose opinion is that only some of the cocoons are so suspended, but 
recent search has decided me that in this locality this is the case with 
the majority. 

On April 2nd I found two cocoons on a small willow bush, one 
suspended, with the leaves firmly attached to the stem ; the other 
had been sjum between the overhanging sides of a large leaf that 
had fallen across the limb, thus forming a complete canopy, but the 
cocoon was firmly fastened to the twig with a lot of silk. Diligent 
search amongst the leaves on the ground failed to reveal any fallen 
cocoons. On April 8th I found two cocoons, both suspended on a wild 
currant bush, and though there was a pile of dry straw lying against th? 



140 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



bush, which would have afforded a splendid harbour for the larva, yet no 
signs of any cocoon or silk were found on it. 

In all cases where I have bred Telea they have attached the leaves 
and cocoon to the stem with a silken band, which usually entirely 
surrounds the stem for a distance of over an inch. 

I have collected from 2 to 4 dozen of these cocoons each winter for 
the past three years, and occasionally have found them only very 
insecurely attached, but in every case where they have been spun 
amidst a bunch of fallen leaves, they have had the added protection of 
being fastened to some twig. 

Last fall I discovered two cocoons, from which the moths had 
prematurely emerged, and these were both securely fastened to the end 
of the twigs. 

I shall read with interest all contributions on the subject, as this 
peculiarity may only apply to western America. 

J. Wm. Cockle, Kaslo, B. C. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



A List of North American Lepidoptera, and Key to the Literature 
of this Order of Insects. — By Harrison G. Dyar, Ph. D. Bulletin of 
the United States National Museum, No. 52. Washington, D. C, 
Government Printing Office, 1902. i vol. 8vo.; pp., xix., 723. 

Students of Lepidoptera throughout North America have been 
looking forward with great interest to the publication of Dr. Dyar's 
List, and have been full of hope_ that it would afford them an 
authoritative and final settlement of the nomenclature of our butterflies 
and moths, which for many years has been in a state of change and 
instability. "We fear that this hope will be seriously disappointed. 
The changes in many instances appear so arbitrary, the multiplication of 
genera so inordinate, the absolute extinction of many familiar names so 
far from necessary, that the ordinary student will feel much hesitation in 
adopting this List as his guide, and unlearning so much that he has known 
regarding the names of his specimens. He will naturally be inclined to 
think that the List cannot be final, and that it will be safer for him to wait 
for further developments before he changes a large proportion of the labels 
in his cabinet and fills his notebooks with new names, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 141 

Since its pviblicalion in iSgt, Prof. J. B. Smith's List has been 
generally adopted, and most collections are labelled in accordance with it. 
Some changes in generic names have here and there been accepted, and 
specific names have in various cases been dropped into synonymy, their 
places being taken by others whose authority has been established. These 
changes, however, have not been numerous, and their propriety has 
usually been made evident. In the new List, to take the butterflies alone, 
we find that Dr. Dyar gives 652 species, and divides them into no less 
than 158 genera. Dr. Skinner's List, in 1898, gave 645 species and 65 
genera, and Prof. Smith's, 640 species and 74 genera. While the number 
of species has been very slightly increased, the number of genera is more 
than doubled. 

These generic names, set forth by Dr. Dyar, are, for the most part, 
tiiose of Hubner and Dr. Scudder. Thirty years ago controversy raged 
over the adoption of Hubner's names and those contained in Dr. 
Scudder's " Systematic Revision of some of the North American 
Butterflies." Mr. W. H. Edwards, author of the magnificent work on 
" The Butterflies of North America," led what may be called the 
conservative party, while those who favoured the revolution ranged 
themselves under the banner of Dr. Scudder. In process of time the 
conflict died out, and many of the names so strongly objected to were 
adopted by common consent, while others were dropped, even by Dr. 
Scudder himself in his subsequent grand work on " The Butterflies of the 
Eastern United States and Canada." In the List before us. Dr. Dyar has 
not implicitly followed Dr. Scudder's final work, but has made a certain 
number of changes even from it. He may be abundantly justified by 
" the laws of priority " in nearly all that he has done — we cannot pretend 
to have such a knowledge of the literature as would permit us to deny it 
— but it seems a pity that genera should be split up where structural 
differences do not require it, merely because Hubner set forth a variety of 
names more than a century ago. 

The list is admirably printed, and provides a most welcome reference 
to the literature of the subject in the case of every genus and species, but 
we must complain that no mention is made of the familiar generic names 
that have been dropped, which surely might have been recorded as 
synonyms. Such old-established names as Pieris, Colias, Melitsea, 
Grapta, Pyrameis, Lycsena, Callimorpha, Hjdicecia and others have 
disappeared, and are not even to be found in the very comprehensive 



142 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

index. This is a great misfortune, as the rising generation of entomolo- 
gists who accept this book will have nothing by which to connect the new 
designations with those employed in the older literature. 

Time and space will not permit us to discuss the larger field of the 
Heterocera. Many, no doubt, will be surprised at the arrangement 
of families, which places the Notodontidse, Bombycid^e, etc., between the 
Noctuidie and Geometrid?e. The restoration of the Papilionidas to the 
head of the Lepidoptera has been fully justified by Prof. Grote. 

The preparation of this list has evidently involved a very large 
expenditure of time and labour, and we must all acknowledge that the 
author has placed us under a deep debt of obligation to him. The 
work, notwithstanding any criticisms that may be passed upon it, 
is an extremely valuable one, and will be found by its possessors to be 
most useful, and, indeed, indispensable. Though we may not agree with 
it on all points, we must admit its excellence and importance, and we beg 
to congratulate the author on his achievement, and thank him for what he 
has accomplished. Our hearty thanks are also due to the Smithsonian 
Institution for its generosity in issuing the work free of charge. 

By a strange oversight the Canadian Entomologist has been 
omitted from the periodicals in the list of works quoted, though it is 
referred to on nearly every page of the book. 



Elementary Studies in Insect Life. — By Samuel J. Hunter, Univer- 
sity of Kansas. Crane & Company, publishers, Topeka, Kansas. 
I vol., 8vo., pp. 344. (Price, $1.25.) 

We are glad to welcome a book from the West that aims at popular- 
izing the study of Entomology. Prof. Hunter's object is " to induce the 
student to become acquainted, through personal observations in the field 
and laboratory, with some of the important biological problems presented 
by insects." He carries out his plan in a series of well-illustrated chapters 
dealing with the lives of some typical insects, their special senses and pro- 
tective devices, those that live solitary or social lives, their instincts and 
their relations to plants ; these are followed by short descriptions of injuri- 
ous and beneficial insects, and of the principal orders, and some remarks 
ujK)n their geographical distribution and their struggle for life. The re- 
mainder of the book gives instructions for forming a collection, for breed- 
ing specimens in order to observe their life-history and for laboratory work 
for the study of their structure. The volume is profusely illustrated with 
two plates and over 250 figures, most of which are original and excellent. 
It will no doubt be found of much service by beginners in the pursuit of 
Entomology and by teachers who are called upon to give instruction in 
Nature Study. 

Mailed May 2nd, 1903. 




^*^fl^^0 














^^//i ^^ 













^ini/i'si.K (tr/in/ti (malo). 
" phyllira. 

var. incoi-r/i/'/d (male). 



Apiinh'sis onia/a (lemale). 

phalerata (female). 



" (ti'iiiale). 

eel in. 
Williiinisii, 

var. lirtmii i?ia/(t (female) 



" (male). 

siipcrha. 
IVilliaiiisii, 
var. dcfcniiindtn (male). 



Apautcsis ornata, 

var. achaia. 
" j-ectilifiea. 

" oblitcrata. 

" Qiieiiselii, 

var. turbans (male). 

" " (female). 

" (melanic male) 



' t 1 

flit Caiiiuliiin ftntomnloifibt. 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, JUNE, 1903. No. 6 

NOTES 0,V CANADIAN SPECIES OE THE GENUS APAN- 

TESIS (ARCT/A), WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE 

TO THE LARV.-4:. 

BY ARTHUR GIBSON, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY, CENTRAL EXPERIMENTAL 

FARM, OTTAWA. 

(Continued from page 123.) 

9. QuENSELii, var. turbans. — Probably one of the most interesting 
surprises we have had since studying these insects, is the fact that the 
form just mentioned has been taken, and not uncommonly, for some 
seasons, at several points in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. 
The first specimens we examined were collected "at light" at^Calgary, by 
Mr. T. N. Willing. Afterwards Mr. F. H. WoUey-Dod, of Millarville, 
Alta., forwarded us a beautiful series of nine specimens for study, and 
Mr. Norman Criddle, of Aweme, Man., also was good enough to send us 
four examples. Besides these 13, Mr. Willing forwarded seven specimens. 
While in Washington, in December, 1902, Dr. Fletcher submitted a series 
of the moths to Dr. Dyar, who compared them with the original descrip- 
tion of turbans, afterwards expressing himself as certain that our 
Northwestern form was this variety of quenselii. 

The 20 specimens before me are fairly uniform, and have a wing 
expanse of 26-35 mm. None of them show any traces of spots or 
markings on the secondaries other than those shown in the specimens on 
the accompanying plate. The markings on the primaries vary chiefly in 
width, but the three specimens figured give a good idea of the moth. 
Only one specimen shows any departure, and in this, as will be seen by 
the photograph, there is a decided tendency to melanism, but only, 
however, on the primaries. The secondaries of all the males, excepting 
two, are distinctly yellow, the same colour as virgiinciila, and the 
marginal markings are remarkably uniform and distinct, with no tendency 
whatever to melanism. The hind wings of the females are likewise 
yellow, with the exception of those of two specimens which are orange, 



144 THE CAISTADIAN ENTOMOLOGHST. 

the same as the two males. The moths remind one, somewhat, of 
virgunada, and have been so labelled by some students. They are, 
however, easily separated from that species, being smaller, and having 
more white markings on the primaries. 

Mr. Wolley-Dod says that the moths are " very common during dry 
seasons, less so of late years," and that the reddish tinge on the second- 
aries seems unusual. He also says that the larva feeds chiefly on what he 
believes to be Galimn, the imagoes appearing about the end of July and 
in August. I hope that western collectors will be on the lookout for 
females of this interesting Arctian, and try to obtain eggs so that we may 
learn something of its life-history. 

Distribution. — Olds, Alta., August 9, 11 (Willing); Sylvan Glade, 
near Olds, Alta., Aug. 26 (Willing); Calgary, Alta., Aug. 7 (Willing); July 
29, 30 (bred), Aug. 3 (bred), 5, 8, 9, 12, 16, iS (Wolley-Dod); Aweme, 
Man. (Griddle). 

10. Obliterata. — While Dr. Dyar was examining the specimens of 
que>ise/ii, var. turbans, just referred to, he made the discovery that one of 
Mr. Wolley-Dod's examples, which we had associated with that form, was 
the lost species obliterata. The noticeable differences between this 
specimen and the others are, as is shown on the plate, the presence of two 
additional discal spots on the secondaries, and a dark dash leading to the 
base of the wing. The colour of the secondaries is orange, the same as 
in some specimens oi titrba?is. It would appear that obliterata may be 
only a variety of turbans, but of course further investigation is needed, 
and I trust the opportunity will come to some one living where turbans 
occurs. 

Distribution. — Galgary, Alta., Aug. 15 (Wolley-Dod). 

11. BoLANDERi. — .A single $ collected at Aweme, Man., by Mr. 
Griddle, has been so named by Dr. Dyar. This Arctian is given in Dr. 
Dyar's new catalogue as a synonym of B/akei, and the specimen in 
question agrees very well with the figure of Blakei on Plate V., Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Philad., Vol. III. Three $ moths received from Mr. Wolley-Dod, 
and collected at Calgary, Alta,, which we cannot exactly place, come very 
close to Mr. Griddle's specimen, but are larger. Dr. Dyar has published 
the life-history of Bolanderi in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of 
Natural History, Vol. XXVI., and describes the larva* as " black, dorsal 

*Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. VIII., p. 46. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 145 

band vermilion red, pale in the incisures ; segments white dotted 
posteriorly; wart iii bright red at base, the subventral warts pale Hair 
stiff, reddish subventrally." Our Canadian form ought to be bred to see 
if the larvae agree with those studied by Dr. Dyar. Doubtless the species 
will have to be gone over several times before we can get a true 
knowledge of its variations. 

Distributio?i. — -Aweme, Man. (Griddle). 

12. Nevadensis, var, incorrupta. — This is another Arctian which 
we did not know occurred in Canada. It also has been found in the 
West, the only specimens we know of having been collected at Calgary, 
Alta., and Aweme, Man. The lo examples we have examined (7 c? , 3 ? ) 
are very similar in markings and do not show any variation other than 
that appearing on the accompanying plate. The moth is an attractive 
one, the colour of the secondaries of all the specimens being almost a 
poppy-red, or rose vermilion. The colour of the abdomen above is the 
same as that of the hind wings, excepting at the tip, where it is a cream 
colour, as is also the ventral surface, excepting in the 3 9 and i ^ which 
have the under surface of the abdomen black with the posterior edge of 
each segment ringed with white. A dorsal and a lateral row of black 
spots occur on all the specimens, and in those which have the segments 
drawn closely together these appear as wide bands. A single 9 Arctian 
(collected June 28) received from Mr. Wolley-Dod, with the primaries 
marked as in incomipta, had pure black secondaries, as well as a black 
body. I do not know of anything having been published on the earlier 
stages of iiicorrtipta, and any information on the life-history would be 
very welcome. Dr. Dyar, in his description of the larva of superba, as 
hereafter mentioned, stated that he thought this to be that of mcorncpta. 
This shows that much work is to be done yet before we can acquire 
definite knowledge. Mr. Coquillett describes the larva -of ^V'^e/afl'^^^/.r as 
black, with a broken, dull white dorsal line, warts gray, the hairs varying 
in colour (mixed black and reddish or black and yellowish). 

Distribution. — Areola, Assa., Aug. 20 (Willing); Calgary, Alta., 
Aug. 7 (Willing); July 7, 30 (bred), Aug. 6 (Wolley-Dody; Aweme, Man., 
Aug. I, 5 (Criddle). 

13. Superba. — The only examples of this form, which we have seen 
were collected on Vancouver Island. In the " Bulletin of the Natural 
History Society of British Columbia," 1893, i^ ^ I'^t, by Mr. W. H. Danby, 
of Lepidoptera collected in British Columbia, and in this list superba is 



146 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

noted as "occurring everywhere." Recent collectors, however, report it as 
scarce. While in New York in December last. Dr. Fletcher compared the 
specimen figured, with the type of superha in the American Museum of 
Natural History. Dr. Dyar in his list places superba as a variety of 
JVevade?isis, and in a recent paper* describes the larva as follows : 
" Head shining black, labrum yellowish, antennae pale, pinkish at base ; 
width 3.3 mm. Body black, thoracic feet black, the abdominal ones 
pinkish, pale. Warts large, normal, arctiiform, i. and ii. with shining bases, 
i. over half as large as ii., which is elongate. Hair abundant, bristly, 
sparsely barbuled, rather short before, long on joints 12 and 13 ; most of 
the hair from wart i. and a few on the sides of ii. are yellow, below this 
jet-black mixed with white, mostly white from warts iv. to vi. Warts iii. 
orange, the rest black. A light yellow dorsal line, broken into three 
spots on each segment, distinct, most of them lanceolate ; a line on joints 
2 and 3 ; no shields ; joint 2 with little warts, normal. A variety had the 
dorsal line nearly obsolete, composed of a few dots ; wart iii. black like 
others. Hairs nearly all yellow, only a few black ones mixed ; some 
longer white ones postefiorly." To this description is added '• I think, 
however, that this is the larva of A. inco?-ri{pia, of which I have only 
males." 

It is to be hoped that British Columbian collectors will endeavor to 
work out the complete life-history of this interesting form. The moths 
may be much commoner than we imagine. Many of our western Arctians 
run very close together, and large series of the moths should be bred 
from eggs, with the female which laid them correctly associated. 

Distribution. — Victoria, B. C. July 9, 11 (Anderson); Hampson 
gives Eraser R. (St. John) and Vancouver Island as localities for this 
msect. 

14. W1LLIAM.SI1, var. DETERMiNATA. — Specimens of the typical form 
of ^. Wi/liamsii, Dodge, must be very rare. All the specimens we have, 
and those which have been loaned by correspondents, have proved to be 
the variety dderminata. Dr. Fletcher submitted a good series of the 
moths to Dr. Dyar, who named them all detcrminata. This form is 
reported as the commonest Arctian in Manitoba and the Northwest. Dr. 
Fletcher has collected numbers of specimens, and Mr. F. H. Wolley-Dod, 
of Millarville, Alta.,* rej^orls that determinata is " apparently the most 



*Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, NUl. X.W'., 1902, \>. },~i 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



14-; 



regularly common species of the genus. Have taken it most commonly 
at light, end June and July, but have seen it flying in sunshine." None 
of those we have examined agree with Dodge's figure of IVillianisii, 
admittedly not correct, in Can. Ent., Vol. III., p. 167, every specimen 
having the extra transverse band on the primaries. During the past 
summer Mr. A. J. Dennis, of Beulah, Man., kindly sent me a batch of 
eggs of Wiliianisii, var. determinata ; but, unfortunately, only two of 
them hatched. These eggs were laid about the ist July, and hatched on 
the 9th. The two larvae reached Stage VI.; one has since died, but the 
other is now hibernating. The notes on the six stages, presented here- 
with, are, I believe, the only knowledge we have of the larvte. In 1885, on 
May 31, Dr. Fletcher found one larva on Erigeron fil if alius, ^wW., at 
Kamioops, B. C, the moth emerging Aug. i; other larv?e were seen 
under stones, and at Spence's Bridge, B. C. (June i), on Senecio. 

Stage I. — Length at first 1.8 mm., colour dirty whitish, after feeding 
greenish. Head 0.3 mm. wide, dark, slightly bilobed ; mouth-parts 
reddish. On each segment of body is the usual row of transverse 
tubercles ; these are black and shiny. Cervical shield black. Bristles long 
and slender, those from tubercles on dorsum black, from the lateral 
tubercles silvery and longer than the black bristles. Tubercle i. small, ii. 
very large, iii., iv. and v. nearly same size. Bristles finely barbed. 
Tubercles ii., iii., iv. and v. are surrounded with brownish-red. Feet 
concolorous, marked exteriorly with brown. Three days after hatching a 
pale blue dorsal stripe was discernible. 

Stage IT. — Length 4.5 mm. Head 0.5 mm. wide, brown, darker at 
apex, ocelli black. The larvai in general appearance are brownish, but 
under a lens the skin from the inside edge of tubercle i. to the lower edge 
of ii. is seen to be reddish-brown, except at intersegmental folds where it 
is greenish; with a medio-dorsal stripe of pale blue. The skin between ii. 
and iii , iii. and iv., iv. and v. and v. and vi. is yellowish, or greenish- 
yellow, paler subventrally, blotched with reddish-brown. Tubercles 
black, i. very small, ii. large, iii. and iv. about same size, v. smaller than 
iv., and vi. smaller than v. Bristles from i., ii. and iii. nearly all black, 
only a few silvery ones from iv., and from lower tubercles silvery. Bristles 
faintly barbed, of varying lengths, the silvery ones slender and longest. 
Spiracles small, black, close in front of tubercle iv. Feet concolorous, 
semi-translucent, darkened exteriorly. 



148 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Stage III. — Length 5.5 mm. Head 0.7 mm. wide, blackish. Tlie, 
two iarvte in this Stage do not show any dift'erence from Stage II. The 
general colour is the same, as is also the pale blue dorsal stripe, and the 
yellowish colour of the skin between tubercles ii. and iii., iii. and iv., iv. 
and V. and v. and vi., shading to greenish subventrally. Tubercles black 
and shiny; bristles as before, the black ones mostly from i., ii. and iii., 
and the silvery or slightly rusty bristles from iv. and lower tubercles. 
Thoracic feet blackish, shiny; prolegs, upper portion blackish, lower 
portion pale. 

Stage IV. — Length 9.5 mm. Head 0.9 ram. wide, black with 
exception of a pale brownish space on cheek above ocelli. The general 
appearance of the larvse in this Stage is darker than in Stage III. The 
skin of dorsum is mostly blackish, and shades to blackish-gray subven- 
trally. The dorsal stripe is conspicuous, and now almost a cream colour. 
The yellowish blotches along the sides are still present and the series 
between ii. and iii. appears almost as a lateral stripe. I'he tubercles and 
bristles are as in last Stage. Spiracles small, black, close in front of the 
lower edge of tubercle iv. Thoracic feet black ; prolegs, upper half 
blackish, lower half paler. 

Stage V. — Length 12.5 mm. Head 1.2 mm. wide, black, shiny. 
Body in general appearance blackish. Skin on dorsum grayish, mottled 
and blotched with velvety black. Skin on sides yellowish-gray and also 
blotched with black, but not so heavily marked as on dorsum. Venter 
much paler than dorsum. Dorsal stripe conspicuous, yellowish, creamy at 
intersegmental folds. Tubercles black, shiny. Between tubercles ii. and 
iii. is a distinct lateral band of pale yellow. The whole of tubercle ii. on 
the inside is margined with pale yellow. The skin between iii. and iv. 
and iv. and v. is also rather intensely yellow. Spiracles black close in 
front of iv. Each tubercle has a bunch of barbed bristles, those from i., 
ii. and iii. being black, while those from iv. and lower tubercles are 
mostly ])ale rusty. The dorsal tubercles on segments 12 and 13 bear a 
few very long slender bristles, which are pale grayish at tips. Thoracic 
feet shiny, black. 

Stage VI. — Length 14 mm. Head 1.6 mm. wide, subquadrate, 
slightly bilobed, black, excepting just above ocelli, where there is a pale 
brownish patch with dark moltlings ; hairs on face black, of varying 
lengths ; mouth-parts reddish. Body black, shading to grayish-black 
ventrally. Under a lens, the skin is grayish mottled with velvety black, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 140 

especially on the dorsum. Dorsal stripe, orange-yellow, whitish at 
intersegmental folds. Tubercles as before, i. about one-fifth the size of 
ii., which has a polished base. The lateral band between ii. and iii. is as 
before, same colour, but not so bright as the dorsal stripe. The skin 
between iii. and iv. and iv. and v. is also yellowisli, as in last Stage. 
Bristles from tubercles i., ii. and iii., and mostly from iv., black ; only a 
few pale rusty bristles from iv.; from v. and lower tubercles the bristles 
are all pale rusty. Thoracic feet black, shiny; prolegs dark, tinged with 
dull red. 

The 5 moth which laid the eggs has since been received and labelled 
by Dr. Dyav '•^Williamsii, van deterj/iinata." It is shown on the plate 
herewith, as well as a typical ^ . As this Arctian is so common where it 
occurs, I trust that our western friends will secure eggs the coming 
season, so that we may get further light on this interesting species. It 
seems strange that of all the specimens of determmata we have examined 
(30), only two are females, and these two, if it were not for the additional 
transverse bar on the primaries, would agree remarkably well with Dodge's 
figure of Wiliiamsii. 

Distribution. — Kamloops, B. C, Aug. i, bred (Fletcher); High 
River, Alta. (J. Baird); Calgary, Alta., June 21, 23, July 14, 16, 23 
(Wolley-Dod); Aug. 7 (Willing); Prince Albert, Sask., July 6 (Fletcher); 
Alameda, Assa., July 9 (Willing); Carnduff, Assa., July 6 (Willing); Cart- 
wright, Man., June 21. 29, July 3-15 (Heath); Aweme, Man. (Criddle); 
Beulah, Man., July i, 6, 15 (Dennis); Elkhorn, Man., July 8 (Fletcher); 
Ignace, Ont., July 19 (Fletcher); Sudbury, Ont., July 18 (Evans). 

15. Phyllira. — As mentioned, this Arctian is thought by some to 
be the same as rectilinea. True phyllira has not the veins of the 
primaries lined, whereas in true rectilinea these are conspicuously lined 
(see plate). The only Canadian specimens I have seen of phyllira were 
collected at London, Ont. We have received other records of the 
capture of this insect in Ontario, but have not seen the specimens, and 
these records are included on the authority of the collectors themselves. 
The species is, I believe, southern in its range. The life-history has been 
published by Packard, and, as previously mentioned, our larvte of 
rectilinea answered very well to Packard's description of phyllira. 
Further breeding will have to be done, however, before definite informa- 
tion can be had regarding both these forms, which now have recognized 
specific names. 



loO THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Distribution. — London, Ont. (Geo. Anderson) ; Jul}' 6 (A. P. 
Saunders); Sept. 6 (H. S. Saunders)*; Orillia, Ont., June 28, July 5 
(Grant). 

16. Celia. — Through the kindness of Dr. Bethune, who has 
generously presented the original type of celia to the Division of 
Entomology, we are able to figure it on the plate accompanying this 
article. It will be noticed that the photographs of celia and 
determinata $ are very much the same, but the moths themselves seem 
quite distinct, although it is difficult to describe the differences. Five 
specimens of celia are before me, and none of them are anything like 
phyllira, of which celia has often been referred to as a synonym. All the 
five specimens, four of which were submitted to Dr. Dyar, are smaller 
than the type, and show a decided tendency to melanism. A single egg 
of celia was obtained by Mr. C. H. Young, from a female moth which he 
collected at Meech Lake, Que. (near Ottawa). This egg, which was laid 
on May 27 and hatched June 9, he kindly gave to the writer, who reared 
the larva through six moults. After reaching Stage VI L and feeding for 
some days it went into hibernation. When examined later, however, it 
was noticed that a disease had attacked the specimen, so it was killed 
and inflated. As will be seen from the following notes on the larval 
stages, our specimen was a fairly large caterpillar, and not at all like the 
larva o{ phyllira as published by Packard. Saunders's description of the 
mature larva oi celia agrees very well with our notes on Stage VII. as given 
below. Further investigation, however, is needed. The full-grown larva 
described by Saunders was found under a log in a wood near London, 
Ont., on June 1 1. 

Stage I. — Length newly - hatched, 2 mm. Colour at first dirty 
creamy white, after feeding greenish, with a tinge of brown. Head 0.3 
mm. wide, shiny ; cheeks almost wholly black, just above ocelli pale 
brownish ; clypeus and lower portion of face pale brownish ; mouth-parts 
blackish. On each segment is a transverse row of black tubercles, i. 
almost half the size of ii., which is the largest, iii. nearly as large as ii., iv. 
about same size as iii. Cervical shield dark brown, bearing the usual 8 
tubercles. Skin of body smooth, shiny. Sette from dorsal and upper 
lateral series of tubercles mostly black, only a few silvery bristles; from 
remaining tubercles, silvery. Bristles finely barbed. Thoracic feet 
slightly darker than body ; prolegs concolorous. 

*Can. Ent., Vol. XXL, p. 60. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 151 

Stage IT. — General colour dull reddish-brown, with a faint pale 
dorsal stripe, the food showing through front segments giving a greenish 
appearance to anterior portion of larva. Head 0.5 mm. wide ; cheeks 
black ; median suture pale ; clypeus, with exception of centre, pale, as is 
also space above ocelli. Skin of body surrounding tubercle ii. and lateral 
tubercles, more or less reddish-brown ; skin at joints of segments green. 
Ventral surface green. Tubercles black, shiny. The skin between the two 
tubercles i. shows up against the reddish-brown surrounding ii., as a faint 
dorsal stripe. Bristles from dorsal tubercles black ; from iv. and lower 
tubercles pale. On segments 12 and 13 are a fe.\v longer black hairs. 
Spiracles very small, black, close to tubercle iv. All the feet slightly 
darker than venter. 

Stage III. — Length 5.5 mm. Head o.S mm. wide, as before. 
Cervical shield black, shiny. Skin of body much as in last Stage, 
reddish-brown. Dorsal stripe pale yellow, even, distinct on all segments. 
Tubercles black, shiny, ii. with a polished base ; bristles barbed. 
Bunches of black bristles, with a few yellowish ones, from tubercles ii. 
and iii., only a few bristles from i. Lower bristles from iv. pale yellowish 
or a reddish tinge, from upper half of iv. black ; from tubercles below iv. 
all pale. Skin of body between iii. and iv., iv. and v , and below v., 
reddish. Ventral surface paler than dorsal. Spiracles small and black. 
Thoracic feet blackish ; prolegs concolorous with venter inside, but 
blackish outside. 

Stage IV. — Length 7 mm. Head i.o mm. wide, black, shiny, 
median suture and space on cheek above ocelli, pale brownish ; hairs on 
face mostly dark. Body dark brownish, mottled and splashed with 
velvety black. Dorsal stripe reddish-yellow, rather indistinct. The 
colour of the skin along the sides immediately below tubercles ii., iii., iv. 
and V. is orange, giving the appearance of series of dashes of that 
colour. Tubercles as before. Bristles from all the tubercles mostlv 
black; only a few, comparatively speaking, are pale. Spiracles black, 
almost touching anterior edge of tubercle iv. Feet as before. 

Stage V. — Length 12.5 mm. Head 1.4 mm. wide, as in last Stage. 
Skin of body black, with exception of orange red dashes above tubercles 
iii., iv., V. and vi.; these arc not conspicuous. Dorsal stripe has almost 
disappeared, only a faint trace of it now. Tubercles black, shining, ii. 
with a polished base. Venter not so dark as dorsum. Spiracles black, 
close in front of tubercle iv. Bristles from tubercles i., ii. and iii. black, 



152 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



from other tubercles mostly black, with a few pale yellowish-red ones 
intermingled. Thoracic feet jet-black, shiny ; prolegs exteriorly, upper 
two-thirds black, shiny, lower third reddish. Later in the Stage the skin 
loses its black intensity, and becomes more of a dark reddish-brown, 
blotched with gray and black, and the orange-red dashes on sides become 
more conspicuous. 

Stage F/.— Length i8 mm. Head 1.9 mm. wide, black, shiny, 
epistoma sordid white. Body almost wholly black, no dorsal stripe now. 
The skin immediately between tubercles iii. and iv., iv. and v. and v. and 
vi. is now only faintly reddish. Tubercles black, shiny, ii. with a broad 
polished base. All the bristles from the tubercles are black, with the 
exception of a few pale reddish ones from tubercles vi., vii. and viii. 
Spiracles black, touching anterior edge of tubercle iv. Thoracic feet 
black ; prolegs reddish. 

Stage VII. — Length 25 mm. Head 2.6 mm. wide, subquadrate, 
very slightly bilobed, black, shiny; posterior median space of cheek 
brownish ; epistoma whitish ; mouth-parts reddish ; hairs on face black. 
Skin of body wholly velvety black. Tubercles black, shiny, large and 
conspicuous, i. nearly one-quarter the size of ii., ii, with a broad polished 
base, iii. smaller than ii. Each tubercle above the spiracles has a bunch 
of black, finely-barbed bristles, of varying lengths. The only rusty 
bristles are from tubercles v., vi , vii. and viii., and these are a dark 
rust-red. The dorsal tubercles on segments 12 and 13 bear a few extra 
long bristles. Spiracles wholly black, touching on abdominal segments 
the anterior edge of tubercle iv. No markings of any kind on the body. 
Thoracic feet black, shiny, reddish at tips ; prolegs reddish. 

When the larva stopped feeding, eight days after the sixth moult, it 
measured 30 mm. long, and 6 mm. wide at segment 8. 

Distribution — Banff, Alta., June 16 (N. B. Sanson); Aweme, Man. 
(Griddle); London, Ont., June 30, bred (Saunders); Toronto (Bethune, 
Croft); Meech Lake, Que., May 26 (Young); Montreal, Que., June 20 
(P. M. Dawson); Cowansville, Que. (Fyles). 

17. F"iGURATA. — This form has been referred to as a variety of 
p/iyliira, but Dr. Dyar in his recent catalogue gives it specific rank. The 
species (if such it is) is rare in Canada. Full notes on the earlier stages 
would be very welcome. Mr. E. L. Graef briefly describes the mature 
larva as "jet-black, hairs very stiff." In the Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 153 

Vol. XXV., 1902, Dr. Dyar published the following description of the 
larva of the form f -pallida: " Head shining black ; epistoma and 
bases of antennae pale; width 2.7 mm. Body brown-black, the abdominal 
feet pale reddish. A broad, distinct, sharp dorsal line, narrowed between 
warts i., cream-white, pinkish shaded in the incisures. Warts black, hair 
bristly, sparsely barbuled ; i. small, less than one-third the size of ii., i. 
with small, ii. with large shining base, normal. Hair all black, even the 
subventral, longer on joints 12 and 13." 

Distribution. — Toronto, Ont. (Gibson); Meech Lake, Que., May 31 
(Young); Aylmer, Que., June 5 (Young). 

18. Nais. — This is a very variable species and one which is 
constantly being mixed up with phalerata. Dr. Seifert has recently 
published an article on the species in the Journal of the New York 
Entomological Society, March, 1902, and the plate accompanying his 
paper gives an excellent idea of the extent of variation in the moths of 
this Arctian. Through the kindness of Dr. Seifert in sending us eggs, we 
were able, the past season, to rear a good number of the imagoes. The 
larvje also vary considerably and we cannot find any character whereby 
to distinguish them from the larvae oi phalerata. 

Distribution. — Springfield-on-Credit, Ont. (Bethune) ; Kingsville, 
Ont., Sept. 9 (C. T. Hills); Hamilton, Ont. (Evans); Montreal, Que., 
July 7 (Stevenson). These records are included on the authority of the 
collectors themselves. We have not examined the specimens. 

19. ViTTATA. — This species, while it has often been collected, in 
different localities, cannot be considered a common insect in Canada. 
The moths are closely related to nais and phalerata, and a series will 
show considerable variation. A single specimen was bred at Ottawa in 
1900 from a larva collected in a wood on the 26th May. The following 
description was taken from the cast skin and head : Head black ; skin 
of body velvety black, tubercles black, rough, not polished, each bearing 
a bunch of bright rust-red bristles, those on the dorsum being slightly 
darker ; none black. Bristles smooth, not barbed ; tubercle i. about 
one-fifth the size of ii. Thoracic feet blackish-brown. 

Distribution — Hamilton, Ont. (Moffat, Evans); St. Catharines, Ont. 
(Beadle) ; Toronto, Ont., June (Metcalfe, Gibson) ; Cobourg, Ont., 
August (Bethune); Ottawa, bred, June 11 (Gibson); Montreal, Que. 
(Brainerd). 



154 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

20. Phalerata. — The life-history of this Arclian was published by 
the writer in the Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XXXIL, p. 369, and 
in the February (1902) number of the same journal further additional 
notes were given. On the whole, the moths of phalerata are fairly 
constant. In those which we reared in 1900, there was a remarkable 
lack of variation ; but in some of those bred the following year the W 
mark on the primaries was indistinct, and in a few (females) nearly 
obsolete. In none of our specimens, however, is the W mark altogether 
absent, as is often the case in nais. In all the specimens of nais which 
we have reared, the costal edge of the primaries is black, and this 
character has been referred to in several accounts of that species. In 
phalerata., however, the costal edge of the primaries is yellow in some 
specimens and black in others, in the same brood. On the accompany- 
ing plate two females and two males are figured, one female with a black 
costa, the other with a yellow costa, and the same with the males. The 
larvee of phalerata vary chiefly in the colour of the bristles ; in most of 
our specimens these were black dorsally and rust-red subventrally. Some 
larvae had bristles of a decidedly pale grayish colour, other specimens had 
these more of a yellowish tinge, while still other examples had nearly all 
the bristles of a pale rust-red colour. A dorsal stripe, or a series of 
elongated spots, was present in some specimens, while others had no 
niarkings whatever on the body. 

Distribution. — This species doubtless occurs in various districts in 
eastern Canada, but the only Canadian specimens examined and 
identified by Dr. Dyar were collected at Toronto, Ont., by the writer. 

In conclusion, I beg gratefully to acknowledge much assistance in the 
preparation of this paper from my kind and ever-helpful teacher. Dr. 
James Fletcher. The writer is also under much obligation to Dr. Dyar 
for help, and to his many friends who have sent him material to study 
and specimens to examine, as well as records of species in their 
collections. My thanks are also due to Dr. Charles Saunders who took 
the photograph from which the accompanying plate was made. We shall 
be very glad indeed at all times to corresi)ond with any one interested in 
these Arctians, and shall, of course, be most happy to receive for study, 
eggs or larva; of any species of the genus. Material of the commonest 
kind will be gladly welcomed. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 155 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE F0S30RIAL, PREDACEOUS AND 

PARASITIC WASPS, OR THE SUPERFAMILY 

VESPOIDEA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, A. M., ASSISTANT CURATOR, DIVISION OF 
INSECTS, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(Paper No. 14. — Continued from Vol. XXXV., p. 107.) 
Subfamily II. — Methocinae. 

1894. Myrmosini, Tribe II. (partim), Fox; Proc. Acad, Sci., 
Phila., p. 273. 

1896. Myrmosini, Tribe II. (partim), Ashmead; Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc, XXII., p. 179, 180. 

1899. Metiiocinae, Tribu 36 (partim) Andre; Spec. Hym. d'Eur 
Tom. 8, p. 58 and 71. 

1903. Methocinse, subfamille (partim), Andre'; Wytsman's Gen. 
Ins. Earn. Mutillidse, p. 6. 

Mr. Ernest Andre's conception of this subfamily is erroneous ; he has 
placed in it a number of genera that do not belong to the family 
Thy7inidce. at all, but are genuine Myrmosids, and represent my tribe 
Chyphotini. Moreover, Andre has incorrectly classified all of these 
genera in the family Miitillldce, an error Fox and myself also fell into 
years ago, before we had studied the Thynnida. 

Mr. Frederick Smith, of the British Museum, was apparently the first 
to point out that Methoca belonged to the ThymiidcB, although he still 
retained it among the Mtitillidce. Dr. David Sharp, in Cambridge 
Natural History, Vol. 5, p. 96, has also correctly placed Methoca with the 
Thynnides and gives a good figure of both sexes of M. ic/meumo?iides, 

Latr. 

Table of Genera. 

Females i . 

Males 2. 

I. Scutellum not differentiated, entirely absent ; prothorax and mesothorax 
finely transversely aciculated ; head large, much wider than the 
thoraXj finely sculptured, opaque ; eyes large, finely pubescent ; 



156 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

clypeus rounded anteriorly ; mandibles large, curved, edentate ; 
maxillary palpi 5-jointed, the lateral palpi 

4-jointed (Africa) Andreus, Ashm.* gen. nov. 

(Type A. Abbottii, Ashm.t) 

Scutellum differentiated, represented by a convex elevation ; thorax 

and head smooth, shining ; eyes bare or nearly ; maxillary palpi 

6-jointed, the labial palpi 4-jointed Methoca, Latreille. 

(Type M. ichneumonides, Latr.) 
2. Front wings with the first transverse cubitus wanting, the first and 
second cubital cells confluent. 

Clypeus anteriorly produced into a triangular tooth ; abdomen 
long, cylindrical, the hypopygium ending in a single upward- 
curved aculeus Methoca, Latreille. 

Subfamily III. — Rhagigasterinse. 
This subfamily ought to be easily distinguished by the characters 
employed in my table of subfamilies. The genus Lophocheilus, Gue'rin, 
I know only from the description and figure, and its position is uncertain, 
although I am inclined to think that it belongs here, and may ultimately 
prove to be the opposite sex of Eirone, Westwood. 

Table of Genera. 

Females i . 

Males 5. 

I. Head without a sulcus or grooved line on temples behind the 

eyes (Tribe II., Diammini) 2. 

Head quadrate, with a sulcus or grooved line on temples behind the 
eyes (Tribe I., Rhagigasterini). 

Claws simple ; grooved lines on temples, curved and not quite 
extending to the eyes ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, labials 4- 
jointed ; first ventral segment simple (North 

America) Glyptometopa, Ashmead. 

(Type G. Americana, Ashm.) 



*Namecl in honor of Mr. Ernest Andre 

tAndreus Abbottii, sp. n. — Female : Length, 7 mm. Black ; antennK, except the 
last five or six joints, the niandililes, the palpi and the legs, ferruginous ; anterior margin 
of the clypeus narrowly yellowish-white ; abdomen black, polished, shining, the last two 
segments flavo-testaceous. 

Type.— Cat. No, 6S12, U. S, N. M, 

Ilab.— Congo, Africa (Dr. W. L, Abbott). 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 157 



Claws cleft ; grooved line on the temples straight and extending 
from the eyes to the occiput ; maxillary palpi 6 jointed, labials 
stout, 4-jointed ; first ventral segment with a tooth beneath 

(Australia) Rhagigaster, Guerin. 

(^Type R. unicolor, Guer., ^ . 
= Diamma ephippiger, Gue'r., ? .) 

2. Claws cleft ^. 

Claws simple 4. 

3. Head subquadrate, not or scarcely longer than wide ; eyes very large ; 

ocelli present ; mandibles 3- or 4-dentate ; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, 

labials 4-jointed (Australia) Diamma, Westwood, 1835. 

=:Trachypterus, Guer., 1839. 
(Type D. bicolor, VVestw.) 

Head oblong, more than twice longer than wide ; eyes minute ; ocelli 
wanting ; mandibles at apex bidentate ; maxillary and labial palpi 

both 4-jointed (Australia) Eirone, Westwood. 

(Type E. dispar, Westw.) 

4. Head large, oblong, longer than wide ; eyes minute ; maxillary and 

labial palpi both 4.jointed (South America) Aelurus, Klug. 

(Type A. nasutus, Klug.) 

Head large, subquadrate, a little wider than long, and much wider than 
the thorax ; prothorax ovate ; mandibles (?) simple ; maxillary palpi 

6-jointed (Australia) Ariphron, Erichson. 

(Type A. bicolor, Erich.) 

5. Mandibles tridentate 6. 

Mandibles bidentate 9. 

6 First transverse cubitus without an appendage, the first cubital cell 

undivided .... 7. 

First transverse cubitus with an appendage or spurious nervure, which 
divides the first cubital cell into two more or less distinct cells .... 8. 

7. Second cubital cell receiving both recurrent nervures ; maxillary palpi 

6-jointed, labials 4-jointed Diamma, Westwood. 

Second cubital cell receiving only one recurrent nervure — the first, the 
second recurrent nervure being interstitial, or nearly, with the second 

transverse cubitus (Australia) Oncorhinus, Shuckard. 

(Type O. xanthospilus, Shuck.) 



158 THE CANADIA.N ENTOMOLOGIST. 

8. Third cubital cell larger than the second, the second and third each 

receiving a recurrent nervure ; clypeus not prominent, with a slight 
triangular emargination or impression anteriorly ; apical tooth of 
mandible much longer than the two inner teeth ; maxillary palpi 
6-jointed, labials 4-jointed (South America) . . Telephoromyia, Guerin. 

(Type T. rufipes, Guer.) 

Third cubital cell shorter than the second ; clypeus not produced, 
excised anteriorly; maxillary palpi 6-jointed, joints 1-3 short, 4-6 
very long ; labial palpi 4-jointed Aelurus, Klug. 

9. Clypeus somewhat produced, the anterior margin subarcuately emar- 

ginated, the labrum more or less exposed, ciliated ; maxillary palpi 
6-jointed, first joint of tlagellum shorter than the second 

(Australia) Lophocheilus, Gue'rin. 

(Type L. villosus, Guer.) 



THE LARVA AND PUPA OF THE APPLE BUD-BORER 

{Steganoptydia pyricolana, Murt.). 

BY E. DWIGHT SANDERSON, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, TEXAS. 

In Studying the larva and pupa oi Steganoptycha pyricola?ia,M\xxi., 
some observations were made as to structure, which it seems desirable to 
permanently record. The life-history and habits of the species have been 
described in the Twelfth Report of the Delaware Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

"This species was described by Miss M. E. Murtfeldt, in Bulletin 
No. 23, o. s., Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 52, as S. pyricolana, Riley 
MS. Concerning the identity, it was stated that ' Professor Fernald, to 
whom a specimen was shown, considers it identical with Clemens's .S*. 
salicicolatia, which, I believe, breeds in willow galls, but Dr. Riley pro- 
nounces it distinct, and he has types of Clemens's species.' My speci- 
mens agree entirely with Miss Murtfeldt's description, but are distinctly 
different from Clemens's types in the collection of the Am. Ent. Society. 
Correspondence shows that the opinion credited above to Dr. Fernald is 
incorrect, as he never compared the specimens. Dr. Fernald, to whom 
specimens were referred, has kindly given the identity of the species con- 
siderable attention, and writes me that he has frequently received speci- 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 159 

mens from various parts of the country, where the larva has been boring 
in rose. He also states that there is probably no doubt as to my speci- 
mens being the same as Riley's S. pyricolana. 

" Miss Murtfeldt found the larva damaging apple terminals in Mis- 
souri in August and September, i8go, and gives an excellent description 
of the larva and moth. This is the only published reference to the species 
so far known. 

'■'■Larva. — 5 x 1.25 mm. Elongate, sub-cylindrical; colour from a 
dirty cream to light yellowish-brown, tinged with pinkish dorsally— usually 
giving it quite a rose colour, tubercles grayish, spiracles brown ; head 
slightly narrower than prothorax, metathorax to 7th abdominal segment 
of same width, thence tapering sharply caudad ; head shining, front cinna- 
mon brown, sutures darker with blackish line, an indefinite caudo-mesal 
area slightly darker and a similar darker shade on each dorso-lateral sur- 
face caudally, joining on caudal margin under pronotum ; labium and max- 
illa body colour, sutures of under side of head dark, palpi and antennse 
light, latero-ventral sutures of head black, ocelli black, forming a short 
black bar extending caudo-dorsad back of antennse, labrum dark brown ; 
abdominal segments with two and thoracic with three annular ; pronotum 
chitinous, straight, cephalic margin covering caudal part of head which is 
visible beneath, caudal margin curved, surface shining ; legs with basal 
suture in front dark, otherwise concolorous ; tips of prolegs dark brown ; 
the 8th abdominal segment, especially on the caudal annulet, giving it a 
darker, olive colour, the 9th abdominal targite chitinous, shiny, olive 
colour ; caudal seta3 prominent, long as the ninth segment ; anal prolegs 
cylindrical, reaching to the tip of the ninth segment, brown at tips ; four or 
five stiff brown setaj above anus ; segments of abdomen rather longer 
caudally." 

Larval Mouth-parts. — The under side of the larval head is shown in 
figure 4. I have been unable to homologize the sclerites at the base of the 
labium and maxillaj ; ca is evidently the cardo of the maxilla, in two parts ; 
c may also be a part of the cardo ; a and /; may form one sclerite, though 
there is a distinct suture between them ; d forms a band connecting h on 
either side (this same sclerite is found in Coleopterous larvi^, and seems to 
be the ventral sclerite of a head segment) ; e is membranous, and in it lie 
chitinized sclerites g and f. From g the occiput (?) i runs dorsad, the 
portion /of the figure being the break caused by the detachment oii from/ 
Qn the slide j j is distinct from h^ and caudally there is a distinct suture 



160 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



at .r, separating it from the dorsal portion of the head. The dotted line 
extending in front of the ocelli is hypothetical, but traces of it can occa- 
sionally be distinguished in other larvte, and the separation of these two 
ocelli from the others indicates it. The long band with enlarged ends, 
marked k, lies within the head above the maxilla and is strongly chitinized. 

I call attention to these different parts for the purpose of pointing out 
the necessity for the study of the sclerites of the larval head. I have con- 
sulted several specialists of Lepidopterous larvae without securing any in- 
formation as to the identity of these parts. I have found the same diffi- 
culty in Coleopterous larvae. Certainly these parts possess more or less 
taxonomic value, and it seems to the writer that we err if we fail to de- 
lineate and describe them in the description of larvae. But as long as we 
have no terminology, this is difficult and will probably be neglected by 
most students. Studies are certainly needed along this line. 

Pupa. — Described from cast skins and one specimen nearly ready to 
transform. 

5.5 X 1.3 mm.; deep orange brown ; head, thorax and exposed por- 
tions of appendages blackish ; spines on abdominal segments tipped with 
black ; setje light ; thorax and first abdominal segment without dorsal 
spines ; second abdominal segment with caudal row of spines ; third to 
seventh abdominal segments with spines, as in Fig. 5 ; eighth to tenth, as 
in the figure ; segments one to six subequal in length ; seventh shorter ; 
eighth to tenth, adnate ; eighth and ninth together as long as sixth, 
tapering caudad from fourth segment. In the figure x marks a break be- 
tween a and b in the cast skin from which drawn. Concerning the iden- 
tity of sclerites a and b, I am in doubt. 






|S3» I \\ 




Fig. 3. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



161 




Fig. 



Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 2. — Tubercles of larva of 
Steganoptycha pyricolaiia dia- 
grammed ; d. m., dorso-meson ; 
V. m., ventro-meson ; pro, mesOy 
pro and meso-thorax ; abd. i-io, 
abdominal segments, i to lo ; sp., 
spiracle. 

Fig. 3. — Larval mouth-parts of 
Steganoptycha pyricolana : /, la- 
brum ; m, mandible ; a, antenna ; 
//, dorsal aspect head ; t, tarsus ; 
all enlarged. 

Fig. 4.— Ventral aspect of head 
of larva oiSteganoptycha pyricolana, 
enlarged ; for discussion of parts, 
see text. 

Fig. 5. — Pupa of Steganoptycha 
pyricolana; a, dorsal aspect 4th 
abdominal segment; i^, dorsal aspect 
8-ioth abdominal segments. 





V ••.•;..-M-:-:-.-'N"-"-5 



a ■••'•' 




Fiu, 4, 




Fiu. 



162 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

NEW BEES OF THE GENUS ANDRENA. 

BY S. GRAENICHER, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Andrcna thaspii, n.sp. 9 • — Length lo-ii mm.; black, clothed with 
light ochraceous pubescence ; head broader than thorax ; facial quad- 
rangle broader than long ; cheeks broad, shining, with fine punctures, 
which are very close immediately behind the eyes ; front below ocelli 
distincdy striate • facial fovete broad, containing light pubescence ; 
antennae long and slender, black ; flagellum brownish testaceous beneath, 
especially towards the tip \ joint 3 of the antennae as long as 4 and 5 
together ; clypeus shining, clothed with thin, light pubescence ; a distinct 
impunctate line in the middle, otherwise with moderately coarse 
punctures \ basal process of labrum truncate ; mandibles dull testaceous 
at the tips ; me.sothorax slightly shining, and covered with short, thin 
pubescence ; on the scutellum the hairs are rather long and dense ; the 
punctures of the mesonotum are shallow and not close together ; wings 
yellowish hyaline, hardly clouded at the apex, with honey-coloured nerv- 
ures and stigma ; second submarginal cell slightly narrowed above, about 
half as long as the third, receiving the first recurrent nervure beyond the 
middle of the cell ; metathoracic enclosure defined by an impressed line, 
its surface more finely sculptured than the surrounding area of the 
metathorax, except at the base, where it is slightly rugose ; legs dark 
brown ; tibial scopa bright fulvous, shining ; the basal joints of the middle 
and hind tarsi are covered with ferruginous pubescence on their inner 
surface ; abdomen shining, with sparse light hairs which are long on the 
first segment, but otherwise very short, forming thin apical fascii« on 
segments 2 to 4 ; anal fimbria dark fulvous, inclining to ferruginous. 

^. — Length 9 mm., pubescence of head and thorax longer than in 
female ; cly|:ieus more closely punctured throughout ; joint 3 of antennae 
longer than 5, but distinctly shorter than 4 -I- 5 ; metathoracic enclosure 
with the longitudinal rugae extending throughout its whole length ; joints 
2 to 5 of anterior and middle tarsi, and all the joints of posterior tarsi, 
ferruginous. 

Milwaukee, Wis.; 5^ and 9$ specimens captured on the flowers of 
Thaspiuin tri/oliatum atircnm, and Angelica atropurpurea, between May 
29 and June 23. The females obtain their pollen mostly from the flowers 
of the first-named plant. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 1G3 

ATidrena Cockerelli, n. sp. $ . — Length lo-i i mm.; black, with 
long, thin, whitish pubescence; a few black hairs on front below ocelli; 
facial fovefe broad, black, reaching a little below the insertion of the 
antennai ; antennas dark, joint 3 longer than 4 and 5 together ; clypeus 
convex, somewhat shining, distinctly roughened and closely punctured ; a 
median narrow and slightly elevated impunctate line ; process of labrum 
triangular, notched at tip ; mandibles black, slightly ferruginous near the 
tips ; cheeks broad and evenly rounded, finely roughened, clothed with 
long, white pubescence ; mesonotum dull, tessellate, with sparse, hardly 
visible, punctures ; the disc of the mesonotum is somewhat shining, as 
also the scutellum ; enclosure of metathorax small, bordered by an 
impresced line and somewhat rugose at base ; wings hyaline, nervures 
and stigma testaceous ; the second submarginal cell is about two-thirds as 
long as the third and receives the first recurrent nervure far beyond the 
middle of the cell ; abdomen shining, minutely granular, without 
punctures ; the thin white pubescence of the abdomen is most con- 
spicuous on the first segment ; legs dark brown, with white pubescence ; 
the basal joints of the tarsi are clothed with fuscous hairs on their inner 
surface ; anal fimbria dark purplish brown. 

$. — Length 9 mm.; the pubescence is of a purer white than in the 
female ; in addition to the black hairs below the ocelli, there is a narrow 
row of black pubescence immediately behind and in front of the eye ; 
there is also a patch of black hairs on the sides of the metathorax ; head 
large, broader than the thorax ; antennae long, slender, joint 3 hardly as 
long as 4 -I- 5 ; the surface of the clypeus is concealed by long and dense 
pubescence ; mandibles long and slender ; cheeks broad, produced into a 
rounded angle, which is situated above the middle of the eye, 

Milwaukee, Wis.; numerous $ and 5 specimens from April 6 to 30, 
on flowers of willows, especially of Salix discolor. Kent Co., Mich.; i ^ , 
April 1, 1902 (collected by A. D. Macgillivray, received from Prof. T. D. 
A. Cockerell). Hartford, Conn.; i ? , April 19, 1896 (collected by S. N. 
Dunning, No. loii, received from Prof T. D. A. Cockerell). 

The females are all about the same length. The males vary 
considerably in size, ranging from 6 to 9 mm. in length. This species 
resembles A. macoupmensis., Rob., but differs from it mainly in the 
following characters : Facial fove?e distinctly black (pale in macoupi?ien- 
sis); legs dark brown (hind tibiae and tarsi ferruginous in macoupinemis); 



164 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

anal fimbria dark purplish-brown (ochraceous in macoiipinetisis). It is 
also very close to A. perarmata, Ckll., a species with black facial fovese. 
In this respect Prof. Cockerel), to whom several of my specimens were 
submitted, writes as follows: "Your 9 differs from ^perarmata by 
lacking the black hair on metathorax. Also, type perarmata has the 
process of labrum more pointed than in your insect." The $ of Cockerelli 
may be readily distinguished from that of perarmata by the absence of 
a tooth at the base of the mandibles. 

A?idrena Milwaukeensis, n. sp. $. — Length ii mm.; black, with 
bright fulvous, erect, stiff hairs on vertex, thorax above, and first two 
segments of abdomen above, otherwise the pubescence is black ; vertex 
minutely granular ; cheeks rounded, with thin, black pubescence, which 
does not conceal the sparse shallow punctures ; front finely striate ; facial 
fove£e broad, appearing dark chocolate brown when viewed from above ; 
antennae slender, brownish, dull ferruginous beneath towards the tip ; 
joint 3 of flagellum hardly longer than 4 and 5 together; a patch of light 
hair about the insertion of the antennje; clypeus smooth, shining, covered 
with short, thin, black pubescence ; on the sides of the clypeus the 
punctures are small and crowded, towards the middle they become coarse 
and rather sparse ; a median impunctate and polished area, widening 
gradually below ; process of labrum shining, truncate, emarginate ; 
mandibles black with a ferruginous area near the tips ; the mesonotum 
and scutellum are opaque, granular, not punctured, thickly covered with 
fulvous pubescence ; tegulas testaceous ; wings fibro-hyaline, stigma 
testaceous, nervures dark brown ; second submarginal cell somewhat 
narrowed above ; the first recurrent nervure joins the latter near the 
second transverse cubital nervure ; third submarginal cell more than twice 
as long as second ; enclosure of metathorax distinctly outlined by a 
smooth impressed line, with small rugae at its base; legs black, with black 
hairs, becoming dark brown on the front tibia; ; abdomen tessellate, 
without punctures, black, shining, with sh'ght metallic reflections ; seg- 
ments 2 to 4 are depressed about one-third apically; there is a patch of 
fibrous pubescence on segments i and 2, covering segment i almost 
entirely, and becoming narrow towards the apex of segment 2 ; otherwise 
the segments are clothed with short, stiff black hairs, not forming apical 
fascise ; anal fimbria black. 

^ . — Length g mm.; differs from tiie female as foUov/s : Pubescence 
longer, but thinner, entirely fulvous, without a trace of black hairs ; head 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, . 165 

extremely broad ; clypeus with small punctures throughout, except a medi- 
an impunctate and very narrow line ; mandibles very long and slender, 
strongly curved, with tips entirely ferruginous ; joint 3 of the very long 
antennae shorter than 4 + 5 ; cheeks considerably produced, forming a 
rounded angle above the middle of the eye; sixth and seventh abdominal 
segments with thin fulvous pubescence. 

Milwaukee, Wis.; 4(^, 13 9 specimens taken between May 4 and 
June 23, on various flowers. The colour of the pubescence varies from' 
light ochraceous to bright fulvous in the female. One of my male 
specimens has only 2 submarginal cells on each side. This species 
resembles A. Hallii, Dunning, but the latter is a larger insect, and differs 
otherwise from A. Milwaukeensis. In some of the females the patch of 
fulvous pubescence on the abdomen extends even to the tip of the third 
segment. This patch of light ochraceous or bright fulvous pubescence on 
the first 2 or 3 abdominal segments separates this species from A. Hallii, 
as also from any of the species oi Andrena flying in this locality. 

Andrena viburnella, n. sp. J . — Length 1 1 mm.; body robust, 
black ; head, thorax and legs with very light ochraceous pubescence ; 
vertex distinctly roughened, not punctured ; cheeks tessellate, finely and 
closely punctured ; the thin pubescence is slightly longer on the lower 
portion of the cheeks than on the face ; front coarsely striate, with a 
median ridge extending from the ocellus to the base of the antennse ; the 
upper one-third of this ridge is low, but the remaining part is very 
prominent ; facial quadrangle broader than long ; antennae stout, dark 
brown, with testaceous tips ; joint 3 about equaling joints 4 + 5, certainly 
not longer ; facial foveae broad, with dark reddish-brown pubescence ; 
clypeus shining, clothed with short hairs ; the punctures of the clypeus 
are close and moderately coarse ; a median impunctate stripe is visible ; 
process of labrum long, truncate ; mandibles black, ferruginous on their 
apical halves, notched within near the tips ; mesonotum thickly covered 
with short, stiff" hairs, its surface is dull, tessellate, with close, shallow 
punctures ; scutellum shining, somewhat swollen, with a median 
impression ; its punctures are closer and more distinct than those of the 
mesonotum ; tegulse piceous ; wings dusky, nervures and stigma 
ferruginous ; second submarginal cell not as broad as third, receiving the 
first recurrent nervure at the middle ; metathorax coarsely roughened, its 
enclosure defined by a faint impressed line ; the enclosure is somewhat 



166 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

rugose at base, otherwise finely sculptured ; legs dark brown, the small 
tarsal joints ferruginous ; tibial scopa shining, of a lighter colour than the 
pubescence of the body in general ; abdomen shining, bare, without hair- 
bands ; segments 2 to 4 closely and finely punctured, depressed about 
one-third apically; the depressions are tessellate, and contain only a few 
scattered punctures ; anal fimbria dark fulvous. 

Milwaukee, Wis.; 2 9 specimens, May 29, 1902, from the flowers of 
Viburnum lentago. In the type specimen the legs are dark brown ; in 
the second specimen the legs are inclined to ferruginous. 

Atidrena albo/oveata, n. sp. V • — Length g mm.; black; pubescence 
whitish, more or less yellowish on mesonotum ; facial quadrangle broader 
than long ; head with short, sparse pubescence ; cheeks finely roughened, 
with very small punctures ; front striato-punctate ; facial foveie very broad 
above, narrowing gradually below and not unusually separated from eye ; 
the pubescence of the fovese is silvery-white, appressed ; antennse robust, 
black, somewhat testaceous beneath ; joint 5 shorter than 4, both 
together longer than 3 ; clypeus nearly bare, shining, with close and 
coarse punctures^ and an elevated impunctate line ; process of labrum 
small, shining, lightly truncate; thorax with short, thin, erect pubescence; 
mesonotum hardly shining, with fine punctures, which are close on the 
sides, but sparse on the disc ; median and parapsidal grooves present, 
the latter very distinct ; scutellum shining and more coarsely punctured 
than the mesonotum ; tegulre piceous, a testaceous spot exteriorly; wings 
yellowish-hyaline with rufo-testaceous nervures and stigma ; second 
submarginal cell about one-third as long as the third, and receiving the 
first recurrent nervure near the second transverse cubital nervure ; 
enclosure of metathorax with longitudinal rugos, bordered by a low 
transverse ridge ; legs very dark brown, covered with griseous hairs ; on 
the inner surface of the basal joints of the tarsi the pubescence is 
yellowish ; segments of abdomen depressed about one-third apically, 
closely and finely punctured throughout ; there are thin apical fascise of 
whitish pubescence, which are interru|)ted in the middle on segments 2 
and 3 ; anal fimbria light fulvous, sparse. 

Milwaukee, Wis.; 7 $ specimens, June 15 and 16, 1902, on flowers 
of Angelica atropurpurea. This species belongs to the genus Trac/iati- 
drena, Rob. It is rather variable ; in some of the specimens the 
pubescence is light ochraceous, and the hind tibiae and tarsi are 
ferruginous. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 167 

SOME APHIDID.^ OF THE GENUS NECTAROPHORA FROM 

NEW MEXICO. 

BY T. D. A COCKERELL, EAST LAS VEGAS, N. U. 

Nedarophora rudbeckice. (Fitch). 

Hab. — Beulah, N. M., alt. 8,000 ft., very abundant on Rtidbcckia 
ampla, A. Nelson. It is preyed upon by Hippodamia conver\^cns. This 
species is easily known by its bright scarlet colour. Monell reports A^. 
rudbeckia from many genera of CompositcC at St. Louis, Mo. ; in New- 
Mexico I have found it only on one species of Rudbeckia ; even the 
species on Rudbeckia hirta is quite different. 

Nedarophora solidaginis (Fabr.). 

ffab. — Beulah, N. M., July 26, numerous on Solidago. Blackish- 
red, some almost black ; nectaries black ; cauda light yellowish ; stigma 
pale greenish (yellowish in N. rudbeckice) ; femora with basal two-thirds 
pale yellowish, distal third blackish. The very young may be slightly 
tuberculate dorsally. Many of the young are bright red. In the winged 
female the cauda is just half the length of the nectaries ; the latter are 
imbricated. 

This species is very near to N. rudbeckice, but evidently distinct. 
It agrees with Buckton's account of European JV. solidaginis in all 
essential particulars ; Buckton's description and figure indicate a black 
cauda, but in his table on p. 102 he says it is yellow. The species is 
new to America, but is evidently native ; a member of the circumpolar 
fauna. 
Nedarophora corailorhizce, sp. n. 

Hab.— Bt\\\ah, N. M., July, 1902 {IV. P. Cockerel!). Numerous on 
Corallorhiza imcltiflora. 

Apterous %. — Green (pale yellow mounted in balsam), without 
markings; length 2^ to nearly 3 mm.; eyes scarlet; cauda pallid; 
nectaries very long, colourless at base, blackish in middle, paler beyond, 
but blackish again at the extreme tip ; antenna; pale, dusky at ends and 
at the joints ; legs pale, apical portion of femora dusky ; tarsi black or 
nearly so. Antennae over 3 mm. ; cauda ensiform, about 630 //. ; nec- 
taries 1400 \t.; antennal joints measuring in //. ; (r.) prox. 150, (2 ) 100, 
(3-) 1 130, (4-) 920, (5.), 730, (6a.) 150, (6b.) 1020. 

Nectaries slender, often curved outwards towards the end. Sensoria 
few, on under side of basal half of third joint. 

N. lutea, Buckton, found on greenhouse orchids, is yellow, with a 
large dorsal dark brown spot, and has much shorter nectaries. N. 



1G8 THE CANADIA.N ENTOMOLOGIST. 



nrtiae., Kalt., seems to resemble our insect as mucli as anything, but it is 

not the same. 

Nectarophora agrimoHiella, sp. n. 

Bab.—Bt\x\a^^, N. M., July 27, 1902 {W. P. and T. D. A. Cockerell). 
Very abundant on Agrimonia etipatoria, Auctt., inhabiting the flower- 
stalks. 

Winged ^ (full of young) — Large, light apple green (orange-ferrugi- 
nous mounted in balsam), without markings ; eyes black ; femora with 
basal two-thirds light green, distal third black, or sometimes less (about 
90 /J.) ; distal 90 /x of tibiae, and all of tarsi, black ; nectaries suffused with 
blackish; antennae dusky, joint 3 black except the basal 30 /x ; third 
antennal joint with very numerous (about 32) protuberant sensoria, about 
equally distributed on the proximal and distal halves ; cauda tapering, 
with a blunt tip, sides with bristles set on little prominences ; no capitate 
hairs anywhere. 

Length of body about 3 mm., wings about 3^ mm. ; other measure- 
ments in /x : — Antennal joints: (i.) 120, (2.) no, (3.) iioo, (4.) 900, 
(5.) 730, (6a.) 160, (6b.) 1230. Cauda about 450; nectaries 1000, with 
imbricated surface ; beak 700 to 750 ; anterior femur 1000; marginal 
cell with substigmatic portion 380, and poststigmatic portion 660. 

Allied to JV. erigeronetisis (Thos.), which it resembles in the numer- 
ous sensoria on joint 3. 
Nectarophora rudbeckiartim, sp. n. 

Hab. — -Beulah, N. M., July 26, 1902, on Rudbeckki ampla, with 
N. rudbeckicE, but not nearly so numerous. 

JVinged ? . — Light green ; eyes, ends of tibiae, and tarsi, black. 
Length of body about 2j^ mm., of wings about 4^ mm. Measurements 
in jL : Nectaries 1200 ; cauda about 600, breadth at base 120, in middle 
170; beak about 750; anterior femur 1500; antennal joints, (3.) 1200, 
(4.) 1250,(5.) 1070; marginal cell with substigmatal portion 420, post- 
stigmatal 500. Apterous ? about 4 mm. long, including cauda. This 
cannot be a green variety of N. rudbeckice, for the following reasons : 

(i.) N". rudbeckice has much shorter nectaries, not over 850 /x. 

(2.) N. rudbeckice has a longer marginal cell, with substigmatal 
portion 550, poststigmatal 700 /x. 

N. rudbeckiarum differs as follows from N. agrimoniella; 

(i.) The third antennal joint is not nearly so dark, and has only 
about ten hardly protuberant sensoria, which are practically confined to 
the basal half of the joint. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 169 



(2.) The Cauda, which in agrimoniella tapers from the base to the 
apex, in rudbeckiartan is spear-head shaped, with the base narrower than 
the middle. These descriptions represent the cauda as seen from above. 

(3.) The apical portion of the stigma is narrower and more produced 
tlian in agrimoniella. 

(4.) The femora are not at all black at distal end. 

(5.) The nectaries are green. This character distinguishes the 
species from N". erigeronensis. 

N. rudbeckiarum turns orange-ferruginous mounted in balsam ; 
darker than N. agrimoniella. 

Nedarophoru heleniella, sp. n. 

Hab. — Beulah, N. M., July 26, on flower-heads oi Heleniiim hoopesii, 
Gray. Not numerous. 

Wi?iged $ . — Apple green, smaller and deeper coloured than N. 
rudbeckiarum ; length of body about 2 mm., wings about 3^. Eyes 
black ; nectaries only slightly dusky ; femora greenish, only moderately 
suffused with blackish apically ; antennae black, except short basal joints 
and extreme base of third joint ; third joint with nine large and four 
small sensoria, the last one 45 /x from base of joint. Measurements in 
ju, : Nectaries 710; cauda about 300, tapering from base to apex, in the 
manner of N. agrimo?iiella ; beak about 600; anterior femur 920; 
antennal joints, (3.) 770, (4.) 660; (5.) 530, (6a.) 140, (6b.) 1140. 
iMarginal cell with substigmatal portion 320, poststigmatal 500. 

The apterous form (immature) has the cauda short and broad, broad- 
pyramidal in outline seen from above. The immature form is slightly 
pruinose, and has a darker green dorsal band. 

Ailed to N. geranii, but distinct. 

Nedarophora Martini, sp. n. 

Hab. — Beulah, N. M., 1902, on many plants. Named after my son 
Martin, who used to help me collect insects at Beulah. The form on 
Heleniuni may be taken as the type. Similar to N. sonclii (L ), of which 
N. ambrosice (Thos.) is the American representative, if not a synonym, 
but differs especially in the young, which are pruinose and do not share 
the piliferous tubercles. It is also allied to N. sonchella, Monell, but the 
fourth antennal joint is not tubercular, and to N. calendulce, Monell, but 
that has the third joint very slightly tubercular. The two last-mentioned 
are also not pruinose when young, so far as I can learn ; herein they will 
agree with N. solidaginis, which is easily known from N. Martini by the 
much redder, non-pruinose, young, as well as the shorter nectaries of the 
winged female. 



ITU THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I assume that the insects collected on different plants are the same 
species, because I am unable to find any tangible characters to separate 
them ; but I give my notes on each lot separately : 

(i.) On Rudbeckia hirta, Aug. 4. Winged form dark reddish to 
practically black ; nectaries black, cauda pale yellowish ; femora with 
apical half black, basal half pale ; stigma pale greenish. Apterous form 
shiny, 3 mm. long, not counting cauda. 

Winged % . — Cauda ensiform, with large lateral bristles ; length 
about 500 /x. Nectaries about looo /j. long, black. Eyes black. An- 
tennal joints in /x, (3.) 1070, (4.) 980, (5.) 850, (6a.) 200, (6b.) 1300. 
Stigma tapering, marginal cell with poststigmatal part considerably longer 
than subsiigmatal. Antennje black, joint 3 with prominent sensoria (at 
least 40) along its whole length except extreme ends. Joint 4 without 
sensoria. The other lots enumerated below showed the same micro- 
scopical characters except some little difference in size, and a smaller 
number of sensoria on joint 3 in the material from Potentilla and 
Frasera. 

(2.) On heads of Helenmm hoopesii, July 26. Young and apterous 
adults. The young are reddish, with greenish legs, and have a decided 
bluish pruinose bloom. They are not tuberculate. The apterous adults 
are shiny dark wine-red, with the legs as in N. rudbeckue; i.e., basal 
two-thirds of fermora pale ochreous, apical third, and tibte and tarsi, 
black or blackish. Nectaries long, black, obviously longer than in 
rudbeckice. The bluish bloom is conspicuous even in subadults. On 
Aug. 3 the species was found in great abundance, winged specimens 
being present. The green species {N. Jicleniella) was present in smaller 
numbers ; it cannot be a colour-variety of A^ Martini, owing to the 
great difference in the sensoria on the third antennal joint. Measure- 
ments in //: — Apterous ^: nectaries 1330; antennal joints, (2.) 120, (3.) 
iioo, (4.) 900, (5.) 735, (6a.) 150, (6b.) 1030. Winged ?: nectaries 820; 
antennal joints, (3.) 930, (4.) 790, (5.) 710, (6a.) 180, (6b.) 1090. 

(3.) On F?-asera speciosa, Auctt., abundant. Winged 9 : dark 
wine-red; stigma yellowish; legs black, basal 73 of femora and coxie, 
pale greenish ; nectaries black, yellow at extreme base ; cauda reddish. 
Immature forms pruinose. Measurements in /a — Winged ? : nectaries 
1000; antennal joints, (i.) 160, (2.) 100, (3.) 960, (4.) 810, (5.) 720, 
(6a.) 170, (6b.) 1000. 

(4.) On flower -heads of Zygadenus Nuttallii, Coult. Flora, 
abundant July 31. \Vinged 9: Head and thorax reddish-brown, 
abdomen darker; nectaries black, pale at extreme base ; femora very pale 
greenish, black at apex : young pruinose. 



& 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 171 

(5.) On Eriogotium (a tall species with greenish-yellow flowers), 
July 29, a few only. Winged $: Shining very dark plum colour; 
abdomen same colour as head and thorax ; legs black, basal half or less 
of femora, and coxfe, pale ochreous ; nectaries black ; cauda and stigma 
ochreous yellow ; antennas black ; wings strongly iridescent. Young 
pruinose, with olive-slate legs, antennae and nectaries. The nectaries are 
obviously shorter than in the Potentilla form, and are held erect. 
Apterous $: 2j/^ mm. long. Measurements in /x : nectaries 810; 
antennal joints, (i.) 150, (2.) 100, (3.) 920, (4.) 770, (5.) 650, (6a.) 185, 
(6b.) 680. 

(6.) On Ligiisticum (species with yellow flowers), July 29 ; not 
many. Winged ? : Dark brown ; nectaries black ; legs black, basal half 
of femora, coxae and basal half of tibise more or less, yellowish. Measure- 
ments in \i: nectaries 840; antennal joints, (i.) prox. 150, (2.) 100, 
(3.) 880, (4.) 730, (5.) 710, (6a.) 200, (6b.) 1220. The Ligtistiatm grew 
mixed with the Potentilla next mentioned. 

(7.) On Potentilla (apparently P. pulcherrima), July 29, first found 
by my wife ; very abundant. Dark reddish-gray, winged form with the 
head and thorax more decidedly red, contrasting with the darker 
abdomen. Half-grown more or less pruinose, with legs, antenna; and 
nectaries dark olive. In the winged form these parts are black or 
blackish, with the basal two-thirds of femora light yellowish. Stigma 
light yellowish. Nectaries over twice length of cauda, which is pink. 
Measurements of winged ? in /x : nectaries 990 ; antennal joints, (i.) prox. 
150, (2.) 100, (3.) 9S0, (4.) 950. 

The specimens on the Potentilla have the nectaries a trifle shorter 
than those on Frasera and Zygade?nis, but otherwise appear just the 
same. Curiously, however, the Potentilla form when disturbed jerks to 
and fro, but will not drop to the ground ; while those on Frasera and 
Zygadenus do not jerk nearly so readily, neither do they fall. This 
difference in the reaction of the creature to irritation was repeatedly 
observed, and suggested that the species were different, but I am quite 
unable to find satisfactory morphological characters to separate them. 
Monell has remarked that N. sonchella always drops to the ground when 
disturbed. 
Nectarophora, spp. 

Other species of Nectarophora were taken at Beulah on Sophia 
incisa, Geum, Gnaphalijun deairrens, Phacelia circinata, Erigeron and 
Populus atigustifolia, but I did not secure the winged females and so 
have deferred their description. 



172 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



SYNOPSIS OF NOMADIN.^. 

BY CHARLES ROBERTSON, CARLINVILLE, ILLINOIS. 

This paper is intended to give the results of the study of the local 
species. 

Unless otherwise indicated, vein a = basal nervure ; vein Vj = trans- 
verse medial nervure ; vein ;-w = first cubital nervure ; cell IIIi4.2 = margin- 
al cell ; cell III5 = second cubital cell ; " joint " refers to antennae ; " seg- 
ment " refers to abdomen. 

There has been enough confusion in this group to suit the most 
stupid of lumpers. It takes a mystagogue to identify a species from a 
description of its ornaments. Such descriptions are regular pitfalls — 
regular synonym-traps. The description of N. bisignata, Say, can be 
duplicated from five different local species. Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slos- 
son sent me specimens of the immaculate form of Gnathias ovatus, which 
had been identified for her as AF. incerta. The former has bidentate 
mandibles and simple coxje, while the latter has simple mandibles and 
spined coxae, and is the female of Centrias americanus. The synonymy 
is given in Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, 22 : 125. Here the question arises as to 
whether the N. americana, Kby.. is the same as N. incerta or the same as 
this immaculate form of G. ovatus. The latter is rare, and has the 
abdomen much paler than indicated in Kirby's description of the former. 
Then, which one of these is the immaculate variety of Say's IV. bisignata? 
Here, also, JV. incerta is by far the more probable determination. N. 
simplex, with simple mandibles, was identified as N. bella. On compar- 
ing the type, I found that N. bella had bidentate mandibles. 

N. affabilis, Cr., is composite. The N. Y. specimen, on which the 
description was evidently based, is regarded as the type. The 111. speci- 
men is the male of N. vincta. The ornaments of the two species are al- 
most identical. 

N.rubicunda, Oliv., { = N. torrida, Sm.) belongs to Ce?itrias. 

N. bella and inaculata belong to Gnathias. I have examined the 
types of the former twice, and of the latter once. They resemble G. 
cuneatus, but are quite different from the local specimens. JV. viaculata 
is much larger and more red. At present I would not unite. them. The 
two local species are very common and very variable. In the table I have 
indicated the colour forms at some length. They seem to show a strong 
tendency to divide into several species, and there may be differences in 
the hosts which they infest. I cannot separate the males in the same way. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 173 



In this paper Gnai/iias aoieatus and ovatus and Xaiithidmm den- 
tarice are described as new, and the male of Centrias erigeronis is de- 
scribed for the first time. 

After Cephen was characterized as given in the table, I suspected that 
it might be the same as Microiwmada, Ckll., but I could not identify that 
genus without getting specimens of the type, N. modesta, for examination. 
IV. modesta has the cell III5 strongly narrowed above, cell III1+2 less ob- 
tuse, and the vein a ends a little before or is interstitial with Vg. The 
front cox£e have a tubercle above the spine. The other structural charac- 
ters are quite similar, and show that the two genera are closely related, 
but the venation is so different that I have decided to let Cephefi stand. 
N. /ervida, Sm., also belongs to Cepheti. 

Herninoitiada, Ckll., like Microiiomada, Ann. Mag., N. H., VII., 
10 : 42-4, 1902, I would raise to generic rank. Of 37 specimens in my 
collection, 9 have three submarginal cells in one or both wings. 

Vein ;v«, usually wanting in HoJiinomada, I have also found want- 
ing in N. Cressonii (i) and Sayi (i). Vein III5 I have found wanting in 
Gnathias ciuieatus (i), Centrias Americantis (i), rubicundus (i), Nomada 
parva (i). 

I have to thank the authorities of the American Entomological So- 
ciety for the privilege of examining co-types of N. affabilis and bella and 
specimens of N. modesta. Mr. Viereck noted several points in which the 
N. Y. specimen of N. affabilis differed from the co-type sent me for ex- 
amination. 

In his early descriptions Mr. Cresson mentions the structure of seg- 
ment 7 of the males, and in his later ones notes the form of the joints 
of antennae. 

Females. 

Mandibles bidentate; joint 3 shorter than 4 ; vein a before Vg ; head 
and thorax red ; sutures, depressed and concealed portions 
black Gfiathias. 

Mandibles simple i . 

1. Front coxse simple; rarely (N. denticiilata) with short, indistinct 

spines 3. 

Front coxae with long pubescent spines ; abdomen distinctly punc- 
tured 2. 

2. Joint 3 longer than 4; vein a beyond, or interstitial with, Vg ; cell 

Illg subquadrate, III1+2 obtuse j joint i of labial palpi twice as long 



174 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



as 2-4, 2 flat, as long as 3 + 4, which are simple and directed ob- 
liquely outward Cepheu. 

Joint 3 shorter than 4; vein a a little before V2 ; cell III5 more nar- 
rowed above ; HIj^ , acute ; labial palpi ordinary ; abdominal 
fasciie, when present, continuous on segments 4-5, interrupted, re- 
duced or wanting on 1-3 Centrias. 

3. Joint 3 distinctly shorter than 4 5. 

Joint 3 longer than 4, rarely a little shorter ' 4. 

4. Head and thorax without yellow ornaments, red; sutures, depressed 

and concealed portions black ; vein a interstitial with Vg ; apex of 
hind tibijB with black curved bristles; joints 3-4 subequal; abdomen 
red, a whitish spot on each side of segments 2-3, two subdiscal, 
usually cuneate, spots on 4, and a transverse spot on 5 ; these 

marks sometimes wanting on 4, rarely on 2 and 5 P/ior. 

Head and thorax with yellow ornaments, usually black. .Holojiomada. 

5. Head and thorax without yellow ornaments ; vein a before 

Vj Noviada. 

Head and thorax with yellow ornaments 6. 

6. Vein rm usually (75%) wanting in one or both wings ; largely red ; 

segments 2-5 with yellow fascite, sometimes interrupted 

on 2 Heininomada. 

Vein rm present; mesonotum with four yellow lines; segments 1-6 
with yellow bands Xanthidium. 

Males. 
Mandibles bidentate Gnathias. 

Mandibles simple 1. 

1. Front coxae simple, rarely {JV. denticulata) with short, indistinct 

spines 3. 

Front coxae with pubescent spines; abdomen distinctly punctured. .2. 

2. Scape ordinary ; joint 3 longer than 4; vein a beyond, or interstitial 

with, V2 ; cell \\\^ subquadrate, HIn 2 obtuse ; segment 

7 bifid Cephen. 

Scape robust ; joint 4 = 5-1-6, 5 with a spine beneath ; flagellum usual- 
ly yellow beneath, middle joints short, submoniliform, the last pro- 
duced to a point Centrias. 

3. Segment 7 notched ; joint 3 shorter than 4 5. 

Segment 7 entire 4. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 175 



4. Joint 3 shorter than 4 ; vein a interstitial witli V,, ; abdomen red, with 

whitish ornaments Pluu-. 

Joint 3 longer than 4 ; abdomen black, with yellow 

ornaments Holonomada. 

5. Vein rm usually wanting ; segments 1-6 with yellow bands, that on i 

usually red Hcininomada. 

Vein rm rarely wanting 6. 

6. Segments 1-6 with entire and continuous bands, sometimes narrowly 

interrupted on i ; vein a before Vg Xanthidiuvi. 

Segments 1-6 without entire and continuous bands, usually with some 
lateral spots ; when continuous, the bands have separated spots on 
extreme sides of 5 Nomada. 

Gnathias, gn. nov. (Type Nomada be/la, Cresson). 

Females. . 

Pygidium ovate, rather closely punctured and pubescent ; lower an- 
terior orbits yellowish ; mesonotum commonly trilineate ; rather yel- 
lowish red, the spots small and hardly contrasting with the ground 

colour ovatus, sp. nov. 

70 specimens fall into the following forms, according to their colour 
patterns. The ornament on the side of segment 4 is counted as one 
spot. It consists of an elongated spot, or its representatives: (i) 
when the spot is broken in two, or (2) when the lateral portion dis- 
appears, leaving a subdiscal, more or less cuneate spot. 
A spot on each side of segments 2-4 and a bar on 5 (10) . . . .plenus. 

A spot on each side of segments 2-5 (15) odomaculattis. 

A spot on each side of segments 2-4 (r), or of 2, 3 and 

5 (2) sexmaculatus. 

A spot on each side of segments 2-3 (15), or of 2 and 

5(3) quadrwiaculatus. 

A spot on each side of segment 2 (22) binotatus. 

Abdomen without spots (2) tmicolor. 

Pygidium triangular, sparsely puncttired and pubescent ; lower anterior 
orbits not yellowish ; mesonotum one-lined ; rather dark red ; spots 

distinct, large on segment 2 cuneaius, sp. nov. 

28 specimens show the following forms, the ornaments of segment 2 
as in the preceding : 

A spot on each side of segments 1-5 (i) decemnotatns. 

A spot on each side of segments 2-5 (15) octonotatus. 



176 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A spot on each side of segments 2, 3 and 5 (i) sexnotatus. 

A spot on each side of segments 2-3 (11) quadrisignattis. 

Males. 

Intermediate joints of antennae not longer than wide ; tegulse, knees 
and apex of tibise usually yellow; scutel black or marked with yellow, 
sometimes red ; abdomen varying from 6-banded to 4-spotted . <7z/«/?/.y. 

Intermediate joints longer than wide ; tegulae and legs red ; scutel 
usually red; abdomen varying from 6-banded to 'i-?,\>Q)\.\.td,.ciineatus. 

Cephen, gn. nov. (Type JVanada Texana, Cresson). 

Female. 
Black ; labrum, joints 1-3 and legs red ; lemon-yellow ornaments as 
follows : Base of mandibles, sides of face, line behind summit of 
eye, collar, tubercles, subarcuate mark on pleura, two spots on scutel, 
postscutel, spots on middle and hind coxae and on apex of hind tibiae, 
narrow fasciae on segments 1-5 above and arcuate marks on sides of 

3-4 beneath Texanus. 

Male. 
Like the female ; face, clypeus, spot above, and labrum 

lemon-yellow Texamis. 

Centrias, gn. nov. (Type Nomada erigero7iis, Rob.). 

Females. 

Insect red ; sutures, depressed and concealead portions 

more or less black , Americanus. 

Insect black ; mandibles, face, joints 1-3, tubercles, tegulse, line above, 
patches on pleura, scutel, legs, and sometimes venter, red ; malar 
space, collar, axillre, postscutel and abdominal fasciae, yellow ; the 
latter interrupted on 1-3, continuous and paler on 4-5 ; abdomen 
coarsely punctured, margins of segments reflexed, beneath the punc- 
tures are coarse, strong and dense erigero7iis. 

Males. 

Hind femur arcuate ; antenna with a pale annulus ; abdomen red at 
base, black beyond, yellow fascire interrupted on segments 1-2, con- 
tinuous on 3-6 ; 7 strongly notched ■.Americanus. 

Hind femur simple ; antenna without a pale annulus ; abdomen black, 
yellow fascite interrupted on segment i, continuous on 2-6, 7 slightly 
notched ; other ornaments like the female, but the mandibles, face, 
scape in front, flagellum at base beneath, tubercles, tegulse, spot on 



H 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 177 



pleura, coxse and trochanters, more or less, and apices of femora and 
tibise, yellow erigeronis. 

Holonomadd, gn. nov (Type Nomada siiperba, Cresson). 

Females. 

Metathorax entirely black 2. 

Metathorax with two yellow patches ; abdomen with five yellow 
fasciae i . 

1. Mesonotum coarsely punctured, pubescent ; vein a before Vg; flagellum 

dark above affabilis. 

Mesonotum finely punctured, nearly bare ; vein a about interstiual 
with V2 ; flagellum with a dark annulus vincta. 

2. Segments 1-5 with continuous yellow fasciaj \ vein a usually before 

Vj ; metathorax with dentiform lateral angles ; scutel acutely 

bilobed superba. 

Segment i black, or with ferruginous stain, 2-3 with interrupted, 4-5 
with continuous bands ; vein a not before Vg ; scutel hardly bilobed; 
joint 3 sometimes a little shorter than 4 ; small placida. 

Males. 

Metathorax and posterior orbits black, or nearly so 2. 

Metathorax with two yellow spots ; posterior orbits largely yellow. i. 

1. Scape obovate ; vein a usually interstitial with V., ; flagellum darker i:i 

the middle ; scutel subbilobed vincta. 

Scape ordinary ; vein a usually before V^ ; flagellum darker above ; 
scutel bilobed affabilis. 

2. Segments 1-6 with continuous yellow bands ; vein a usually before 

V2 ; large species superba. 

Segments 5-6 with continuous, 2-4 with interrupted, yellow bands, i 
entirely black ; vein a usually interstitial with Vj ; small 

species placida. 

Phor., gn. nov. (Type Nomada Integra, Rob.) integer. 

Heminomada, Ckll. (Type Nomada obliterata, CxQ^son) .obliterata. 

Xanthidium, gn. nov. (Type Nomada hiteola, Oliv.). 

Females. 
Metathorax with subquadrate marks encroaching upon 

enclosure luteolum. 

Metathorax with subtriangular marks not encroaching upon 

enclosure luteoloidts. 



178 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Males. 
Flagellum denticulate beneath ; orbits yellow, except at summit 

behind luteoloides. 

Flagellum ordinary ; orbits yellow below i. 

1. Band on segment i interrupted ; flagellum submoniliform, fulvous 

beneath dentarice, sp. nov. 

Band on segment i continuous ; flagellum unusually dark^ piceous be- 
neatli, the joints unusually cylindrical luteohan. 

Nomada Scop. 
Females. 
Head and thorax black, with ferruginous ornaments ; abdomen black, 
with yellow ornaments ; interrupted line on segment i, lateral marks 

on 2-3, continuous fasci;\i on 4-5 vidua. 

Head and thorax red, sutures, depressed and concealed portions 
black I . 

1. Scutel quite low, convex, hardly bilobed ; joint 4 shorter than 12; 

black colour of head and thorax rather preponderating over the red ; 
a yellow spot on each side of segments 2-3, two spots on each side 

of 4, a band or two spots on 5 simplex. 

Scutel crested, bilobed 2. 

2. Joint 4 shorter than 12 5. 

Joint 4 as long as 12 3. 

3. Front coxce with short spines ; pygidium subacute ; yellow fascia on 

segment 5 opaque, finely rugose, rather sparsely, feebly punctured : 

scutel strongly crested denticuhita. 

Front coxae without spines ; pygidium broadly subtruncate 4. 

4. A spot on each side of segments 2-3, two subdiscal cuneate spots on 

4 ; band on 5 shining, coarsely punctured ; larger Cressonii. 

A spot on each side of segments z-^ ; smaller Sayi. 

5. A spot on each side of segments 2-3, and usually a band or two spots 

'^^ 5 ; pygidium broadly rounded, closely pubescent . . Illinoiensis. 
A spot on each side of segments 2-5 ; the smallest species . . . parva. 

Males. 

Abdomen mainly reddish ; vein a before Vg 3 

Abdomen mainly black i. 

I. Segments 2-3 with a spot on each side, i usually with an interrupted 
band, 4 with a band or two spots on each side, 5 with a discal band 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 179 



and a spot on each side, 6 like 5, or the lateral spots wanting, 7 

with apex slightly notched vicina. 

Segments 1-6 with bands continuous, or nearly so, usually a separated 
spot on each side of 5 2. 

2. Joints 7-10 wider than long; segment 7 strongly notched; pleura, 

scutel and legs marked with yellow ; vein a beyond V^ salicis. 

Joints 7-10 longer than wide ; segment 7 slighly notched ; pleura and 
scutel black ; legs less yellow ; vein a before Vg simplex. 

3. Flagellum distinctly denticulate beneath ; front coxse with short spines ; 

a spot on each side of segment 2, sometimes one on i, usually con- 
tinuous bands on 3-6 denticulata. 

Flagellum and front coxre ordinary 4. 

4. Joint 4 shorter than 13 6. 

Joint 4 as long as 13 5. 

5. Thorax largely red ; larger Cressonii. 

Thorax almost entirely black ; smaller Sayi. 

6. Apical half of abdomen reddish ; middle joints of flagellum longer than 

wide Iliinoiefisis. 

Apical half of abdomen blackish ; middle joints of flagellum hardly 
longer than wide parva. 



THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PEDILOPHORUS. 

BY H. F. WICKHAM, IOWA CITY, IOWA. 

The Byrrhidte of this continent have received a comparatively small 
share of attention at the hands of systematists for many years, so that it is 
not at all surprising to find novelties among recently-collected material. 
Two new forms of the genus Pedilophorus have recently been detected 
among the accumulations in my cabinet, i^oth of them from the west ; no 
doubt still others remain to reward explorers of the mountain ranges and 
of the northern districts. The European fauna contains ten species, while 
but four were previously known from North America. For the sake of 
better understanding of the new forms, I have constructed the following 
table, by means of which our native species may be identified : 
A. Elytral punctuation disposed in broad vittie, alternating with nearly 

smooth stripes. .34 inch Lecontei, n. sp. 

AA. Elytral punctuation not disposed in vittae. 

b. Tarsi simple. A green-bronzed species, clothed with coarse 
whitish hairs. . 1 7 inch ceneoluSy Lee. 



180 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

bb. Tarsi with third joint lobed beneath. 

c. Bright green or bronzed species, pubescence fine, 
recumbent, without intermixed bristles. 

d. Acuminate behind, the elytra narrowing from 
in front of the middle. 

.16 inch acnminafus, Mann. 

dd. Form oblong, elytra parallel, or nearly so, to a 
point about one-third from tip. 

.18 inch oblongus, Lee. 

cc. Blackish species, metallic tinge lacking or inconspicuous. 

e. Pubescence extremely fine, whitish and ochreous, 

intermixed with conspicuous black bristle-like 

hairs. .17 inch subcanus, Lee. 

ee. Pubescence whitish or yellowish, not intermixed 

with bristle-like hairs. .16 mch.hespenis, n. sp. 

In a cabinet arrangement it might be better to place oblongus 

between acumi?iatus and ceneolus, and to make suhcaiius follow Hesperus 

rather than precede it. This is the sequence I have adopted in the notes 

below. 

P. Lecontei, n. sp. — Oblong-ovate, very convex, bronzed, shining, 
with extremely fine, sparse, recumbent pubescence. Head with fine, 
well-separated punctures, front convex. Antennae gradually clavate, 
passing the base of the thorax, blackish, the intermediate portion reddish; 
first joint large, second subglobose, third nearly twice as long as the 
second, but much more slender, fourth to tenth becoming broader, but 
subequal in length, eleventh oval, pointed. Thorax broadest at base, 
strongly narrowed anteriorly, sides scarcely arcuate, a rather deep 
submarginal lateral impression, which curves inward at the hind angles ; 
posterior angles large, acute, but with somewhat irregular outline, basal 
marginal line distinct, fine, a small fovea in front of the scutellum ; disk 
finely, regularly punctured, the punctures separated by a space about 
equal to their own diameters. Elytra continuing the outline of the thorax, 
becoming slightly broader to a point about one-third from apex, thence 
rapidly narrowing, tips separately rounded ; an oblique impression near 
the apex, which renders the declivity more gibbous ; surface deeply, 
regularly and rather closely punctured in longitudinal bands, which leave 
the sutural region and four vittse on each elytron nearly smooth. Beneath 
rather coarsely and deeply-punctured abdominal segments becoming 
gradually smoother in sequence. Legs closely punctured, all the femora 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 181 



grooved ; tibire finely spinulose exlernally ; the anterior pair somewhat 
enlarged towards apex, the middle and hind ones of approximately 
uniform width in distal two-thirds. Third tarsal joint with a long lobe. 
Length, 8.5 mm. 

This species is much larger than any of the other described North 
American forms, and looks very much like an AmpJiicyrta. The peculiar 
punctuation of the elytra gives a vittate effect, recalling Cytihts, but there is 
no alternation of elevation. Only the front tibise are distinctly grooved for 
the reception of the tarsi. The antennal club is so gradually formed that 
it is difficult to say where it begins ; the third and fourth joints are of 
nearly the same width, while in the fifth the enlargement has became 
apparent. 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, two specimens, taken by myself in June, under 
logs. A third specimen from Vernon, B. C, collected by Mr. Venables 
and communicated by Dr. Fletcher, is slightly smaller, more brilliant, and 
a trifle more coarsely punctured, the marginal line of the prothorax is less 
marked, and the head has a frontal transverse row of three fovec^, of 
which the middle one is larger and deeper. These fovese are non-essential, 
however, since one of my specimens has the median one distinct, the 
other showing also traces of the lateral fovese. 

F. cBtieolus, Leconte, New Species of North American Coleoptera, 
Sm. Misc. Coll., No. 167, 1866, p. 74. Originally described from a 
specimen in the Ulke Collection, captured in Nebraska. I have a 
number of examples of a Pedilophorus from Kalispell, Montana, which 
may belong here, though I am not quite satisfied with the determination. 
Mr. Fall expresses himself as being in doubt as to their exact status, and 
neither he nor myself have seen the type, which is now presumably in the 
Carnegie Museum at Pittsburg. 

P. oblongus, Leconte, Report upon Insects collected on the Survey, 
Pacific R.R. Expl. and Surv., 47th and 49th parallels, p. 39 of separate. 
P. acuminatusX, Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., Vol. VII., p. 115. 
Oregon, Leconte. I have specimens from Seattle, Washington, collected 
by S. Bethel. 

P. aciimmatus, Mannerheim i^Morychus aamiifiatus), Bull. Soc. Imp. 
Nat., Moscow, 1852, p. 341. The type specimens were collected under 
stones, among moss, at Sitka, Alaska, by Frankenhasuser and Pipingskoeld. 
Dr. Fletcher records it as being taken at Massett, Queen Charlotte Islands, 
under moss during the winter, by Rev. J. H. Keen. I took a single 



182 THE CANA.UIA.N ENTOMOLOGIST. 



individual at Hunter's Bay. Alaska, from a cut place on the trunk of a 
conifer. Two specimens in my cabinet, collected by Rev. Geo. W. 
Taylor, at Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, are a little more deeply punctured. 

P. hesperus, n. sp. — Oblong, blackish, feebly shining, a faint aeneous 
tinge, pubescence pale, recumbent, moderately coarse. Head deeply and 
densely, rather coarsely, punctured, front with a distinct median fovea, 
around which the punctures are less crowded. Antennae gradually 
clavate, about reaching the base of the thorax, piceous-red, club blackish; 
first joint large and heavy, second subglobose, not quite as thick as the 
first, third more slender than the second but nearly as long, fourth and 
fifth subequai, a trifle shorter than the third, sixth broader, seventh to 
tenth wide, subequai in length, eleventh nearly twice as long as the tenth, 
oval, pointed. Thorax distinctly, finely and rather closely punctured, 
narrowed anteriorly, the sides not arcuate but slightly sinuate, lateral 
margin sharp, front and hind angles acute. Scutelluin covered with pale 
yellowish pubescence. Elytra continuing the outline of the thorax, finely, 
distinctly and fairly closely punctured and indistinctly sulcate, sides 
subparallel, tips conjointly rounded. Beneath rufo-piceous, thickly clothed 
with pale pubescence, which almost conceals the sculpture, especially on 
the abdomen. Legs piceous, femora paler, all grooved for the reception 
of the tibijB. Tibiae spinulose externally, front and middle pairs with 
exterior margin arcuate, hind pair simply broader towards tip. Third 
tarsal joint lobed beneath. Length, 4 mm. 

Leadville, Colorado, July, taken by myself under stones on a hillside. 
The front tibiae alone are grooved for the reception of the tarsi. The 
antennae are much stouter in comparison than those of F. Lecontei. In 
general appearance this insect approaches P. subcatms, but is at once 
distinguished by the lack of bristly hairs among the pubescence. From 
acuminatus it may readily be separated by colour and outline ; oblongus 
differs in the bright green colour, strongly shining surface and lack of 
elytral sulcations, while ceneolus should at once be separable by the simple 

tarsi. 

P. subcain/s, Leconte, Coleoptera of Michigan, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 
XVII., 1878, p. 609. Described from Escanaba, Lake Superior. I have 
it from Bayfield, Wisconsin, on the southern shore of the same lake, and 
from Leadville, Colorado. 



Mailed fune 4th, 1903. 




CiiKuIiaif Jntumuloifibt. 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, JULY, 1903. No. 



A COLEOPTEROUS CONUNDRUM. 

BY ANNIE TRUMBULL SLOSSON. 

A year ago. May 1902, I had a peculiar entomological experience. 
I had returned from Florida to my home in New York about the middle 
of April, had spent two or three weeks arranging and classifying ray 
captures of the winter, sending off duplicates and doubtful species to 
specialists, and preparing my collection for the summer months of my 
absence. A full fortnight must pass before I should leave town for my 
New Hampshire summer home, and I already pined for a little collecting. 
Suddenly I recalled the existence of some old boxes of insects which had 
been crowded out of my regular collection-room some years before. They 
were in a closet opening from a hall on the second floor. This closet had 
been built especially for the preservation of woollen clothing and its 
protection from ravages of the devouring moth, its walls, shelves and 
drawers being made of red cedar. But after a period of many years — 
nearly forty, I think — the wood has lost its protective odour, and the place 
is often visited by insect pests. It, however, still bears the name of the 
" cedar-closet," and here had been stored for several years the overflow 
from ray collection. In a leisure hour, one chilly May day, feeling a 
touch of the entomologist's iitful fever, I said to a friend, in a sportive 
mood, " I am going to try the cedar-closet, who knows what discoveries 
I niay make in those old boxes of bugs ?" As unconscious of the great 
discovery awaiting me there as was probably Isaac Newton before that 
attractedly gravitating apple fell to the ground, I started on my quest. 
The first box I opened contained lepidojjtera from Franconia, chiefly 
moths, taken several years before, and of little value or rarity. It was a 
wreck, clouds of dust rose from it as I lifted the cover, and broken bits of 
wings and bodies rolled about as I moved the box. Disagreeable, stealthy 
Anthrenus larvae, of all sizes, glided about among the ruins. Of course 
this must be attended to, and the infested specimens thrown away ; so I 
carried the box with its contents to ray room for further examination, 



184 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Tliere was a little fire burning in a low grate, and into this I began 
throwing the insect debris. As I tried to pick up some of the slippery 
Anthrenus larvae I noticed among them what seemed to be tiny brown 
ants. I had never seen any ants in the cedar-closet, so wetting my finger 
I lifted one of the little creatures and dropped it into a poison bottle. 
When it was quiet I took it out and examined it with my magnifying 
glass. It was no ant, but — what was it? I had never seen anything 
resembling it. Indeed, for a time I was not sure even to what order it 
belonged. Was it hemipterous, hymenopterous, coleopterous, or what? 
I put a half dozen specimens into the bottle, and a little later mounted 
two of them on a card triangle and sent them to Mr. Liebeck, in 
Philadelphia, for identification. At this juncture I felt no excitement, 
not much curiosity. Though quite unfamiliar to me, the species was 
probably well known to experienced entomologists as a museum pest ; 
thus I thought to myself. But next day came a postal from Mr, Liebeck. 
He did not recognize my capture ; had seen nothing like it ; had it not 
been introduced with some of my specimens from South Florida ? he 
asked. '• It is a very curious insect, apterous, you see. Though provided 
with jaws and elytra, the usual characteristics of coleoptera, its antennse 
seem very peculiar ones for a beetle. But I will examine it further 
and report." Thus he wrote, and I began to feel the first thrill of interest. 
This certainly could not be a familiar museum pest if such an experienced 
entomologist as Mr. Liebeck failed to recognize it. I went back to my 
box of infested moths and sought more specimens of the cunning little 
pest, securing about twenty specimens. These I carried with me to the 
mountains when I went there the latter part of May. Soon after my 
arrival in Franconia I sent specimens to Mr. Frederick Blanchard, and he 
wrote concerning them : " These beetles are very queer indeed ; I 
haven't at present the slightest idea what tliey are related to. They 
reminded me at first sight of certain small Hemiptera. I hope to send 
you something further about them before very long." 

A fortnight later Mr. Blanchard wrote again : " The very remarkable 
little beetle which you found devouring your specimens with Anthrenus is 
still an interrogation. I can, so far, find nothing at all like it in any of my 
boxes. A week ago I sent sketches with details, asking Henshaw's aid, 
but I haven't a word from him yet. The beetle is so very peculiar it 
should be easily identified if well known. The antennae appear to be 
entire and alike in both specimens, but with only nine joints, 3-5 being 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 185 



rather difticult to count, they are so small. One of the long joints is 
shorter than the others, but I don't recall whether it is the 7th or 8th. 
This is a very peculiar form of antenna, and would still be so if there were 
the normal number of eleven joints. Your insect is furnished with a single 
ocellus between the eyes, which is a very rare character in beetles. Some 
Dermestid?e have one ocellus, and in the Horaalini of the Staphylinidse 
there are two somewhat distant ones. The only other instance I have been 
able to find is in the case of Hylotonms biicephalus, from Sierra Leone, 
belonging to the family Paussid?e, which is not represented in this 
country. Here there are again two ocelli. I shall probably hear from 
Cambridge in a day or two, and will write you again." A few days later 
he wrote : "I heard from Henshaw yesterday. Like myself, he is unable 
to furnish any clue at all to the beetle's relations. T think that all that can 
be said of it is that it is a member of the great Serricorn series, which 
includes such a variety of types. \n the Leconte and Horn Classification 
this embraces families XXXIX.— LL, but Casey (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
Vol. VL, p. 76) is inclined to go further and add several other groups, 
hitherto considered Clavicorn. Just wliere your beetle comes in I can't 
say. The whole arrangement of the Serricornia would have to be care- 
fully studied first, as it does not appear that your anomaly belongs to any 
recognized family." I had, in one of my letters to Mr. Blanchard, spoken 
of the varied contents of the cedar-closet in which the puzzling pest was 
found, and hinted jocosely tliat the presence of some ancient Egyptian 
relics, mummy wrappings, beads and images of Osiris, might possibly 
account for this strange visitant. He writes : " I note your playful 
remarks about a possible relation to ancient Egyptian dynasties, disclosed 
from the tombs of the Pharaohs and starting upon a new career of useless- 
ness, and am rem.inded of the stories of still fertile seed? of grain reported 
to have been taken from tombs in the land of the Nile." 

In the meantime I had sent specimens to Messrs. Schwarz and Fall. 
The former was too busy just them to reply, but I heard through others 
that he was unable to throw any light on the matter. Mr. Fall wrote : 
" I have just received your letter and the box containing specimens of that 
most astonishing little creature found eating your specimens in New York. 
I would like much to know the circumstances a little more exactly. 
Were the specimens attacked native or exotic? If native, were they from 
Florida? And how long had they been in the box? Could they have 
found access from any other source in the closet itself? I feel sure that 



186 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the beetle is not a member of our fauna. 1 saw Air. Scliwarz in Wash- 
ington, and asked him if he had located your find. He said he could 
make nothing of it. I shall at once send one, at least, of the specimens 
to Dr. Sharp, and will promptly report to you what he says. An attempt 
to place it with our classification gives only negative results, but it certainly 
possesses as many points in common with the Lymexylidie as with any 
family which we have. But that frontal ocellus ! ! And those antenna; ! ! I 
I hope to study it further soon." A few weeks later Mr. Fall wrote again, 
and, referring to what he calls ''your conundrum which none of us can 
guess," he said : " I sent a specimen to Dr. Sharp, of Cambridge, 
England, and have to-day received a letter from him, in which he admits 
never having seen anything like it. There is nothing at all resembling it 
in the Palearctic fauna, he says. He doesn't know what family to assign 
it to, but suggests that it may belong to the Dermestidre, on the strength 
of the frontal ocellus. The mystery deepens. Tlie creature is such a 
ghostly, unsubstantial thing for a beetle — a regular coleopterous ghoul — 
that I almost find myself wondering if, when I look in the box again, I 
won't find it vanished into thin air. Did you find it actually feeding on 
the specimens ? Was there sign of larvre ? Pardon my numerous ques- 
tions, but the case is so remarkable that I would get all possible informa- 
tion. We must, perhaps, put some coleopterous Sherlock Holmes on the 
trail to run this fellow down." After another letter from me he writes : 
"The fact that you found numerous larvse of Anthrenus in your box of 
moths would certainly account for the damage done, but the further fact 
of shaking these little creatures from the bodies of the moths would 
indicate that they themselves were not entirely guiltless. I suppose the 
age and character of the box is such that the beetles could not possibly 
have come from its wood or lining? Well, I give it up." And there my 
story practically ends. 

Before I left New York in May I had bottled all the specimens I could 
find in the infested box and returned it, with its debris of half-devoured 
insects, to the cedar-closet. There also were at least a half dozen similar 
boxes containing insects, all infested by Anthrenus, and possibly other 
pests, but not one of the little anomalous creatures could be found among 
these. On my return in October 1 at once opened the closet and 
examined my " traps " with their tempting bait. Not a sign of the curious 
beetle was thcie. Nor has it ever reappeared. My little stock obtained 
a year ago is much diminished, 1 having sent specimen." to various corre- 
spondents. Shall I ever find more specimens of what I have sometimes, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 187 

in chat over my discover}', styled Igiiotus cvnigmaticns ? I trow not. 
Yox me — a woman, and tlierefore, of course, full of vain imaginings — 
those creatures had no beginning ; no egg, grub or pupa preceded them ; 
no weary, slow-paced evolutionary process developed the strange little 
beings. They sprang into full, perfect imago life in those May days, 
having no family, no relations, belonging to no class, their secret to be 
unlocked by no key, artificial or natural ; unfathomable mysteries, unsolv- 
able problems, unguessable conundrums. Was it to confound the wise 
they came ? to fulfil a prophecy I find in a certain old book, " Then 
shall the seers be ashamed, and the diviners confounded "? 



BUTTERFLY NOTES FROM TORONTO FOR 1902. 

BY J. B. WILLIAMS, F. Z. S. 

On the 24th of May I went collecting, wiih a friend, in High Park. 
We each took a specimen of the Tailed-Blue ( L. cotnyntas), but found, 
as we had expected, that it was too early for Scudder's Blue. On turning 
over an old boot that was lying on the grass, I saw a chrysalis of Z. 
Scudderii attached to the under side ; an ant was also on the sole of the 
boot, and ran round and round and over the chrysalis several times 
before going away; being, apparently, quite agitated by the disturbance. 
Is it possible that this ant was keeping some sort of guard over the 
chrysalis, as ants are supposed to do over the larvse of Z. Scudderii? Its 
presence on the boot may have been merely accidental, but still, its 
movements gave one the impression that it was loth to leave the chrysalis, 
and would have liked to carry it away, if that had been possible. 

A slight touch removed the pupa from the boot, and I kept it until 
the 30th of May, when the butterfly emerged, and proved to be a female. 

On September 20 and 27 I collected in two places where large 
numbers of the Clouded Sulphur ( Colias philodice) were flying about, 
and noticed a good many of the white female form. I took five of them, 
altogether, and saw several more that I did not capture. 

In 1 90 1, I do not remember seeing a single white specimen. Is it 
right to speak of these females as albinos , at any rate, in the ordinary 
sense in which that word is used? Mr. Grote suggested, in the Canadian 
Entomologist for April, 1902, the probability of the dark female form 
"glaucus"' of Papilio tiirnus, being a recurrence of the colour of an 
earlier species from which it had been derived ; as female butterflies 
generally represent the conservative element, and males tiie liberal or 
progressive side, of insect life. 



188 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The white female of Philodice may, therefore, be a colour survival of 
some whitish butterfly from which all the species of Colias were originally 
derived. Some of them have still altogether white females ; while others, 
like our Philodice, have the two forms — the older type being the scarcer 
of the two. Northern Asia seems to be the special liome of the genus, so 
that the original Philodice may have come to us from north-east Siberia, 
via Alaska ; and perhaps somewhat resembled the existing Arctic Sulphur 
(C. nastes). 

There is a small opening in the woods at Fligh Park, where Leonard's 
Skipper is usually abundant, during the brief period of its existence as a 
butterfly. A stream runs along one side, and grass and flowers and bits 
of marshv g-round make it an ideal home for several members of the 
Skipper family. 

On the 30th of August I found plenty of males there that had 
recently emerged, but none of the other sex. By the middle of September 
females were plentiful, but males hard to find. One wet and cloudy 
afternoon, when all other butterflies had disappeared, two specimens of 
Leonardus were seen resting on the flowering plants in this opening. I 
went there on September the 27th, hoping to bring home some live 
females and secure some eggs, but all had disappeared. So that in this 
locality, apparently, their butterfly existence lasts for barely one month 
out of the twelve. Many common butterflies were scarce last summer, 
owing, I suppose, to the comparatively cold and wet season ; but the 
Skippers did not seem to be much affected thereby, and were plentiful all 
through the summer. 



TWELVE-SPOTTED ASPAR.-VGUS BEETLE IN CONNECTICUT. 

Crioceris 12-punctata, Linn., is an introduced species, and has been 
working northward from Maryland, according to Professor J. B. Smith, 
who some time ago informed me that it was present in New Jersey, and 
would in time reach Connecticut. The first specimen recorded from the 
State was taken by a student assistant June, 16th, 1902, who collected a 
single specimen on asparagus upon the Station grounds in New Haven. 
On May 23rd, 1903, I took male and female specimens from the same 
locality. We may now expect this species to become thoroughly 
established here as a j^est of asparagus, injuring the plants in the same 
manner as the common asjiaragus beetle, C. asparagi, Linn. — W. E. 
Britton, New Haven, Conn, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 189 

A NEW CULICID GENUS RELATED TO CORETHRA. 

BY D. W. COgUlLLETT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The genus Corethra ^?^?. founded by Meigen in 1803,* on Tipula 
culicifonnis, De Geer, and in April, 1844, Loevv erected the genus 
Mochlonyx,-\o\\ Corethra velutina, Rutlie, basing it on the shortened first 
joint of the tarsi, a character mentioned by Ruthe in his original descrip- 
tion. The characters of the tarsi of cidiciformis cannot be ascertained 
from De Geer's description and figures.! On page 386 of the same volume 
of his Memoires, which contains the account of this species, is a descrip- 
tion and brief account of a related species, which he named Tipula 
crystallina, with a reference to Reaumur's Memoires, V., plate 6, figures 
4-15, where, at 4 and 7, a more slender larva without a trace of a subanal 
respiratory tube is shown; contrasting with the broader larva furnished with 
a large respiratory tube, as represented in De Geer's figures oi culiciformis ; 
the descriptions and figures which these authors give of crystallina do not 
indicate the characters of the tarsal joints of the adult. Thus matters 
stood at the time that Loew erected his genus Mochlonyx, and continued 
so until the year 1S83. 

In that year Dr. Fr. Meinert, of Copenhagen, published the results of 
his breeding of the adults from these two forms of larvae,§ asserting that 
the tubeless larva of crystallina produced an adult with elongated first 
tarsal joints as in Corethra in the sense of Loew, whereas the adult bred 
from the larva of culiciformis had the very short first tarsal joints of 
Mochlonyx. Some of the adults last mentioned were submitted to V. von 
Roder, of Hoym, Germany, an experienced dipterologist, who confirmed 
their reference to Mochlonyx}\ adding that, with the exception of having 
the hairs on the abdomen and legs shorter, they are identical with Ruthe's 
species, two specimens of which were in his collection, received from 
Ruthe himself. It seems very certain, therefore, that the type species of 



*Illiger's Magasin, II., p. 260. tEnt. Zeiu Stetiin, p. 121. JMemoires, VI., p. 
372, pi. 23, figs. 3-12. gOvers. Kon. Danske Vid. Selsk, Forh., pp. 1-17, and 
Resume, pp. 7-1 1. ||Entom, Nach., July, 1885, p. 217. 



190 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Mochlonyx, if not the same, is at least congeneric with that of Corcihra ; 
in other words, Loew applied the former name to the wrong division of 
Corethra, in consequence of which his proposed new generic name is a 
pure synonym of the latter. 

Owing to the mistake of Loew, it will be necessary to give a new 
generic name to the group representing Corethra, Loew (not Meigen), and 
for this genus the name Sayottiyia is proposed, in honour of the immortal 
Thomas Say ; it will be readily recognized among the short-beaked Culi- 
cidse by having the hair? of the antenn?e gathered into whorls, the inter- 
vening spaces being almost bare, and by having the first tarsal joint 
longer than the second. The type species is Corethra punctipeiinis, Say. 

The genus Corethra ( = Mochlonyx) has not yet been reported from 
this country. Several years ago I received a specimen from Mrs. Annie 
T. Slosson, collected at Franconia, N. H., and later two more specimens 
were received from the same source, while in April of the present year the 
same species was detected at Mt. Vernon, Va., by Mr. W. V. Warner, of 
the U. S. National Museum. This species will readily be recognized by 
its banded legs and mottled wings, and may be characterized as follows : 
Corethra cinctipes, new species. 

Blackish brown, the apices of the antennal joints except the last joint, 
the halteres, bases of the segments of abdomen in the male, base and 
under side of femora, a broad band near four-fifths of their length, their 
extreme apices, bases of tibii?e and a band near one-fourth of their length, 
also bases of the first three or four joints of the tarsi, yellow; hairs of male 
antenna? brown, their bases yellow, those at tips of antennae almost wholly 
yellow ; thorax grayish pruinose, marked with four black vittae ; wings 
grayish hyaline, hairs of veins black and with yellow ones as follows : on 
the bases and ajiices of the veins, on the first vein where the second issues 
from it, on the second vein where the third issues from it and at the point 
where it forks, on the fourth vein at the insertion of the cross-vein and also 
where this vein forks, and on the fifth vein where it forks ; first sub- 
marginal cell nearly twice as long as its petiole, cross-vein at apex of 
second basal cell less than its length before the one above it.; tarsal claws 
of male each bearing two long, slender teeth on the under side, one near 
the base and the other near the middle, those of the female with a single 
tooth near the base of each ; length, 3 to 4.5 mm. Five males and one 
female. Type No. 6839, U. S. National Museum. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 191 

SOME NEW RECORDS OF COCCID^. 

BY GEO. K. KING, LAWRENCE, MASS. 

The following list of Coccidas, which have been sent to me for study, 
adds considerably to the known range of a large number of species, while 
several new food-plants are indicated ; and as no records of the species 
herein cited have appeared, to my knowledge, other than in one or two 
instances in some of my published papers on the Coccidce^ it seems, 
therefore, that these miscellaneous results should be recorded. It will 
also show to some extent what is being done in a private laboratory for 
the advancement of science. I have classified the records for my own 
convenience into States as follows : 

Maine. 

These were all collected and sent to me by Mr. Oliver O. Stover, of 
Freeport, Maine, in 1901 ; the first two species living out of doors and 
the remainder being found under glass in greenhouses. 

Calymnattis hesperiduin and Aspidiotus hedercB on Hedera hybernica 
were associated together. 

Mytilaspis ulmi, L., on apple twigs, Portland, Me. 

Chionaspis Jurfurtis, Fitch, on bark of apple, Westbrook, Me. 

Diaspis Boisdiivalii, Sign., on Latania harbarica and Livingstonia 
Chinensis, Portland, Me. 

Aspidiotus hedercc, Vail., on Oleander at Westbrook, and on 
Japonica variegata, Portland, and on Hedera hybernica at Portland, Me. 

Calymnatus hesperidum, L., on Yucca, Westbrook, Me. 

Vermont. 
These were collected by Mr. C. Abbot Davis, of Providence, R. I., 
in 1902, at Burlington, Vt. 

Eulecanhiui quercitronis. Fitch., on oak. 
Pulvinaria innumerabi/is, Rath v., on maple. 

Connecticut. 

Prof. W. E. Britton, of tiie Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station, New Haven, Conn., sent the following in 1902 : 

Saissetia filicuui, fJoisd., on fern ( Eyrtominum falcatum) in Station 
greenhouse. 

Saissetia heniisp/uerica, Targ., on fern ( Pier is trimula),zx\^ Dryop- 
teri$ mollis 1 in Station greenhouse. 



192 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Eulecanium Ki/igil, Ckll. , on sassafrass, and an Etilecauium, Sp., 
found on grapevine, Bristol, Conn., which were in poor condition and 
undeterminable. 

Dr. Geo. Dimmock, of Springfield, Mass., on a short collecting trip 
found the following species in Conn, in 1900 : 

Saissetia hetnisphcBrica, Targ., on two distinct species of fern in a 
greenhouse, Warehouse Point, Conn. 

Mytilaspis ulvii, L., on leather leaf (Cassandra calyculata) and on 
Fraximis Americana, Milford, Conn. 

Chrysomphalus dictyospermi, Marg., on Ficus elastica under glass, 
Enfield, Conn. 

Asterolecanium vario/osum, Ratz. — Sent to me recently by Prof. 
Britton ; on scarlet oak ; found by the superintendent of parks in 
Hartford, on a single tree in a nursery. The scales evidently had killed 
the tree, as the twigs sent me were dead. 

Rhode Island. 

Mr. C. Abbot Davis collected and sent the following in 1902 : 

Ezilecaniian ?i!grofasciatutn, Perg., on soft maple in Roger Williams 
Park, Providence, R. I., and attended by ants. 

Eulecanium querciiro?iis. Fitch., on black and white oak and white 
maple; also on cork tree (imported) in Roger Williams Park, Prov., R. I. 

Eulecanium Fletc/ieri, Ckll, on white cedar. Providence. 

Eulecanium cerasifex, Fitch., on wild black cherry, peach and pear. 

Eulecanium Cocker clli, on wild black cherry, Prov., R. 1. 

Eulecanium persicce, Fabr., on linden and pear, attended hy Formica 
lasioides, var. picea, Em. 

Eulecanium Canndensc. Ckll., on red and white maple, tulip tree, 
linden and two oiher imported trees, species unknown, in Roger Williams 
Park, Providence. 

Eulecanium cynosbati, Fitch., on locust. Providence. 

Calymnatus hesperidum,lj.^ox\ orange in a dwelling-house, Providence. 

Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rath v., on an imported tree in Roger 
Williams Park, Prov. 

Pulvinaria r/iois, EInh., on sumac, Providence. 

Kermes Kingii, Ckll., on black oak, in Roger Williams Park, Prov. 

Kermes pubesccns, Bogue, on wliite oak in Roger Williams Park, 
Prov. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 193 



Gossyparia ulini, Geoff., on bark of elm in Roger Williams Park, 
Prov. 

Phenococcus acericola, King, on maple, Providence. 

AspidioUis, sp., probably new, on white pine. Providence ; not 
sufficient for study. 

Chionaspis furfiirus^ Fitch., on bark of apple. Providence. 

Chionaspis pijii/olii, Fitch., on white and Scotch pine, Roger 
Williams Park, Prov. 

Chionaspis Americana, Johns, on elm, Providence. 

Mytilaspis uhni, L., on dogwood ? 

The following species were found associated together : E. cerasi/ex 
and E. Cockerelli on wild cherry, E. persicce and E. Canadense on linden, 
E. persiccE and E. cerasi/ex on pear, E. cerasi/ex and E. Cockerelli on elm. 

Georgia. 

The following were received from Prof W. M. Scott, State 
Entomologist of Georgia, 1902 : 

Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rathv., on pecan and black gum at 
Albany. 

Eulecanium magnoHarnm, Ckll, on Magnolia grandiflora, Mar- 
shallville. 

Eulecanium tulip i/enz, Cook, on tulip tree. 

Mississippi. 
The following were received from Prof. Glenn W. Herrick, of the 
Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station in 1902 : 

Chrysomphalus te?iebricosus. Comst., on maple, Vicksburg, Miss. 
Aspidiotus perniciosus, Comst., on peach, Deean, Miss. 
Aspidiotus Forbesi, Johns, on peach, Stinson, Miss. 

Illinois. 
Eulecanium /raxini, King, on bark of ash, Urbana, 111., sent in by 
Prof F. M. Webster, January, 1903. 

Eulecanium Folsomi, Ckll. This is a small flat species found by 
Prof Folsom in 1902 on paw-paw, at Urbana, 111. 
Antennae 6-jointed, in /x as follows : 

Joints I 23456 
40 36 92 16 20 40 
40 36 96 20 24 36 



194 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Legs ihin ; coxa, 88; femur and trochanter, 108; tibia, 92; tarsus, 76; 
claw, 16; marginal spines of two sizes, 16 and 32 /^ long. Stigmatal 
spines in threes, middle one 60 //. long ; laterals, 32 /^ long. I think the 
above species is yet to be published by Prof. Cockerell. 

Iowa. 

These were sent by Prof Cockerell, collected by Prof. W. D. Hunter 

in 1900, now of the Dept. of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. 

Eiilecanium Cockei-elli, Hunter, Ames, Iowa. 

Eulecanmm IVebsteri, King, on Celt is Occident alls \ also on Acer 
sacchariiium, Ames, Iowa. 

Arizona. 

Pulvinaria innuiiierabiiis, Rathv., on Acer negundo, Prescott, Ariz.; 
coll. Cockerell, March 27, 1902. 

California. 

The following species were collected by Prof Cockerell while taking 
some students and teachers through part of California in the summer of 
1 901, and were referred to me for study : 

Aspidiotus hedercp. Vail., on leaves o( Eucalyptus, Pasadena, Calif. 

Asp idiot us rapax, Comst., on Isomer is arborea at San Pedro, Calif. 

Eriococciis adenostomce, Ehrh., on Adenostovia at La Jolla, Calif; 
also on the same food-plant at San Pedro, Calif. 

Ceroplates irregnaris, on Atriplex confertifolia and A. polycarpa ? 
at Lone Pine, Inyo Co., Calif. They occur only near or under the 
ground. 

Dactylopius salinus, Ckll.. on grass on cliffs by the sea at La Jolla, 
Calif 

Chionaspis pijiifolii, Fitch, on Pinus, sp. 

Pseudolecaniuvi Cali/ornicum, Ehrh. 

Saissetia olece, Bern., was also found on this trip by Prof Cockerell. 

Saissetia hemisphcerica, Targ., on pepper tree ( Schianus malla), La 

Jolla, Calif 

Colorado. 

The following species were collected by Prof Bethel, High School, 

Denver, Colorado, and sent to Prof. Cockerell, who turned them over to 

me : 

Chionaspis Lititneri, Comst., on Ceanothus, Steamboat Springs, 

Colorado. 



THE CA.iN'ADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 195 



Pheitacocciis Co:kerelli, n. sp. 

9 Scale red-brown, resting on a small white cottony sack projecting 
a little behind the insect's body. Size small ; owing to ks position upon 
the twigs, an accurate measurement could not be obtained. Cleared and 
pressed under a cover glass, 2 mm. in diameter, a little narrow behind. 
Derm colourless, mouth-parts yellowish-brown, antennse and legs slightly 
tinged with yellow. Anal lobes well developed, rounded, with one long 
bristle and several short spear-shaped spines and a few thin hairs ; they 
also show several round gland pits, these due, perhaps, to some of the 
spines being lost in process of clearing. No spines, pits or hairs on the 
derm. 

Antennte 9-jointed ; measurements in /x, joints : 



I 2 


3 


4 


5 6 


7 8 


9 


36 52 


48 


36 


40 36 


36 32 


60 



Front leg coxa, 80 ; femur and trochanter, 200 ; tibia, 132 ; tarsus, 72 ; 
claw, 28. Hab. — On Amfhinc/iier, Steamboat Springs, Colorado. 

Aspidiotus Hoivardi, Ckll. (^var. ancyhis ?), on ash (Fraxijius), 
Denver, Col., July 28, 1902. The scales on the under side of leaf (along 
the mid-rib) are very pale, while those on the upper side are 'dark. The 
leaf on both sides along the mid-rib is faded to a light yellow, due from 
the infestation. 

These were sent to Prof. Cockerell by Prof. Gillette, of the Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Foit Collins, Col. A single scale on currant 
twig, which proved to be Eulecanhini quercifex, Fitch. 

Phenacoccus Cockerel I i.,ow service berry (Amelanchier), at Gunnison, 
Col.; coll. Prof Ball, Sept. 20, '92. In some respects these differ from 
those secured from Prof. Gillette and described above. They are a little 
larger; when boiled in liquid potash, they turn to a deep bright claret colour. 
The females were filled with young larvee, and this might account for the 
size. The insect is viviparous. 

Pidvinaria innumerabilis, subsp., Betheli, n. subsp. — $ Scale dark 
brown, ovisac as in innumerabilis, cleared and pressed under cover glass 
4 mm. in diameter. Derm practically colourless, slightly tinged with 
yellow. Antennae 8-jointed ; measurements are, in /x : 

Joints I 2345678 
68 56 80 72 44 28 52 44 
68 52 86 68 60 40 32 48 



196 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Front leg coxa, 120; femur and trochanter, 220; tibia, 160; tarsus, 92. 
Stigmatal spines thin, sharp, 24 /'. long. 

Hab. — On birch (Betula), in Colorado ; collected by Prof. E. Bethel, 
sent to Prof. Cockerell by Prof. Gillette, who supposed them to be 
P. betulce, Linn.-Signoret. In the antennae it is near to F. tilce, King and 
Ckll., but this scale is much larger and of a different colour. 

New Mexico. 

These were sent by Prof. Cockerell in 1901 : 

Chionaspis pini/olii, Fitch., on Fi/nts, sp., at Arroyo Pecos, East Las 
Vegas, N. M. 

Dactylopius gutieuezice, Ckll., on Gutietiezia, at Arroyo Pecos, East 
Las Vegas. N. M.; coll. Mrs. W. P. Cockerell. 

Fseudolecanhiin C'lli/oniicnm, Ehrh , East Las Vegas, N. M. 

Dactylopius pseudonifce, Ckll., on house fern. East Las Vegas, N. M. 

Orthezia occidejita/is, Dougl.- alt., 8, coo feet above the sea level 3 
Peulah sapeilo Canon, N. M. 

Eulecan!ianpr'j/inosi(iii,\a.v. ker?iioides,Tyxxt\\, 1S96. This species was 
described in the Annual Report of the California Experiment Station, in 
1896, by Miss M. W. Tyrrell, as Leuuiin/n pniinosum, var. kertnoides, found 
on oak in California. In Prof. Cockerell's Check List, p. 339, it is listed, 
and he states that he doubts if it belongs \o prninosian \ in his first Sup- 
plement, p. 394, it is listed as a synonym of qi/ercitronis. In October, 
1902, he collected some scales infesting Qiiercns Einoiyi (Emory's oak), at 
Las Vegas, Hot Springs, N. M., at about 7,000 feet alt.; examples of 
these he forwarded to me, and in his note accompanying them stated that 
he believed them to be L. kermoides. The 2 scales are red-brown, 
kermes-like in shape, average size 3 I/2 nim. in diameter and 3 mm. high. 
Antennae 7-jointed ; joint (i) 32, (2) 32, (3) 48, (4) 48, (5) 20, (6) 20, 
(7) 40; joints one and two are equal in most cases ; three and four are 
equal, when not, joint four seems to be the longest ; five and six are equal 
and shortest. Leg coxa, 96; femur and trochanter, 148; tibia, 100; 
tarsus, 68. The species in the antennae comes near to E. quercitronis. 
Fitch. There is no doubt that kermoides is a distinct species. In a 
recent letter from Prof Cockerell he says he believes Mr. Pergande holds 
that kertnoides is a distinct species. It, however, belongs to a very 
puzzling group where the antenn;« are very variable. In quercitrojiis I 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 197 



have found joints 3 and 4 to be equal in length, sometimes 3 longer than 
4, and again 4 would be longer than 3, and in one instance joint 3 was 
very long, 108 /x ; in this case joint 4 was only 24 /x long. 

Pulvinaria innumerabilis, on Aesculiis octandra, East Las Vegas, 
N. M., Oct. 14, 1902. 



A NEW SAWFLY. 

BV R. A. COOLKy, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, BOZEMAN, MONTANA. 

The Sawfly here described is a common pest on the leaves of various 
species of Popiilus in Montana, and a Bulletin dealing with its life-history 
and economic significance is about to t^e published from the Montana 
Experiment Station. We give here an outline of its life-history, followed 
by descriptions of the two sexes. 

The adults appear on the foliage in May and continue there for 
about eight weeks. The female deposits her eggs singly on the very 
young, tender leaves, and at the same time stings them in such a way as 
to cause the edge to fold under on the lower surface. The egg is found 
under the epidermis in the end of the fold nearer the petiole. One edge 
or both edges may be folded. The larva, at first, feeds in the fold, eating 
off the surface of the leaf, but later ventures out and eats holes in the 
leaves, always preserving the fold for a retreat. The cocoon is formed in 
the fold and drops to the earth with the leaf This leaf, among the 
others on the ground, forms the hibernating place for the insect. 

In this paper the writer has adopted the form of description used by 
Mr. C. L. Marlatt in his valuable " Revision of the Nematinje of North 
America." 

Pontania Bozemani^ n. sp. — Female. — Length 6 mm.; robust] 
emargination of clypeus a semicircle ; lobes of the clypeus rounded ; 
longest hairs of the mouth-parts about as long as the distance from lobe 
to lobe of the clypeus ; lateral furrows of the vertex broad and rather 
shallow ; ocellar basin distinctly defined ; frontal crest almost absent ; 
antennai moderately slender, 4 mm. long, with joints 3 and 4 subequal, 
joint 5 shorter, joints 6, 7, 8 and 9 still shorter and subequal in length; 
sheath acuminate, hairy below at the apex ; claws cleft for one-third their 
length. Colours princi])ally resinous-yellow and black ; antenm^, large 
spot on vertex, thorax above except sides of pronotum, dorsum of first 
abdominal segment, most of dorsum of second and spot on the next fouf 



198 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



or five segments, glossy black ; spot under base of wings, spot at base 
of posterior coxa, black ; remainder of body resinous-yellow, except the 
sheath, which is very dark, around the mouth-parts, which is very light, 
and the posterior tarsi, which are darker above. Stigma light at base ; 
veins brownish, lighter at base of wings. Wings iridescent. 

J/rt/<?.— Length 5.75 mm. Differs from the female in being less 
robust, in having the clypeus more widely excavated, in having the entire 
dorsal surface of the abdomen back to genital parts glossy black, and in 
having a larger spot of black at base of posterior coxa. 




^- Qa.^. 



Fui. fi. 



Explanation uf Figures. 

a. — Egg, showing the nearly mature embryo. 

b. — Larva. 

c. — Cocoon. 

d. — Adult female sawfly. 

e. — Side view of extremity of abdomen of female. 

f. — P^gg-pocket under epidermis. 

g. — Leaf affected by the species. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 199 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSORIAL, PREDACEOUS AND 

PARASITIC WASPS, OR THE SUPERFAMILY 

VESPOIDEA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, A. M., SC. D., ASSISTANT CURATOR, DIVISION 
OF INSECTS, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(Paper No. 15.— Continued from Vol. XXXV., p. 158.) 
Family XLI. — Myrmosidae. 

1899. Myrmosidse, Family, Ashmead ; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
VII., p. 49 and 52. 

1903. MullidcC, Famille (partim)^ Andre; Wytsman's Gen. Ins. 
Fam. Mutillidpe. 

This family, as here defined, is, I think, a ?iaiural one, although some 
of the genera have been placed previously, by different authors, in other 
families, with the Scoliidce, Myzinidce^ Muiillidce, etc. 

The females in this family may always be easily recognized by the 
thorax, which is distinctly divided into two parts, while the males, except 
in three or four cases, are easily distinguished by the genitalia, the 
hypopygium terminating in a sharp aculeus, which curves upwards, as in 
males in the family Myzinidce, with which they are often confused. 

The males belonging to the genera Myrmosa, Latreille; Ephutomma, 
Ashmead, and Myrmosida, Smith, have, however, the hypopygium 
unarmed, while in the South American genus, Bradynobicnus, Spinola, it 
is tridentate, as in some Thyimidce. 

The venation of the front wings in all of these genera is, however, 
distinctive, and no difficulty will attend their recognition, as besides 
venation there are other character.s. 

The genus Mynnosida, Smith, I know only frum the description and 
figure ; it appears to approach nearest to Apterogyna, Latreille, although 
the hypopygium is apparently unarmed. It also resembles a male ant of 
the family Poneridce, and particularly to males in the subfamily 
Pseudomyrmince ; if it is not an ant, then it is a Myrmosid, and it is 
placed in the subfamily Apterogyninx provisionally. 

Three distinct subfamilies may be recognized, one, the Apterogyn- 
i/ue, first pointed out by Mr. Ernest Andre, as follows : 

Table of Subfamilies. 
Abdomen normal, without a constriction between segments 2 and 3, 
at most with a constriction between segments i and 2 2, 



200 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Abdomen with a strong constriction between segments 2 and 3, the 
first two segments being more or less nodiform 3. 

2. Thorax in female almost round, not or hardly longer than wide ; 

head quadrate ; mandibles falcate ; maxillary palpi 3-jointed ; 
labial palpi 2-jointed ; males winged, the front wings without a 
marginal and a discoidal cell ; hypopygium at apex 

tridentate Subfamily I. — Bradynobaeninte. 

Thorax in female not nearly round, much longer than wide ; head 
variable, the maxillary palpi more than 3-jointed, the labial palpi more 
than 2-jointed ; males winged, the front wings with a marginal and 
a discoidal cell ; hypopygium ending in a single aculeus, which 
curves upwards, rarely unarmed Subfamily II. — Myrmosinse. 

3. Front wings in males (except in Myrmosida, Smith, which has a 

marginal cell and two cubital cells) without marginal and discoidal 
cells ; hypopygium, except in Myrmosida^ Smith, ending in a 
single upward curved aculeus ; females readily known by the con- 
striction between segments 2 and 3 .Subfamily III. — Apterogynin^e. 

Subfamily I. — Bradynobaenin?e. 

This subfamily, so far as the characters of the males are concerned, 
approaches nearest to the Thynnidce^ the hypopygium being tridentate, 
much as in Thynnus, Fabr. but the venation is quite different. 

The marginal and the discoidal cells are absent, and thus show an 
affinity with the Apterogyniiice. The female, however, is quite different 
from any in either the My?'inosi?i(e or the Apterogyniiice, the thorax being 
very short in outline, almost round, while the head is quadrate, the 
mandibles falcate, the maxillary palpi 3-jointed, the labial palpi 2 jointed. 
Only one genus is known : 

Female, wingless i. 

Male, winged 2. 

1. Thorax in outline almost round ; head quadrate ; mandibles 

falcate Bradynobaenus, Spinola. 

(Type B. Gayi, Spin.) 

2. Front wings without a marginal cell, the discoidal cells wanting; 

hypopygium tridentate Bradynobaenus, Spinola 

Subfamily II. — Myrmosinje. 
1896. Myrmosini, Tribe I. (partim), Ashmead ; Trans. Am. Ent. 
See, XXII., p. i8o. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 201 



1903. Methocinae, Subfamily {partim), Andre; Wytsman's Gen. 
Ins. Fam., Mutillid:*, p. 6. 

1903. Myrmosin^e, Subfamily (^/(^/Ymyl, Andre ; Opus. Cit , p. 12. 

1903. Mutillinse, Subfamily (partini), Andre ; Opus. Cit., p. 13. 

To this subfamily belong the majority of the known genera and 
species falling in the family Myrmosidce. It is easily separated from the 
Bradynobaenince by the shape of the thorax in the females and by the 
armature and venation of the males. The group comes closest to Andre's 
subfamily Apterogynince, but may be easily distinguished from it by the 
absence of a strong constriction between the second and third abdominal 
segments, and by the totally different venation of the front wings. 

Two distinct tribes may be recognized as follows : 

Table of Tribes. 

Females r . 

Males 2. 

1. Ocelli present Tribe I. — Myrmosini. 

Ocelli absent Tribe II. — Chyphotini. 

2. Front wings with ihe marginal cell long, or not especially short ; 

hypopygium unarmed Tribe I. — Myrmosini. 

Front wings with the marginal cell usually short ; hypopygium armed 

with an aculeus which curves upwards.. ..Tribe II. — Chyphotini. 

Tribe I. — Myrmosini. 

The females in this tribe resemble those belonging to the family 

Muti/lidce, but are easily recognized by having the thorax divided into 

iiuo distinct divisions, and from the tribe Chyphotini by having distinct 

oCelli. 

The males are easily distinguished by having the hypopygium 

unarmed. 

Table of Genera. 

Females i . 

Males 2. 

I. Thorax quadrangular, the pronotdm as wide as the meso-metathorax, 
usually rugoso-punctate, or coarsely punctate ; maxillary palpi 

6-jointed, labial palpi 4-jointed Myrmosa, Latreille. 

(Type Mutilla aielanocephala, Fabr.) 

Thorax not quadrangular, compressed at the sides from the meso- 

metathoracic angles ; mandibles strongly excised beneath, with a 

projection towards base Ephutomma, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla incerta, Radoszk.) 



202 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

2. Marginal cell \ow^; four cubital cells, the second and third each 

receiving a recurrent nervure Myrmosa, Latreille. 

Marginal cell shorter, triangular ; tJwee cubital cells, the second 
triangular, receiving the first recurrent nervure near its middle, the 
third hexagonal ; eyes large, extending to the base of the mandibles, 
emarginate within Ephutomma, Ashmead. 

Trtbe II. — Chyphotini. 

1896. Chyphotini, Tribe III., Ashmead ; Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 
XXII., p. 179 (Cyphotini). 

1903. Methocinse, Subfamille, Andre' j Wytsman's Gen. Ins. Earn., 
Mutillidas, p. 6. 

The absence of ocelli in the females and the armed hypopygium in 
the males, which terminates in a single aculeus that curves upwards, as in 
males in the family Myzijiidce, readily separate this tribe from the 
Myrmosmi. 

Table of Genera. 

Eemales i. 

Males 4- 

1. Thorax not quadrate, quite differently formed 2. 

Thorax quadrate, the sides parallel. 

Head large, quadrate, wider than the thorax ; mandibles long, at 
apex bidentate, sinuate or subemarginate beneath ; pygidium 

with a pygidial area Brachycistis, Fox. 

(Type B. petiolatus. Fox.) 

2. Eyes round or nearly ; abdomen petiolate or subpetiolate 3. 

Eyes oval, slightly sinuate on outer margin superiorly ; abdomen 

nearly sessile. 

Pronotum transverse, a little wider than the meso-metathorax 
anteriorly, but not wider than the same posteriorly, the sides 
being compressed just behind the pronotum (?). Milluta, Andre. 

3. Abdomen subpetiolate, the petiole broadened towards the apex and 

constricted before uniting with the second segment ; pronotum 
large, nearly obtrapezoidal, and fnlly as wide as the meso-meta- 
thorax, or a little wider Typhoctef, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla i)eculiaris, Cresson.) 
Abdomen with a distinct slender petiole ; pronotum campanulate, 

much narrower than the meso-metathorax Chyphotes, Blake. 

(Type C. elevatus, Blake.) 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 203 

4. Middle tibi?e with one apical spur 5. 

Middle tibiae with two apical spurs 7. 

5. Front wings with tJwee cubital cells, the second and third each 

receiving a recurrent nervure. 

Cubitus in hind wings originating much before the transverse 
cubitus ; second cubital cell in front wings not triangular, very 
large, trapezoidal, not much larger than the third ; submedian 
and median cells equal, the transverse median nervure inter- 
stitial with the basal vein ; mandibles bidentate 6. 

Cubitus in hind wings interstitial or nearly with the transverse 
cubitus, sometimes originating a little beyond it ; second 
cubital cell in front wings more or less triangular ; submedian 
cell usually a little longer than the median (rarely equal in 
some JBrachycistis), the transverse median nervure usually not 
interstitial with the basal vein ; mandibles bidentate. 

Marginal cell very short, always much shorter than the 
oblong stigma ; first abscissa of the radius only about 
one-third the length of the third cubital cell ; second 
cubital cell triangular, usually receiving the first recurrent 
nervure before the middle, not, or rarely, longer than the 
third; abdomen with a more or less distinct constriction 
between the first and second segments ; scutellum rounded, 

subconvex ; ocelli large Brachycistis, Fox. 

Marginal cell not short, about as long as the large oblong 
stigma ; first abscissa of the radius as long, or nearly, as 
the third cubital cell ; second cubital cell at least three 
times as long as the third, receiving the first recurrent 
nervure beyond the middle ; third cubital cell quadrate, 
or nearly, a little wider (higher) than long, receiving the 
second recurrent a little before its middle ; scutellum 
quadrate; ocelli large, the laterals about their width from 

the eye margin Milluta, Andre'.* 

(Type M. chobauti, Andre.) 

6. Marginal cell much longer than the large oblong stigma ; lanceolate ; 

first abscissa of the radius short, less than one-third the length of 
the third cubital cell ; third cubital cell large, much longer than 

*I am greatly indebted to Mons. Ernest Andre, for the loan of the unitjue type 
of this genus. 



204 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

wide, nearly trapezoidal, a little shorter than the second ; ocelli very 
large, the laterals close to the eye margin . . . Magrettina, Ashmead. 

(Type Meria nocturna, Morowitz.) 

7. Front wings with three cubital cells 8. 

Front wings with two cubital cells 9. 

8. Second cubital cell receiving both recurrent nervures ; the third cubital 

quadrangular Chyphotes, Blake. 

9. Two recurrent nervures, the second cubital cell receiving both 

recurrent nervures Chyphotes, Blake. 

Only one recurrent nervure received by the second cubital cell, the 
second recurrent nervure always wholly absent. .Typhoctes, Ashm. 

Subfamily III. — Apterogyninae. 

1899. Apterogyninae, Tribu II., Andre'; Spec, des Hym., d'Eur. et 
d'Algerie, Tome 8, pp. 57 and 65. 

This group was first recognized by Mr. Ernest Andre. It is a singular 
group, of small extent, falling naturally in the family Myrtnosidce, and not 
in the family Muti/lide, where Andre' placed it. Only about a dozen 
species are known, and none have yet been found in America, although 
species are found in Europe, Africa and Asia. The group should, how- 
ever, occur in South America, and probably has representatives there still 
undiscovered. 

In having a strong constriction between the second and third 
abdominal segments the species resemble certain ants in the family 
Poneriihe, and particularly those in the subfamily Pseiidomyrmince, the 
genus Myrinosida, Smith, being strikingly similar to a male ant of this 
subfamily. I know it, however, only from the description and figure. 
Smith placed it in the family Mietillidce, but if it is a parasitic wasp and 
not an ant, then, on account of its abdominal peculiarities, it belongs here. 
Smith says nothing about the genital armature. 

Table of Genera. 

Males I. 

Females 2. 

I. Front wings with a stigma, a marginal cell, two cubital cells and one 
discoidal cell ; head large, obtrapezoidal ; pronotum short trans- 
verse ; hypopygium (?) unarmed (Tribe I., Myrmosidini), (Singa- 
pore) Myrmosida, Smith. 

(Type M. paradoxa, Smith.) 

Front wings without a stigma or a marginal cell, and usually without 

a cubital cell ; one small discoidal cell ; pronotum not short, 



. THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 205 

transverse quadrate ; hypopygium armed with an upward curved 
aculeus (Tribe II., Apterogynini), (Europe, Africa and 

Asia) Apterogyna, Latreille. 

. (Type A. Olivieri, Latr.) 

Abdomen with the first two segments nodiform ; mandible narrowed, 

arcuate, pointed at apex Apterogyna, Latreille. 



GYNANDROMORPHISM IN LUCANUS ELAPHUS. 

BY H. F. WICKHAM, IOWA CITY, IOWA. 

Some time ago, while in St. Louis, I called on Dr. Geo. W. Bock, 
and saw in his collection a remarkable specimen of a female Lucanus 
e/aphus, from Poplar Bluff, Mo. On my expressing interest in the matter, 
the Doctor very kindly gave me the insect, and I wish to put the case on 
record. 

The chief organ affected is the left mandible (fig. 7 a), which is more 
than twice the length of the right (fig. 7 b), and partakes of many charac- 
ters usually exhibited by the male. It is irregularly curved in outline, 
sparsely punctured, except at the base, where two elongate areas are 
coarsely and closely punctate, the larger area being on the superior face, 
while the smaller is lateral. The external face is flattened, trituberculate 
along the middle region, carinale along the upper and lower margins. 
The armature of the mandible is as follows : Subbasal and subapical 
teeth long, as in the male, the smaller intermediate teeth arranged not in 
one series, but in two, the lower row containing three denticles, one in 
front of and one behind (but below) the subbasal tooth, the other behind 
the subapical one ; the upper series consists of five teeth forming a row, 
as shown in the figure, the second being bifurcate at tip. The antennae 
are not affected. The head is roughly punctured, somewhat uneven, but 
without the characteristic ridges of the male. The prothorax is not quite 
alike on both sides, the left being a little longer and showing a tendency 
to develop the shape of the male. The front tibije differ from each other, 
the left being a little narrower than the right, the apical tooth shorter and 
less excurved, the subapical trifurcate, the two teeth near the middle of 
the tibia crowded close together. The right middle tibia has four teeth 
(exclusive of those around the apex), while the left has but two. The 
hind tibicC are practically alike. 



206 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 




CL 



i 



This is a curious case, showing an incom- 
plete copying of the male characters, accom- 
panied by considerable distortion. None of 
the organs affected are perfect images of their 
counterparts in the male, though the left 
mandible is sufficiently near to suggest that 
sex at once. 

The figures will show the mandibles from 
above, the left on account of the downward 
^ curve of the tij), appearing shorter in propor- 
tion than it should, and, owing to their position, 
the lower series of teeth is not shown. 



COLOUR-BLINDNESS AMONG ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

BY PROF. C. H. FERNALD, AMHERST, MASS. 

It is well known that a small percentage of the people in this 
country, and perhaps in all countries, are more or less colour-blind, and 
it is a noteworthy fact that such persons are often entirely unconscious of 
it or do not fully appreciate its disadvantages. The officials of the 
railroads and certain other corporations test the applicants for situations, 
and if they are found to be colour-blind, or not able to distinguish 
colours accurately, they are not employed. It will be readily seen that if 
a railroad engineer or the officer of the deck on one of our large 
passenger ships could not distinguish between red and green signal lights 
in the night, most disastrous accidents might be the result. 

An entomologist might be more or less colour-blind on some colours 
and be entirely unconscious of the fact, but the results in his descriptive 
work would be faulty and more or less misleading, according to the 
degree of imperfection in his colour vision. A correspondent wrote me 
a short time ago that he had a larva which he called green, but his 
assistant declared it to be white. It is possible that if these gentlemen 
were tested, the colour vision of one or the other would be found more or 
less imperfect. 

It is to prevent any i^ossible errors in descriptive entomology 
because of colour-blindness that we have adopted the plan of testing all 
the graduate students in entomology in the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 207 

MERISTIC VARIATION IN CORYDALIS CORNUTA, LINN. 

BY H. F. WICKHAM, IOWA CITY, IOWA. 

Records of duplication of members in hexapod larvae are so rare that 
I submit the subjoined account, drawn up from a specimen of the young 
of Corydalis cornuta, captured in the river near Iowa City, several years 
ago. The insect is one of a number that I took for class dissection, and 
as far as noted, the remainder did not depart from the ordinary type. A 
notice of the case was prepared at the time and sent to a scientific journal 
on the eve of its suspending publication, so that I think the article was 
never printed. 

The larva under discussion measures, in its preserved state, about an 

inch and three-quarters in length. The duplication of parts concerns the 

left hind leg, where the femur, which is normal, bears a bifurcate tibia, one 

branch of which is longer than the other. The longer side attains a length 

about equal to that of the right tibia, and bears a tarsus which is 

approximately normal, though the claws are nearer together than usual ; 

/»— V. the shorter side of the tibia supports a tarsus, 

I \ which in its turn shows a decided tendency to 

J \ bifurcation and carries two pairs of claws. 

Cl y^^>>_^ \ The proportions of the parts are shown in the 

/ I \ \ figure. (Fig. 8.) I am not certain that the 

^W \\ short tarsus is drawn in proper perspective, 

\ \ as I accidentally broke it off at the joint 

\ \ marked a in the figure, and may have twisted 

\/ it in replacing. The specimen is preserved in 

„. „ my collection. 

Fig-. 8. -' 



PREOCCUPIED NAME. 

I refer to Prof Fernald's kind notice of my " Hawk Moths," Can. 
Ent., 98, 1887, for the statement that the generic term ^/';v?/j' is pre- 
occupied, having been used by Koch in 1837 fo'' ^ genus of Scorpions. I 
should not have troubled myself further in the matter of changing this 
name in the Sphingidse, seeing that Prof Fernald believes a separate 
genus {ox plebeia from Protoparce unnecessary, except that Rothschild and 
Gordon, in their exhaustive revision of the Sphingidas, just published, 
retain the name Atreus and criticise my calling the species ''■ plebehts" 
instead of plebeja. So I change the name Atreus, Grote, 1886, to 
Paratrea, with P. plebeja as type. A. R. Grote. 



208 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



* DO WE KNOW CULEX CONSOBRINUS, Desv. ? 

BY J. M. ALDRICH, MOSCOW, IDAHO. 

Desvoidy published this species in 1827, in the Memoirs of the 
Society of Natural History of Paris, Vol. HI., p. 408. The entire 
description is as follows : 

" 27. CULEX CONSOBRINUS, R. D. 

Simillimus prascedenti ; palpis, tarsisque bruneis. 

Long. 3 lineas. 

Omnino similis Culici pipietiti : differt solum palpis tarsisque 
brunicosis, non flavis. 

Habitat in Pennsylvania. (Musseum Dejeanianum.)" 

The species preceding this, to which reference is made, is Ciilex 
pipiens ; the length in that is also given as three lines. Nothing is said 
about the palpi and tarsi, further than the expression " pedes fiavescentes." 

This species remained unrecognized until 1896, when Coquillett, in 
Howard and Marlatt's Bulletin on " Household Insects" (Bull. 4, n. ser., 
Div. of Ent.), claimed to have identified it with a common and wide- 
spread form. He gave the following synonyms : Functor, Kirby ; 
impatiens a.nd pi?iguis. Walker, and itiortiatus, Williston. The synonymy 
had been made out entirely from descriptions, save in the case of 
inortiaius, of wliich Williston's type was in the National Museum for 
comparison. In Circular No. 40, Coquillett adds as probable synonyms, 
Atiopheles ati?mlifnanus, Van der Wulp, and Ctilex testaceus, Van der 
Wulp. 

Dr. Howard transmitted specimens of this supposed consobrinus to 
Theobald, who accepted them at their face value and redescribed the 
species in his Monograph of the Culicidae, Vol. II., p. 78. He found 
from Kirby's type in the British Museum that ///«c/(?r is a distinct species, 
which he redescribed on p. 75. As to Walker's species, he makes the 
following notes : 

" Ctilex impatiens. Walker, may be this species (Coquillett's 
consobrimis), the type answering in nearly all respects, but the abdominal 
banding differs. 

" Culex piiiguis, Walker, may also be synonymous, but I do not 
know where the type is, and Walker's descriptions seem almost valueless, 
judging from the types I have seen." 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 209 

Speaking of Anopheles annulimafius, Theobald says (1,213): 
" Coquillett thinks this species does not belong to the genus Anopheles 
at all. The description, he seems to think, applies to a male of Culex 
consobrifius, Desvoidy ; but in this I can scarcely agree, and do not think 
such an authority as Van der Wulp would commit such an error." 

As to Ctilex testaceus, Theobald received a specimen from Lake 
Simcoe, Ontario, which he identified as this species, making it distinct 
from the supposed consobrinus. 

Now let us see whether the colour of the palpi and tarsi, as indicated 
by Desvoidy, is sufficient to distinguish a species from pipiens. Taking 
the full discussion of pipiens given by Theobald (Monogr., Vol. II., pp. 
132-136), it is immediately seen that the female has "palpi thick, brown, 
with some grayish scales "; also "tarsi uniformly dark brown." In the 
male the palpi are " light ochraceous brown," and the " tarsi dark brown.'' 
Desvoidy's specimen was in all probability a female. It appears, there- 
fore, that his distinctive characters are normal in pipiens I At any rate, 
pipiens is a variable species, and easily includes forms with all his 
characters. 

The size given by Desvoidy is the same for both species, 3 lines. If 
I understand this correctly, it is about 6 mm. Theobald gives 4.5 to 5 
mm. for pipiens, and 6 to 7 mm. for consobrinus. The advantage here is 
perhaps a little on the side of a distinct species ; still, Desvoidy expressly 
makes it the same size 2^% pipiens, which he speaks of as a very common 
species, so it works about as well one way as the other. 

When I came to the conclusion, some time ago, that the real 
consobrifius is nothing but pipiens, which is known to occur in the United 
States as well as Europe, I wrote to Theobald»and Coquillett in regard to 
the matter. The former replied that he had accepted the species on the 
supposition that Coquillett had examined the type of Desvoidy. The 
latter only wrote, " Repeated revisions of my first reference of Cukx 
consobrifius have not caused me to change my opinion in regard to it. 
Size and colouring both apply better to tliis form than \o pipiens or any 
of our other species." 

I have shown exactly how much there is in the matter of "size and 
colouring." 

The species which is now passing under the name of <r^7/.y^(^r/;«^.f I 
think should be known as inornatus, Williston. It was described in the 
Diptera of the Death Valley Expedition, North American Fauna, No. 7, 



210 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

p. 253. The type of this description, as above stated, has been examined 
by Coquillett and found identical with the species under consideration. 
There is no other name which is not open to serious doubt. 

Cojisobrinus, Desvoidy, may stand unidentified. Should anyone feel 
under necessity to " do something" with it, let him place it as a synonym 
oipipiens. Certainly no one can prove that it does not belong there, 
unless he can examine the type. In looking up Dejean's collection in 
Hagen's " Bibliotheca," I find considerable information as to certain 
families of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, but nothing about the Diptera. 
The collection was divided, and the various parts scattered in a dozen 
places. So there is but little prospect that the type of co?isobri?ius can be 
found. 

I 

The rapidly growing importance of the Culicidas will, I trust, excuse 
me for occupying so much space in the attempt to set right one of our 
common species. 

GOT WITHOUT SEEKING. 

As I was sitting in Victoria Park, London, Ont., on one of the early 
days of August, 1902, a sharp click on my straw hat indicated to me that 
a beetle had been suddenly arrested in its erratic flight. I took off my hat 
and found thereon a longhorn, with the familiar outline and ornamentation 
of the old Clytus group. But there was something about it that seemed 
unusual to me, and the more I looked at it the more I was convinced of 
its novelty. So I secured it, killed and mounted it, and, as opportunity 
presented itself, endeavoured to determine it, but could find nothing with 
which it would correspond, and the books afforded me no relief. Having 
occasion to require the assistance of Mr. W. H. Harrington, Ottawa, upon 
some B. C. beetles, I sent my unique in order to secure his verdict upon 
it. He pronounced it to be Xylotrechus 4-viaadatus^ and remarked, 
" This is an interesting species, of which I have only taken one example, 
and that is of a yellowish colour." (Mine is whitish in the colour of its 
ornamentation.) ""^ 4-niacuhitus is said to be very variable in colour, so I 
think your specimen belongs to that species, although differing so much 
from mine." And tliat specimen now stands in what was before a blank 
in the Society's collection. J. Alston Moffat. 



Mailed June 3olh, 1903. 



\\t €anat(tai( Jnt0nt0lai)bt. 



Vol. XXXV. 



LONDON, AUGUST, 1903. 



No. 8 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW NORTH AMERICAN CULEX. 

BY FRED. V. THEOBALD, M.A., BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

Amongst a number of CulicidK sent me by Professor Kellogg from 
California, collected by himself and the students of Leland Stanford 
Junior University, is a very distinct new Cnlex, w^hich is here described 
as Ciiiex Kelloggii. 

The collection contained several interesting species besides this one, 
including a new Anopheles, called by Professor Kellogg Anopheles 
/ranciscattus ; specimens of the European Theobaldia anmdata, Meigen, 
and the marked Theobaldia incidens, Thomson, and several others, which 
he will refer to elsewhere, including another new Culex. It may be here 
pointed out that Coquillett's Culex Curriei, now included in my new genus 
Grabhamia, is very closely allied to Grabhamia dorsalis, Mg. It is, 
hov/ever, a smaller and thicker set insect, and has the last hind tarsus 
white. This collection also included a series of Curriei, as well as 
Anopheles maculipennis, Mg., and A. punctipennis, Say. The A. 
viaculipennis are smaller than they usually occur in Europe. 

Culex Kelloggii, nov. sp. — -Thorax brown, with rich reddish-brown 
scales showing linear arrangement, two small pale spots, some rows of 
gray scales behind and on the scutellum. Proboscis black, with a white 
band. Abdomen black, with basal white bands and lateral spots. Legs 
black ; femora pale at base, with a white line or row of spots, also the 
tibise, with a line of white spots. Metatarsi and tarsi showing apical- 
and basal white banding ; last hind tarsus with a black median band or 
all white. Wings unspotted. 

^ . — Head brown, clothed with narrow-curved gray scales in the mid- 
dle and behind, white ones forming a border around the eyes, brown ones 
between ; at the sides small flat white scales, in the middle are numerous 
ochraceous upright forked scales, laterally the upright forked scales are 
black, two long brown bristles project forward between the eyes. Palpi 
black-scaled, with some large white scales at the apex, and some forming 



212 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 



a ring near the base ; apex, etc., with a few dark bristles ; proboscis 
black, with a prominent white band ; antenna' black, basal and second 
joints dark, testaceous, the basal joint with white scales internally ; clypeus 
brown. Thorax brownish-black, with rich reddish-brown narrow-curved 
scales, and a few broader gray ones at the sides in front, and some 
arranged in lines behind the mesonotum, on its surface are two small pale 
spots, two of the posterior white lines being continued back from them, two 
short, broader ones are situated in front of the bare space before the scutel- 
lum; the reddish-brown scales have a linear arrangement, due to two promi- 
nent median bare lines; bristles black; scutellum brown, with narrow-curved 
pale scales and brown border-bristles ; metanotum deep brown ; pleura 
brown, with some gray scales. Abdomen black, with basal white 
bands and white lateral spots and brown border-bristles ; apex 
bristly ; venter yellowish-brown, with scattered gray scales. Legs 
black, banded, striped and spotted in lines with white ; base of femora 
gray to dull ochraceous, pale ventrally, with a row of white spots 
above, almost forming a white line ; apex with a white spot ; tibife also 
with a row of white spots, forming almost a line, apex white ; fore and 
mid metatarsi and tarsi with narrow apical and basal yellowish bands, 
except the last tarsal segment ; in the hind legs the metatarsi and tarsi 
have broad, almost white bands, the last tarsal in some specimens being 
almost all white ; ungues equal and simple. Wings with the veins very 
densely scaled with typical brown Culex scales ; those at the base of the 
third long vein thicker, forming a small, rather obscure, dark spot ; first 
submarginal cell longer and considerably narrower than the second 
posterior cell, its base slightly nearer the base of the wing, its stem about 
one-third of the length of the cell ; stem of the second posterior cell about 
two-thirds the length of the cell ; posterior cross-vein not quite its own 
length distant from the mid cross-vein ; fringe dark brown ; halteres 
testaceous, knob darkened. 

Length. — 5 to 5.5 mm. 

^ . — Palpi brown, the last two joints nearly as long as the ante- 
penultimate, the penultimate slightly shorter than the apical ; the last two 
joints with long brown hairs on each side, also on one side, of the apex of 
ante-penultimate joint ; there is a narrow pale band at the base of the 
last two joints and also near the base of the long ante-penultimate joint ; 
proboscis black, with a narrow white band on the base of the apical half; 
antennae banded black and white, with flaxen plume-hairs. The head with 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 213 

more gray scales than in the 9 . Thorax and abdomen as in the 9  
Legs as in the 9 ; ungues of the fore and mid legs unequal, both 
uniserrated, of the hind legs equal and simple. Wings narrow ; the fork- 
cells short ; the first submarginal longer and narrower than the second 
posterior, its stem more than half the length of the cell ; stem of the 
second posterior as long as the cell ; posterior cross-vein about its own 
length distant from the mid cross-vein. 

Length. — 5 to 5.5 mm. 

Habitat. — Stanford University, California. 

Time of Capture. — September and October. 

Observations. — Described from a series of 5 9 s and \ $?, sent me 
by Professor Kellogg. It is a very marked species, but presents at first 
sight a resemblance to Culex tceniorhynchus, Wiedemann. It differs, 
however, in (i) having the legs apically and basally pale banded, {2) in 
their being marked with lines or lines of spots, and (3) in the simple, not 
uniserrated, ungues in the 9 (4), in die structure of the $ palpi, etc. 
Moreover, a hasty examination will show that this species is not nearly so 
compactly built as in tceniorhynchus. The specimens show some variation, 
both in regard to the thoracic adornment and in the leg ornamentation. 
One 9 has no signs of the two small pale thoracic spots, and the last hind 
tarsal in one appears almost white, and in others the median dark band 
is very broad, making the tarsal segment almost all dark coloured. 



PREOCCUPIED NAMES. 
In the Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1903, pp. 168-169, 
Mr. Chas. Robertson creates, among other new genera in the Megachilidae, 
Gnathodon and Ceratias. Both names have been previously used : 
Gnathodon, Rang., 1834 — Mollusca. 
Gnathodon., Gray, 1836 — Mollusca. 
Gnathodon., Jard., 1845 — Aves. 
Ceratias, Kroycov, 1845 — Pisces. 

E. S. G. Titus, Washington, D. C. 



Corrigenda. — Page 191 (July Can. Ent.), fourth line from bottom, 
for Eyrtominum read Cyrtomitim ; and second line from bottom, for 
trimula read treniula. 



214 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



A NEW CAPS ID. 

BY CHARLES STEVENSON, MONTREAL.* 



Lygus Chagnoni, n. sp. — This species of the genus Lygiis is of a form 
near to L. pabulinus^ Linn., in appearance. 

It is ovate, convex, bright green in Hving specimens, with irregular 
purplish-brown markings at the base of the membrane, smooth and 
without bristles, and a silky pubescence on the sides of the pronotum, 
which has an orange-yellow border next the head, shading backwards in 
narrow lines into the green coloration, so as to make the green appear in 
broad bands. 

Head polished and uniformly orange-yellow. Eyes large and 
prominent, and of so dark a brown colour as to appear black. 

Antennfe slender and long, brown, with shades of orange-yellow. 
Basal joint uniform yellow, second joint slightly thickens and becomes 
brown towards the tip, the remaining joints dark brown, becoming much 
darker towards the end of the last one, which is very dark. 

Scutellum convex, smooth, and of a deeper green than the wings. 
Wings uniformly green on the corium, clavus and cuneus, the mem- 
branes paler and somewhat transparent, with irregular purplish-brown 
markings. At the meeting of the corium, there is a purplish-brown V. 

Abdrmen pale apple-green, with marked silvery pubescence, in the 
form of dashes and dots at the joints, the genital pieces green, with slight 
rusty tinge on the margins. 

Legs pale green, the coxa, trochanter, as also the mesoscutum, very 
pale, without any spots or markings. 

Length to the end of abdomen, 4.0 mm.; to the tip of the membrane, 
5.0 mm.; width of pronotum, 1.25 mm. 

Described from three specimens, one caught by Mr. G. Chagnon, in 
Rouville Co., Que., iithjuly, 1902, and two by myself on Montreal 
Island, 14th July, 1902. 

I take pleasure in naming this species after my friend, Mr. G. 
Chagnon, as a slight token of my appreciation of his companionship in our 
collecting trips and his great assistance in the identification of species and 
in my entomological work generally. 



*Read before a meeting of the Montreal Branch, Ent. Soc. of Ont., 9th February, 
1903. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 215 

NOTES ON FIVE SPECIES OF MEGACHILE. 

BV T. D. A. COCKERELL, EAST LAS VEGAS, N. I\I. 

I have spent more time timn I like to think about identifying bees of 
the genus Megachile, so I have no apology to make for offering some 
notes which will, I hope, make the process easier for others : 

MegacJiilc frugalis, Cresson. — This species was described from the 
male. I have before me a female collected by Dr. Davidson at Lancaster, 
California. It practically agrees with the description of M. zaptlana, 
Cresson, V > except that it has no lines of white pubescence on the thorax. 
M. occidetita/is, Fox, 9 > is very similar, and has the lines of white 
pubescence, but it has a different clypeal margin, and the very scanty 
hair on the disc of the clypeus is white. In M. frugalls, ^ , the clypeus 
has long black hair ; the ventral scopa is creamy white, black on the last 
segment. These bees are all of the elongate narrow type. The anterior 
margin of the clypeus mfnigalis, $, can hardly be called excavated, but 
presents three gently-rounded prominences, the margin between them 
being slightly concave. 

Megachile ino?itivaga, Cresson. — At flowers of Touret'ea decapetala 
(Sims), Raton, N. M., Aug. 27, one 9 (W. P. Cockerell). Length nearly 
14 millim. An Illinois sample is smaller (about 12^ millim.), and has 
the thorax more densely punctured. The species resembles M. relativa, 
Cr., but is larger and less shining, and the abdominal bai.ds are pure 
white. A variety of M. montivaga, with more conspicuous black hair on 
the dark parts of the abdomen, was taken by Prof. Townsend at flowers 
of Potejitilla Thurberi, on the Rio Ruidoso, N. M., about 6,500 ft., Aug. i. 
Megachile hiimica, Cresson. — Las Vegas, N. M., one male at flowers 
of Verbena Macdougali, Aug. 9 (W. Porter). This is Sayi, Cresson, 
said by Robertson to be a synonym of inunica. In our specimen the 
tegulfe are very dark brown. The insect has a long, nari;ow abdomen, and 
looks superficially like M. occidentalis, Fox. Upon closer study it is seen 
to be really nearer to M. pngnata, Say, from which it is easily distin- 
guished by the hollow process on first tarsal joint being fringed along its 
whole length with dark fuscous hair ; in pugnata the basal two-fifths is 
densely fringed with black hair, and the portion beyond has a short fuscous 
comb. 

Megachile pruina, Smith. — Chaves, N. AL, Aug. 6, two males 
{Towtisend) ; Mesilla Park, N. M., one male at flowers of Isocoma 
Wrighiii, Sept. 11 {Porter and Cockerell); near Los Angeles and 



216 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Catalina Island, California {A. Davidson). This gives the species a very 
wide range in the south-west, and while it must be confessed that the 
specimens are not all alike, I am unable to detect anything more than 
individual variation. 

Megac/ii/e mendica., Cresson. — 5- Length about 12-133^ millim. ; 
abdomen shovel-shaped ; ventral scopa orange, including last segment ; 
white on basal half of second segment. 

Gallinas River, at Las Valles, N. M., Aug. 6 {Porter and Cockerell). 
Another is from flowers of Verhascum t/iapsus, Rio Ruidoso, White Mts., 
N. M., 6,900 ft., July 23 [Townsend). The scopa of the latter is full of 
orange pollen. 

The New Mexico specimens agree with an Illinois J from Robertson. 
M. mendica looks like a small M. lattviafins, having the same form and 
general coloration. In latimanus the scutellum is covered with pale 
ochreous hair, and the mesothorax broadly bordered with the same, so 
that the black hair is confined to the central part. In tnendica the light 
hair of the head and thorax is white, and the scutellum and mesothorax 
(except the margins of the latter narrovvlyy are thinly clothed with black 
hair. In both the thorax, though closely punctured, is shining. In 
latima7ius tlie vertex is mostly, or wholly, clothed with pale hair, in 
inendica it is clothed with black. In both the basal joint of the hind 
tarsi is broad, and clothed on the inner side with orange hair. The 
mandibles are similar in both, except that they are less produced in 
ine?idica. In mendica the first recurrent nervure enters the second sub- 
marginal cell much further from its base than the second does from its 
apex ; this is not usually the case in latimanus. 

M. mendica resembles M. relativa in the colour and arrangement of 
the hair on the head and thorax, but relativa is a narrower bee, with a 
conspicuously narrower face. The abdominal bands in relativa are 
yellowish, in mendica they are white. 



The Mediterranean Flour Moth, Epliestia kuehniella, has been sent 
to me recently from Seattle, Washmgton, and Honeoye Falls, N. Y. As 
far as I know, this is the first time the pest has been recorded from the 
State of Washington. I have specimens of matted flour and larvse from 
Arthur, Ont., Canada. In each case reports are made that the insect is 
doing serious damage to the milling business by matting and clogging up 
spouts and elevators with flour. The moth seems to be slowly and 
steadily spreading over the U. S. and Canada. 

W. G. Johnson, New York. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 217 

A NEW OAK-GALL. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL, EAST LA.S VEGAS, N. MEX. 

DryopJianta rydbergiana, n. sp, — Gall: on leaf of Querais rydber- 
gia7ia, Ckll. (Torreya, Jan., 1903) ; solitary, 6 mm. diameter, spherical, 
faintly shiny, light ferruginous, with a microscopically tessellate surface and 
a scattered stellate pubescence ; base concave, point of attachment small; 
contains a single large cell ; the space between the cell and the exterior 
filled with spongy tissue, which is light green within and ferruginous out- 
wardly. 

Fly (cut from gall): 9. — Body 2}^ mm. long, stout, jet black, 
smooth, neither punctured nor conspicuously hairy ; mesothorax and 
scutellum with a few scattered hairs ; front and vertex minutely tessellate ; 
no frontal groove ; middle ocellus somewhat depressed ; face without 
carinae; malar space long, wrinkled; flagellum black, 12-jointed, the last 
five joints (at least) longitudinally grooved; whole flagellum hairy; first 
flagellar joint about one-fourth longer than second ; basal joints of 
antennse dark red ; the small first joint punctate ; the second much 
swollen. Parapsidal grooves deep and strong, complete, converging 
posteriorly ; scutellum large and swollen, longitudinally keeled, with a 
depression on each side anteriorly ; anterior margin of scutellum raised 
into a sharp edge ; posterior part coarsely cancellate. jNIetathoracic 
ridges very widely divergent caudad. Legs red ; tarsi hairy ; claws of 
posterior legs simple; wings hyaline, not spotted, but hairy; veins 
strongly marked with dark brown; marginal vein not quite attaining costa; 
areolet present. Ovipositor black, concealed ; ventral spine red, covered 
with long ferruginous hairs. 

Hab. — Las Vegas Hot Springs, N. M., about 7,000 feet, March 21, 
1903. The gall was on a leaf of last year, the leaves of Q. rydbergia/ia 
remaining on the bush, though turning brown. 

This insect is placed in Diyoplumta, because it seems on the whole 
to go there best, but it does not exactly agree with any described Ameri- 
can genus. In Mayr's table, given by Cresson, it runs to Biorhiza, but it 
does not belong there. The gall is like that of Amphibolips. 



218 THE CANADUN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

CULEX CONSOBRINUS AGAIN. 

BY D. W. COQUILLETT, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

In ihe July number of the C.\n.\dian ENroMoi.ooiST, Prof. J. M. 
Aldrich attempted to rescue Dr. Williston's Cidex iiiornatus from the 
synonymy by referring the true Culex eonsobrifius, Desvoidy, as a syn- 
onym of Culex pipiens, Linne, and denying that any of the other species 
which the writer originally placed in the synonymy of cofisobririus is 
identical with inornatns. 

Desvoidy did not give a separate description of his consobrinus, but 
compared it with what he identified as pipiens, observing that it differed 
in having the palpi and tarsi " brunicosis, non flavis." Desvoidy was 
noted for his erroneous identifications of previously described species, and 
that he mistook some larger species for the true pipiens, seems to admit 
of no doubt, since the measurement he gives, '• long. 3 lineas," is too long 
for the latter, all the specimens of which in the National Museum fall short 
of 2.5 lines. His measurements are usually accurate, as may be gleaned 
from those he gave of such strongly-marked, easily-recognized forms as 
Cuiex t?iosqiiiio, Anopheles inaadipennis, A. argyriiarsis, Psorophora 
ciliata, etc., all of which are within the range of the specimens of the given 
species. He gave the same measurement for consobrinus as for pipiens, 
and in deciding what species the former refers to it is necessary to find a 
species which is larger than the true pipiens, has the ground colour he 
gave for pipiens, " cinereo-subflavescens. Thorax, dorso-levitor fulves- 
cente," and that inhabits Pennsylvania, the locality given for consobrinus. 
Up to the present time we knovv of only one species that fills all of these 
requirements, and this is the form which I have identified as consobrinus. 

Even if I erred in this identification, there are still at least two other 
names that stand in the way of Dr. Williston's Culex inornatus, namely, 
C. impatiens, Walker, the type of which Mr. Theobald states agrees in 
nearly all respects with what I have identified as consobrinus, except in 
the abdominal banding, and this was not of sufficient importance to cause 
him to regard it as representing a distinct species ; and C. pinguis. 
Walker, which Mr. Theobald admits may be synonymous with conso- 
brinus. 

As I hope to review this subject more at length in a forthcoming 
monograph, it need not be enlarged upon here ; sufficient facts have been 
given above to fully disprove Mr. Aldrich's contention in relation to the 
true Culex consobrinus of Desvoidy. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 219 



A SUPPOSED MIGRATION OF PIERID.E WITNESSED IN 
VENEZUELA IN THE SUMMER OF igor. 

BY AUSTIN H. CLARK, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

The erratic migrations of certain insects, often in countless swarms, 
have been noticed and put on record by many observers. In a country 
where, perhaps, they are scarce, or, it may be, almost wanting ordinarily, 
they may suddenly put in an appearance in such numbers as to defy all 
attempts at computation ; or immense swarms of them may sometimes be 
seen far out at sea, flying steadily in a direction which may take them out 
so far as to effectually prevent any return. 

To show the frequency of this phenomenon, it is only necessary to 
mention a few cases. The best known, perhaps, or, at any rate, the most 
familiar, is that of the locust. Large areas of growing crops have been 
totally ruined and well-to-do people reduced to poverty through the 
sudden and wholly unexpected appearance of this unwelcome visitor. 
Many years may pass with no sign of these insects, and then they come, 
bringing destruction with them. Among the Neuroptera, the dragon-flies, 
especially the species JEschna bonariensis of southern South America, seem 
to be especially subject to these migrations. In these swarms, according 
to Hudson,* who studied them in the Argentine, all the larger species 
associate together, and universally fly down the wind, coming commonly 
from five to fifteen minutes before a burst of the cold, dry south-west 
" pampero." Weissenbornf describes a great migration of dragon-flies 
which he witnessed in Germany in the year 1839, and also mentions a 
similar phenomenon occurring in 1816, which extended over a large 
portion of Europe. But this habit seems to be of commonest occurrence 
among the Lepidoptera. Among others, Wallace mentions seeing a vast 
congregation of Pieridae in the Indian Ocean, and Maynard a swarm of 
Danaidpe f'/^/zfj/a ^^r^;2?V^j off the coast of Florida. It is now recognized 
as a more or less regular proceeding on the part of some species or 
groups, especially among the Pieridae, to congregate and perform long 
journeys without any apparent aim. 

While approaching the coast of Venezuela in the month of June, 
1 90 1, I was struck by the numbers of Pieridas passed, not in great swarms, 
but in numerous small loose bunches, which began to appear even before 
the mountainous coast could be well made out. All these insects were 



*The iVaturalist on the La Plata, Chapter IX. 
fLoudon's Magazine of Natural History, N. S. III. 



220 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

headed toward the north-east, directly against the trades. Although I was 
familiar with the fact that commonly the Pieridie are the first butterflies 
with which one meets when approaching land, and had tested the truth of 
it while nearing the coast of Portugal, and also off the Azores, I did not 
suppose that they regularly occurred in such abundance as I found them 
here in the Caribbean. In fact, it had been my experience to only meet 
with a half-dozen or so when approaching land. But here the steamer 
continually passed by straggling bunches of them, all flying north-east, out 
to sea. As we neared the shore, they became more common, and when 
at last I landed and looked up on the mountain-side above La Guaira, 
there were thousands of them. The whole mountain-side was thickly 
dotted with specks of yellow and orange, which kept moving steadily on, 
in an easterly direction, rarely pausing, following, apparently, the line of 
the coast, and going in the same general direction from which came the 
trade winds. 

On the next day, from the car window of the little train which runs 
from La Guaira to Caracas, over a roadbed from which are obtained 
glimpses of great gorges filled with tropical vegetation, as well as of the 
parched and barren mountain-sides, destitute of life save for a few gaunt 
post-cacti and scraggy thorn bushes, I saw thousands of butterflies of this 
group, all moving steadily, like the waters of a great river, toward the 
east. In many cases I thought I saw the insects flying in another 
direction. Often I was sure some were flying west, but on taking my 
bearings I invariably found that my calculations were at fault, and that all 
the butterflies were moving east. There is, perhaps, no railroad in the 
world on which a man is so often at a loss to know just where are the 
cardinal points of the compass. The sun gives no clue during the hotter 
hours, at the season when I was there, as it is practically in the middle 
of the sky; and the whole journey is simply a succession of curves, this 
way and that, so confusing that many times I could not realize the 
compass had not succeeded in some way in getting out of order and 
reversing, or at least seriously changing its position with respect to the 
magnetic pole. Over the mountain-sides and across the valleys Pieridjs 
could be seen, always near the ground, yet rarely alighting, and invariably 
travelling eastward. 

While at Caracas I made many excursions into the surrounding 
country for butterflies, and from the hilltops there I could watch the steady 
migration, although here the numbers were very much less than at La 
Guaira, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 221 

On the way back to La Giiaira, as well as while staying there, I made 
a careful study of the constituents of this vast throng. The most notice- 
able fact was that practically all were males. In fact, I saw but two or 
three females, and these were at a little roadside station, halfway between 
the two towns. I am almost certain that these were not members of the 
general tide, for they were flitting, to all appearance, aimlessly about, 
and did not evince that peculiar haste to move onward so noticeable in 
the others. 

During my stay at Caracas I collected a number of PieridsB of several 
species, and of both sexes, in the meadows near the bank of the river 
which flows by the city. These seemed not to be affected by the general 
movement, and acted just as the members of the group ordinarily do. 

The most abundant species by far, making up between one-half and 
three-quarters of the flight, was Callidryas eiibule. Of the remainder, 
Phxbis argante was the commonest, with a close third in ApJirissa 
statira. Here and there could be seen Callidryas philca. Once or twice 
I thought I could make out C. cipris, but could not feel certain of the 
identification. I make no mention, of course, of others of the group, as 
Pontia mo7iuste and Gonepteryx clorinde, which, though common, did not 
seem to take any part in the migration. 

A few days later, while coasting along to the port of Carupano, I 
continually saw the butterflies singly and in little bands out over the sea. 

From Carupano I went to the island of Margarita, where I stayed for 
over three weeks. Here it was a noticeable fact that all the Pieridre were 
resident in the little grassy patches, in which they apparently had been 
bred and stayed all their lives ; and here males and females were observed 
in normal proportions. Without doubt, the island was receiving its 
share of wanderers from the mainland, but those there showed no inclina- 
tion to leave, and were never found outside of the restricted localities 
where they made their homes. 

When I left the island I coasted along the shore as far as Trinidad 
(B. W. I.), but did not observe anything of the swarms I had seen near 
La Guaira ; and it may be mentioned here that neither about Carupano 
nor at any part of the coast were the insects found so abundantly as at 
and near La Guaira. 

There are two possible explanations of the facts just stated : Either 
that this is the regular habit of these butterflies, to keep constantly moving 
eastward during the imago state, or that it was an unusual migration. 



222 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Further observation will prove which view is correct. But I have seen 
nothing to show that this is the ordinary mode of procedure for Pieridse in 
this region ; and from the immense numbers observed, it seems to me 
that it was one of those pecuh'ar migrations to which this group seems to 
be particularly subject, started, perhaps, by some chance few down toward 
Puerto Cabello, or, it may be, as far as Coro, which picked up more and 
more as they went on, until when they arrived in the vicinity of La Guaira 
their numbers were beyond calculation, all the later additions to the 
multitude taking the same direction of flight as that adopted by the 
originators of the movement. 

Perhaps the course taken was at first an expression of positive 
anemotaxis — a flight against the prevailing wind. But later the sense of 
direction seems to have become so firmly fixed that they moved east even 
v/hen in the sheltered valleys or in gorges where the direction of the wind 
was changed. 

This is, in brief, what it was my lot to witness while in Northern 
Venezuela; and it is much to be hoped that others who chance to be in 
that locality at some future date will make notes of their experiences with 
the butterflies mentioned, and prove conclusively whether this was a 
normal condition of affairs or an extraordinary chapter in the history of 
insect life in this region. 



-o' 



NEW APOIDEA FROM MONTANA. 

BV AUSTIN W. MORRILL, PH. D., MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL 

COLLEGE, AMHERST, MASS, 

BombiiS Cooieyi, n. sp. — ?. Length, 16-17 r""^- Integument 
black ; clothing black, yellowish white, pale ochreous yellow and rusty 
yellow. Head, seen from in front, about as wide as long. Malar space 
about one-sixth the length of eye. Third segment of antenna one-half 
longer than fourth, and scarcely longer than fifth. Face thickly clothed 
with pale yellowish-white hair, on the sides mixed with black. Vertex 
clothed with yellowish-white hair, which is fringed in front with black. 
Cheeks clothed with brownish-black, sometimes slightly mixed with 
whitish, hair. Clypeus shining, sparsely punctured, labrum fringed on 
free edge with rusty yellow hair. Clothing of thorax above, and on sides 
yellowish white, mixed with black in front of insertion of wings. A broad 
patch of black between the wings surrounds the smooth, polished 
mesothoracic disc and extends back in a point over the middle of 
metathorax. On each side of metathorax is a tuft of yellowish white hair. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 223 



On sides of propodseum the yellowish-white hair is more or less mixed 
with black. Coxae, trochanters and bases of femora on inner side with 
whitish hair. Clothing of femora elsewhere brownish black. Corbiculse 
rusty yellow. Integument of posterior tibi?e dark brown ; of tarsi light 
yellowish-brown. Tarsi clothed with fine, bright yellowish-brown 
pubescence. Wings slightly stained with brown, nervures brown. 

Dorsal surface of abdomen : First segment clothed on each side with 
a tuft of ochreous-yellow pubescence, the space between being bare, or 
nearly so ; second segment clothed with black, slightly mixed with 
yellowish, except apical sides, where pubescence is pale ochreous-yellow; 
third segment clothed similarly to second segment, except on extreme 
sides, where the pubescence is also pale ochreous-yellow ; fourth segment 
entirely clothed with pale ochreous-yellow pubescence ; fifth segment 
clothed with black, more or less mixed with yellowish pubescence and 
with a yellowish fringe on apical margin ; sixth segment scantily clothed 
with short black and brownish hair, at apex, brownish, velvety. Ventral 
surface : Segments two, three, four and five are fringed apically with 
yellowish-white hair. Specimens from Prof R. A. Cooley, taken at 
Middle Cr. Canon, Bridgen Canon and Bozeman (elev. 4,800 ft.), Mon- 
tana, in June and July, 1899, and July, 1901, respectively. 

Colour variety A. Differs from type only in following details of 
colour : clothing of second and third abdominal segments above, entirely 
black, except for a few yellow hairs on apical sides of third segment. 

From Prof R. A. Cooley, taken at Bridger Mt., Montana, elev. 6,000 
ft., June, 1899. 

Colour variety B. Differs from type only in colour of clothing of 
third abdominal segment above, which is entirely ochreous-yellow, except 
for a narrow band of black extending along the middle of the dorsum, 
from the anterior to posterior margin of the segment, and a few black hairs 
on the sides. 

From Prof. R. A. Cooley, taken at Bozeman, Montana, elev. 4,800 
ft., June, 1 90 1. 

Described from three $ specimens ; one, the type deposited in the 
collection of the Mass. Agric. College ; co-types deposited, one at the U. 
S. Nat. Museum and one in the collection of the Montana Agricultural 
College. Varieties A and B were described from one 9 specimen of 
each, both in the collection of the Mass. Agric. College. 

I take pleasure in naming this species after my friend, Prof R. A. 
Cooley, of the Montana Agric. College. 



224 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Bombiis atrifascintus, n. sp. — $. Length, 1734 nim. Black, 
clothed with unusually fine and long, black and pale yellowish-white 
hair. Head, seen from in front, considerably longer than broad.* Eyes 
comparatively small. Malar space about one-half the length of eye. 
Face broad. Third segment of antenna slightly longer than fifth ; fifth a 
little longer than fourth. Clypeus strongly arched, shining, sparsely and 
rather coarsely punctured on sides. Labrum deeply cleft, sparsely clothed 
with brownish pubescence. Head clothed with brownish-black pubescence, 
mixed with whitish between bases of antennae. Thorax clothed with 
pale yellowish-white pubescence, except a broad oval band of black 
between the wings. Coxa?, trochanters and bases of femora of first and 
second pairs of legs clothed with whitish pubescence ; femora elsewhere 
than at base, tibiae and tarsi clothed with reddish-brown pubescence. 
Coxas, trochanters and femora of third pair of legs clothed with long 
yellowish-white hair ; corbiculifi rusty yellow, inner side of first tarsal seg- 
ment light brown, hind tarsi elsewhere clothed with very fine yellowish 
pubescence. Integument of legs brownish black. Wings stained with 
brown, nervures dark brown. Abdomen rather robust. Dorsal surface : 
segments one, two, four and five clothed with pale yellowish-white 
pubescence ; extreme sides and lateral portions of the posterior margin of 
segment three clothed with pale yellowish white, remainder of three 
clothed with brownish-black pubescence ; segment six sparsely clothed 
with short brownish yellow pubescence, velvety at apex. Ventral sur- 
face : segments two, three, four and five are fringed apically with pale 
yellowish-white hairs, much longer on sides than in the middle ; segment 
six clothed at apex with brownish-yellow, velvety pubescence. 

Described from one $ specimen from Prof R. A. Cooley, taken at 
Gallatin Co., Montana, elev. 9,400 ft., collected in July, 1900. Deposited 
in collection of Mass. Agric. College. 

Psithynis latitarsus, n. sp. — 9- Length 19-20 mm. Integument 
black, clothing black and yellow. Head seen from in front, a little longer 
than broad. Malar space about one-fourth the length of eye. Clypeus 
punctate. Third and fifth segments of antenna subequal, fourth segment 
about two-thirds as long as third. Clothing of head black, slightly mixed 
with yellow on vertex. Clothing of thorax brownish-yellow, except a 
narrow band of black between the wings and a little black on sides of 

*In the type, ihe length of the head, measured from vertex to lia.se of the lahrum, 
i.s 6 mm.; breadth 5 mm. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 225 



propodceum. Wings subhyaline, smoky brown, nervures brown. Legs, 
except tarsi, clothed with black and brownish-black pubescence. First 
tarsal segments clothed with brownish-black, except inner sides and tips, 
which with the four following tarsal segments are clothed with brownish- 
yellow pubescence, darkest on inner side of first tarsal segments. Length 
of metatarsus about two and one-half times its greatest width, posterior 
edge strongly arcuated. 

Dorsal surface of abdomen : Clothing sparse and short ; black and 
pale lemon-yellow, the hair of the former colour usually tipped with brown- 
ish or yellowish, more noticeable on posterior margins of the segments. 
Pubescence on first segment black, sometimes mixed with yellow on the 
sides ; on second segment black ; on third segment black, with more or 
less yellow on sides posteriorly ; on fourth segment entirely yellow, except 
for a patch of black on middle of basal half, which may or may not extend 
in a point to apex of segment ; on fifth segment black except extreme 
sides, which are yellow ; terminal segment naked except for a very fine 
brownish velvet-like pubescence below and on sides above ventral sur- 
face of abdomen ; segments one to five have an apical fringe of black 
hairs. 'From each side of apical segment below arises an angular, keel-like 
process, which is directed outwards and downwards^ the two converging 
posteriorly, becoming less pronounced, and disappear near the tip of the 
segment. From above these keel-like processes can be plainly seen 
extending outwardly from the sides of the apical segment. 

Described from nine $ specimens from Prof. R. A. Cooley, taken at 
Gallatin Co., and Bozeman, Montana. Type deposited in collection of 
Mass. Agric. College. Co-types at Mass. Agric. College, U. S. Nat. 
Museum, and at Montana Agric. College. 

This species in colour, general form and size resembles P. {usu/aris, 
Smith ; but the two cannot be even closely related, as will be seen from 
the following partial description of the latter species : 

Malar space about one-third length of eye. A tuft of yellow on head 
just above insertion of antenna?, another on vertex, and sometimes a very 
small one between insertion of antennae — all fringed with black. Meta- 
tarsus about three times as long as its greatest breadth, posterior margin 
nearly straight. Apical segment of abdomen below with a simple rounded 
swelling on each side, not projecting enough to be noticed from above. 

I have examined thirteen ^ specimens of P. insularis from Montana 
and one from New Hampshire (Durham.), all of which agree with Smith's 



226 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



description of the species. One of these specimens was sent to Washing- 
ton, D. C, where it was compared by Mr. Ashmead with a specimen of 
P. insularis, determined by Cresson, and was found to agree. 

P. latitarsus, n. sp., also resembles P. cawpestris of Europe in 
colour, but can be readily separated from it by the broader metatarsus 
and the structure of the ventral side of the terminal abdominal segment. 





Fig. 9. 



Fig. 10. 





Fig. II. 



Fig. 12. 



Fig. 9. — Psiihyrus latitajsus, n. sp.; side view of terminal segment of 
abdomen. 

Fig. 10. — Psitliyrus insular is, Smith; side view of terminal segment 
of abdomen. 



leg. 



Fig. II. — Psithyrus latitarsits, n. sp.; tarsal segments of left hind 



Fig. 12. — Psithyrus i/isularis, Smith; tarsal segments of left hind leg. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 227 



SOME NEW NORTH AMERICAN HOMOPTERA. 

BY E. B. BALL, AG. COLLEGE, LOGAN, UTAH. 

Phlepsius coliitus, n. sp. — ^Q?,Qm\A\ng fuividorsum, but smaller and 
paler. Colour fulvous, elytra brown, with two imperfect light bands. 
Length, $ , 6 mm.; width 2 mm. Vertex short, obtusely rounded, but 
little longer on middle than against eye, three times wider than long ; disc 
convex ; the anterior margin distinct, but not sharply angled ; elytra 
rather long and narrow ; venation distinct, claval veins separate, parallel. 
Colour : vertex fulvous, sometimes with faint brownish mottling ; face 
uniform dull brown ; pronotum fulvous, usually mottled vvith brown on the 
disc ; scutellum fulvous. Elytra pale, heavily inscribed with brown, 
omitting three spots on the sutural margin, an oblong area just inside the 
costa on the apical half, and a pair of oblique bands starting from the first 
and last sutural spots, which are milky white. In the lightest specimens 
the brown tends to run together into dark blotches on the costa and 
between the white spots on the suture. Genitalia, female segment twice 
the length of the penultimate, the lateral angles obtuse, the posterior 
margin roundingly produced on the median third, and strongly notched 
in the middle. Disc of the segment fulvous, the posterior margin on each 
side of the slit black, the lateral angles light. 

Described from three females from Ames, Iowa. This species has 
long been confused with ftdvidorsKin, but is readily distinguished by the 
shorter head and distinct genitalia. 

Phlepsius Uppulus, n. sp. — Form oi fidvidorsum nearly, but slightly 
smaller, and with a shorter vertex. Colour milky white, with three brown 
bands. Length 5.5 mm.; width 1.75 mm. Vertex nearly right-angled, 
one-third longer on middle than against the eye, twice wider than long, 
acutely angled with front, the margin distinct, except near the eyes. 
Front rather narrow, margins straight. Pronotum long, strongly angled in 
front, disc convex in both diameters. Elytra rather narrow, the venation 
obscure. Colour : vertex pale orange, an ivory white median line on tip, 
with a pair of oval brownish spots adjoining it, and a pair of black dots 
on the margin, nearly half way to the eyes. Face pale, slightly and 
evenly irrorate with fulvous brown. Pronotum fulvous brown; the 
anterior' submargin white. Scutellum fulvous brown; the oblique margins 
light, interrupted with a pair of black spots. Elytra milky white, a 
transverse fulvous brown band across the middle of clavus, another just 
back of clavus and a narrow apical margin of brown. The second band 



228 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

forks on the middle of corium, and begins and ends in dark spots on tlie 
margin. A round black dot in the middle of the anterior milky baud 
against the claval suture. Genitalia : female segment moderately long, 
half longer than the penultimate ; posterior margin nearly straight, slightly 
roundingly produced on the median half 

Described from two female specimens from Biscayne Bay, Fla., 
collected by Mrs. Annie T. Slosson. This is a beautiful and strikingly 
distinct species. The milky-white elytra with the distinct brown bands will 
readily separate it from any other broad-headed species. 

P/depsiiis paupercultis,n. sp. — Resembling aibidiis,h\\\. smaller and 
with a sharper vertex. Colour pale greenish-white ; elytra faintly fuscous 
marked. Length 3 mm.; width less than i mm. Vertex nearly as long 
as pronotum, half wider than long, nearly right-angled before ; disc flat ; 
anterior margin thick, slightly acutely angled with face. Face strongly 
convex in profile ; pronotum short, wrinkled, depressed just back of the 
anterior margin. Elytra short, broad ; venation indistinct. Colour : 
pale greenish-white. Vertex sometimes pale yellowish- white. Elytra 
pruinose, white or greenish-white, with a very few fuscous dots. Face and 
beneath pale greenish-white. Genitalia : female segment rather long, 
over twice the width of the penultimate ; posterior margin nearly straight, 
the lateral angles rounding ; median fourth slightly produced and faintly 
notched. 

Described from three specimens taken at Grand Junction, Colo,, by 
E. P. Van Duzee and the author. 

Fhiepsius Franconiana, n. sp. — ^Resembling Uhleri, but larger, with 
a more acutely angled vertex and a narrower head. Length, $ ^ 5 mm.; 
width 1.4 mm. Vertex sloping in same plane as pronotum, slightly 
transversely depressed, subangulate, with the margins distinct ; margins 
subparallel. Face as in E. sirobi, the front slightly more flaring above 
and with the base angled instead of rounding. Pronotum truncate, or very 
slightly emarginate, its anterior margin strongly curved. Colour : vertex 
and pronotum fawn colour, with light mottling. Scutellum testaceous, 
with four white points in a triangle at apex. Elytra brown, with brownish 
fuscous irrorations and reticulations, a broad, light band just back of 
scutellum, a narrow line just before the apex of clavus, and an irregular 
one just before the apex. The bands are strictly transverse, and the middle 
one is slightly narrower than the brown one in front of it. The reticula- 
tions are continued across the light areas. Face fawn colour, with 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 229 



fuscous irrorations and a white mark just under the apex of vertex. 
Eyes red. Genitalia : male valve triangular, two-thirds the length of the 
ultimate segment; plates long, triangular, their margins straight; apices 
acute, two and one-half times the length of the valve, slightly exceeded 
by the pygofers. The margins clothed with fine silky hairs, submargins 
with coarse bristles arising from black spots. 

Described from one male from Franconia, New Hampshire, taken by 
Mrs. Annie T. Slosson, and kindly sent me by Mr. Van Duzee. 

Thamnotettix waldana, n. sp. — Form and general appearance of 
montana nearly, slightly larger and lacking the white markings of that 
species. Testaceous brown ; the vertex and margins of elytra pale. 
Length, 9, 5.5 mm.; ^, 5 mm. Vertex transversely depressed, one- 
fourth longer on middle than against the eye, over twice wider than long, 
broadly and evenly rounding to the front. Pronotum twice longer than 
the vertex, rugose on the anterior submargin. Elytra rather long, narrow 
and closely folded behind ; venation distinct, similar to that of belli. 

Colour rusty brown ; the vertex pale yellow, with a trace of rusty 
brown near Base, sometimes forming a tranverse band in the male ; the 
tips of the claval nervures and the costal margin of the elytra, from before 
the middle to just before the tip, white. Face and below varying from 
pale to nearly all fuscous. Genitalia : female segment rather long, 
truncate, with a broad triangular notch containing a strap-shaped tooth as 
long as the segment. Male valve short, obtusely rounding ; plates three 
times as long as valve, rather long, spoon-shaped, the margins clothed 
with long hairs. 

Described from sixteen specimens taken in North Park and Rico, 
Colo., by the author. 

Thamnotettix orbo7iata, n. sp. — Resembling airidorsuin and infus- 
cata in general form, but paler. Pale, smoky greenish, with a broad 
rounding vertex. Length 5.25 mm. Vertex rounding to front, half as 
long as its basal width, a little more than half the length of the pronotum, 
one-third longer on middle than against the eye. Head slightly wider 
than the pronotum ; front parallel margined, narrowing to the clypeus ; 
clypeus narrow, constricted above the middle. Elytra much longer than 
the abdomen, broad and flaring slightly behind. Venation as in 
atridorsum. Colour pale green, slightly tinged with smoky brown. 
Elytra subhyaline, slightly iridescent ; eyes dark ; ocelli deep green. 
Genitalia : female segment short, over twice wider than long ; posterior 



230 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



margin very slightly sinuate ; ovipositor long, slightly exceeding the 
rather slender pygofers. 

Described from two females from Biscayne Bay, Fla., collected by 
Mrs. Slosson. 

Thamnotettix Sherniani, n. sp. — Resembling cyperacea in general 
appearance. Slightly stouter, paler, with a double-lined vertex margin 
and a deltocephaloid venation. Length 5.25 mm.; width 1.5 mm. Vertex 
flat ; anterior margin obtusely angular, definitely and slightly acutely 
angled with the front, a third longer on middle than against eye, half 
wider than long. Elytra rather long, but with the apex broader than in 
cyperacea. Venation distinct, strong ; two cross nervures between the 
sectors ; the central anteaj^ical cell long, constricted and divided beyond 
the middle. Colour : pale tawny, iridescent over a subolivaceous 
ground. Vertex pale tawny-yellow ; anterior margin white, narrowly 
margined above and below with black, the black line above almost con- 
stricted into six dots. Elytra subhyaline with a slight tawny iridescence. 
Face pale tawny, below pale straw. Genitalia : female segment rather 
long ; posterior margin nearly straight; the lateral angles prominent. 

Described from one female taken at Raleigh, N. C, by Prof. 
Franklin Sherman, who sent a number of fine Jassid^ for determination. 

Chlorotettix rugicol/is, n. sp. — Resembling spatnlatus^ but with a 
broader vertex. Green, with a red band on the margin of vertex. Length 
7 mm. Vertex broad, obtusely rounding, but little longer on middle than 
against eye, two and one-half times longer than wide, evenly rounding to 
front. Elytra rather long, the veins large and distinct. Colour : pale 
green, a transverse red band on margin of vertex and front, sometimes 
extending over the eyes. The male has the elytra clouded with tawny 
brown. Genitalia : female segment deeply triangularly excavated, with a 
strap-shaped tooth, similar to that in spattdatns. Male valve nearly as 
wide as the ultimate segment, and al)out half as long ; plates nearly flat, 
long, triangular ; the margins sparsely haired. 

Described from four specimens : One female from Jacksonville, 
Fla., from Otto Heidemann ; a pair from Woodbine, N.J., taken Aug. 
2nd, 1902, by E. P. Van Duzee; and one female from Victoria, Tex., 
received from U. S. Nat. Museum. The remarkably broad vertex with 
the red margin will at once separate this from the other spatulate forms in 
this group. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 231 

Driotjira ^ammeroidea, var. ftdva. n. var. — Size and form of the 
species larger tlum \2a.flava. Entirely brownish fulvous, except the eyes, 
which are darker. 

Described from eight specimens from Denver, Colo., collected by the 
author. 

Driotiira robusta, var. viitain, n. var. — Size and form of the species, 
black and white, variable. Vertex with a transverse light line on anterior 
margin, expanded into two spots at apex ; four oblique black stripes on 
elytra, alternating with four light ones. A transverse light band on 
abdomen, and a broader one on face. 

Described from six examples from Southern Colorado. 

Acinopterus acuminatus, var. variegatiis, n. var. — Form and structure 
of the species, but much lighter coloured. Vertex, pronotum and 
scutellum inclined to be reddish, especially in the male. Elytra whitish 
pruinose, nervures greenish, not margined, except towards apex and along 
the sutural margin, three fuscous points along the suture, and sometimes 
one on the disc of each elytron. 

Described from twenty-four specimens from Colorado and Arizona. 

A. aauninatics, var. viridis, n. var. — Form and structure of the 
preceding nearly ; slightly smaller. Bright grass-green both above and 
below. Eyes and extreme tip of elytra fuscous. 

Described from a number of specimens from Southern Colorado and 
Arizona. This is the common form in Southern Colorado, where it was 
collected by E. P. Van Duzee and the author. 

A. acuminatus, var. bi-iumeus, n. var. — Slightly larger than the pre- 
ceding variety. Vertex, pronotum and scutellum pale green, washed with 
cinnamon-brown. Elytra pale cinnamon-brown, slightly fuscous at tip. 
Whole insect'with a slight tawny iridescence, below pale green. 

Described from three specimens from Rifle, Colo,; taken by the 
author. 

Liburiiia Slossoni, n. sp. — Resembling Stenocra^ius lautus in size 
and general appearance. Somewhat resembling D. maidis. Length, 
macropterous 9 > 5 '^^^- Face broad, strongly carinate, slightly narrow- 
ing above. Elytra very long and narrow, resembling a Stenocranus^ the 
outer branch of the first and the inner branch of the third sector uniting 
with the cross nervure alongside the second sector. Colour : Face 
black, the carina light, basal compartment of vertex, pronotum and 



232 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 



scutellum pale creamy. A pair of parallel black stripes extending the 
entire length, interrupted on the sutures; a pair of black spots outside 
these on the posterior part of the scutellum, and a pair of black spots 
behind the eyes. Elytra pale creamy, subhyaline, a brownish stripe 
covers the outer part of the base of clavus and inner half of corium back 
to middle, beyond this the nervures are deep smoky-brown, except the 
outer fork of the outer sector, its cross vein and the outer apical nervure. 
Legs striped with fuscous and pale. 

Described from three females collected at Biscayne Bay by Mrs. 
Annie T. Slosson. This very large and distinct form in this group is only 
one of the many fine Homoptera that have come to hand from Mrs. 
Slosson's collecting, and I take pleasure in naming it after her. 

Phyllodinus flabellatus, n. sp. — Larger and lighter coloured than 
nervatus, and with a longer vertex. Testaceous brown, with the posterior 
half of the vertex, the scutellum and the tips of the short wing pads milky 
white. Length, brachypterous ^, 3 nmi., width 2 mm. Head slightly 
narrower than pronotum, vertex nearly quadrate, rounding in front. Front 
parallel margined, much longer than wide. Elytra about as long as head 
and pronotum, truncate behind, venation simple, indistinct. Colour : 
vertex and face dark brown, with about seven narrow interrupted transverse 
white bands. A light stripe across the apex of front, extending on across 
the gense to join the stripe on the reflexed portion of pronotum. Clypeus 
piceus, pronotum with the anterior half piceous brown, posterior half and 
scutellum milky white. Elytra brown, the posterior margin milky white, 
broadest towards the costal margin. Abdomen above brown, a median 
and three lateral rows of white dashes, the anterior ones reduced to dots. 
Below dark brown or pitchy. Two anterior pairs of femora dirty straw, 
their foliaceous tibise fuscous, the tarsi white, tipped with black. 

Described from two females, one from Washington, D. C, from the 
collection of Otto Heidemann, and the other from Riverton, N. J., collected 
by C. W. Johnson, and sent by E. P. Van Duzee. Another female from 
the District of Columbia apparently belongs here, but is immature and not 
fuliy coloured. This is a pretty species, and might be mistaken for 
a Fissonotus but for the foliaceous tibise. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 233 



TWO NEW PHYTOPHAGOUS HYMENOPTERA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, A. M., D. SC. 

Xiphydria erythrogaster, sp. nov. — ^. Length, 9.8 mm. Head 
and thorax black, marked with yellow as follows : The black of the head 
is confined to the occiput, a large spot on the crown is dilated on each 
side, but does not quite reach the eye, while the yellow is confined to the 
cheeks, the face to above the insertion of the antennas, the front orbits and 
a V-shaped mark above the eyes. Mandibles yellow, with black teeth ; 
prothorax yellow, with a black line on collar above and a black mark in 
the lateral depressions ; mesonotum black, with two yellow spots on the 
disc ; scutellum with the axillae yellow; meso- and meta-sternum yellow, 
with black marks. The abdomen is pale ferruginous, except the first 
segment above, which is black ; the dorsal segments i to 4 have a yellow 
spot on each lateral margin, while the ventral segments 4 to 6 have tufts 
of black hairs. The antennae are i6-jointed, the first four joints pale 
ferruginous, the others black or blackish, joints 4 to 6 being tipped with 
yellow, the scape the longest joint, the third joint longer than the fourth, 
the following gradually shortening. Wings hyaline, faintly tinged, the 
veins brown. Legs pale ferruginous, the coxte and trochanters more or 
less yellowish, or yellow in front. 

Type.— Cat. No. 6844, U. S. N. M. (Ashmead collection). 

Hab.— Avalon, N. J. (Charles W. Johnson). 

Calameuta Johnsonii, sp. nov. — 5 . Length, 9 mm. Black and 
shining ; the mandibles, except at apex, the apex of the third palpal joint, 
the front legs anteriorly from the middle of the femora to the fourth joint 
of the tarsi, a band on each side of abdomen, a spot at the apical angle of 
the 5th and 6th ventral segments, and the margins of the hypopygium, 
lemon-yellow ; wings slightly smoky, the veins blackish, the stigma brown ; 
antennae thickened towards apex, 21-jointed, the third joint shorter than 
the fourth. 

Type.— Cat. No. 6843, U. S. N. M. (Ashmead collection). 

Hab. — Riverton, N. J. (Charles W. Johnson). 



234 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 



QUEBEC DIPTERA. 

BY THOMAS W. FYLES, 54 WOLFE ST., LEVIS, QUEBEC. 

I have taken, in the Province of Quebec, the undermentioned species 
of two-winged flies, the names of which do not appear in the Toronto 
Check List : 



Culex consobrinus, Desvoidy. 
Chironomus tteniapennis, Coq. 
Tanypus hirtipennis, Loew. 
Diplosis grassator, Fyks. 
Bibio palHpes, Say. 
Plecia heteroptera, Say. 
Tipula cincta, Loew. 
Pachyrrhina kigens, Loew. 
Stratiomyia obesa, Loeiv. 
Chrysopila quadrata, Say. 
Leptis vertebrata. Say. 
Leptis Boscii, Macquart. 
Dasyllis flavicoUis, Say. 
Lampria bicolor, Wiedemami. 
Leptogaster histrio, Wiedemaim. 
Argyramoeba sinuosa, Wled. 
Thereva senex. Walker. 
Pterodontia flavipes, Gray. 
Rhamphomyia umbrosa, Loew. 
Dolichopus plumipes, Scopoli. 
Syrphus xanthostomus, Wied. 
Syrphus arcuatus, Fallen. 
Sphegina rufiventris, Loeiv. 



Rhingia nasica, Say. 
Xylota curvipes, Loeiu. 
Cistogaster immaculata, Macq. 
Ocyptera CaroHnas, Desv. 
Echinomyia florum, Walker. 
Gonia capitata, De Geer. 
Exorista vulgaris. Fallen. 
Sarcophaga sarracenia?, Riley. 
Pollenia rudis, Fabrkius. 
Ophyra leucostoma, Wiedemann. 
Anthomyia radicum, Linneus. 
Blepharoptera kitea, Loew. 
Tetanocera plebeja, Loew. 
Pyrgota undata, Wiedeman?i. 
Stictocephala cribellum, Loew. 
Scioptera vibrans, Lijinens. 
Chaetopsis senea, WiedemaJin. 
Eutreta sparsa, Loerv. 
Eurosta sohdaginis, Fitch. 
Tephritis albiceps, Loew. 
Palloptera superba, Loezv. 
Heteroneura spectabiUs, Loew. 



Entomological Record. — In the last two Annual Reports of the 
Entomological Society of Ontario, Dr. James Fletcher has given a very 
valuable and highly-interesting record of the important events in the 
world of Canadian Entomology noted during each year. As the prepara- 
tion of this record involves a large amount of labour on his part and its 
completeness and consequent value depends upon individual workers 
throughout the Dominion, it is earnestly hoped that each one will send in, 
without delay, notes of any remarkable captures or interesting observations 
that he has made, and not put off doing so to the end of the season. If 
received week by week, the trouble of classifying the notes and the 
necessary correspondence is not very great, but if allowed to accumulate 
it becomes most burdensome. Address (postage free), Dr. James 
Fletcher, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, 



THE CA.NADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 235 

NOTES ON THE STRIDULATION AND HABITS OF 
RANATRA FUSCA, PAL. B. 

BY J. R. DE LA TORRE BUENO, NEW YORK. 

Little is known regarding the sounds produced by the Rhynchota, 
and that little refers almost exclusively to the Cryptocerata, of which 
Corixa has had the most attention ; and some few observations have been 
made on Nepa, Sigara and Notonecta. It seems to me, therefore, that it 
would be well to put on record the observations and notes made by me on 
the striduiation of Ranatra., together with a few other remarks on this 
insect. 

Ranatra fusca, Pal. B., supposed to be the common form in the 
north-eastern portion of America, on being removed from its natural 
element, gives forth a peculiar note. Recently I have had the opportunity 
to study this at close range, in a specimen at present living in my 
aquarium. On taking the Hemipteron out of the water, the striduiation 
can be plainly felt by the fingers, even though, as is at times the case, no 
sound is audible. The vibrations, when heard, produce a rasping, creaky 
chirp. Careful examination shows that the sound-producing apparatus of 
Ranatra departs somewhat from the more commonly met devices, while 
being similar to that in other insects in regard to the general method of 
producing tonal vibrations by the friction of suitably roughened surfaces 
in contact. The stridulatory areas in this insect are situated in the deep 
and elongated coxal cavities of the first pair of legs. This, as far as I 
have been able to learn, is an unusual position, which is not mentioned by 
Packard in his "Text-book of Entomology "; nor have I been able to find 
any reference to the production of sounds by Ranatra in the literature on 
the subject that I have been able to consult. 

For the proper comprehension of the modus operandi, a brief and 
necessarily superficial description of that portion of the thorax in which 
thecoxfe are set is not out of place. The narrow, elongated prothorax of 
Ranatra is not of sufficient widtli to receive both coxte with any space 
between them. In order, therefore, to provide for this, the segment in 
question expands cephalad, and is provided with two deep slits extending 
to the anterior margin, one on each side, for the reception of the coxse. 
Due to the extreme shortness and transverseness of the head, 'the lateral 
processes of the cavities have the appearance of cheeks, and resemble 
somewhat the cheek-pieces of a Greek helmet. The coxre rub against the 
inner surface of the exterior walls of the cavities. Doubtless this surface 



236 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



is roughened in some manner, as well as the portion of joint mentioned, 
on the areas of friction. This mechanism cannot be properly explained 
without a dissection, hence the insufficiency of the preceding. 

To stridulate, Ranatra holds the first pair of legs in the same plane 
as the body, perfectly straight, and somewhat separated at the extremities, 
in such a manner as to press the coxa; against the inner surface of the 
outer wall of the coxal cavity. The insect jerks its legs while in this posi- 
tion back and forth, and thus causes the vibration. Both legs may be in 
motion at once, independently of each other ; or one only may be waved 
about. Each leg, therefore, stridulates without reference to the other, as 
Ranatra jerkily moves it about in anger or excitement. 

In the literature and references that I have been able to look up, no 
mention is made of this peculiarity of Ranatra, although it cannot have 
passed unnoticed by students of these hemipterous groups. In his '■^Cata- 
logus synonimicus et topographicus Rhynchotorum aquatilium hucusque in 
Italia repertorum," Dr. A. Griffini gives a very full bibliography of the 
aquatic Rhynchota, and he records only one essay on the subject in 
question, " On Stridulation in the Hemiptera Heteroptera," by O. H. 
Swinton, which mentions A^epa, but makes no reference to Ranatra. Mr. 
G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S., also has had a paper on "The Stridulating 
Organs of Water Bugs (Rhynchota), especially of Corixidse," treating 
principally of the last named. At some future date I shall endeavour to 
give a fuller account of the organs in Ranatra, together with a bibli- 
ography. Meantime, a few random notes on habits may not be without 
interest. 

The way in which Ranatra seizes its prey is very characteristic. I 
feed mine on living flies, which are presented with a forceps under water. 
When the fly attracts its attention, Ranatra very slowly, almost imper- 
ceptibly, moves its fore-legs, with the knife-like tarsus away from the tibia, 
toward its prey. When the tibiae are almost, or quite, touching the victim, 
the movement is so sudden and quick that one is aware of it only by see- 
ing the prey seized. Sometimes its hold is not satisfactory, and then it 
will let go, first with one tarsus, get a firmer grip with that, and then do 
the same with the other. Once it has the fly securely held, Ranatra 
slowly approaches it to its extended beak, with which it seems to touch 
and feel it until it finds a suitable spot, and proceeds to a leisurely meal. 
From this it might seem that Ranatra depends for its food not on such 
inhabitants of the water as swim by, but on the unwary ones that come to 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 237 

rest anywhere within reach of its rapacious claws, and then only for some 
time. This is somewhat borne out by the fact that there are two or three 
smaller insects in the aquarium with my specimen, which have thus far 
entirely eluded Ranatra's appetite. 

A noticeable characteristic is the exceeding slowness of this insect's 
motions. They are practically imperceptible, and only the change of 
relative position of limbs or body makes one aware that it has moved. 
On occasion, Raiiatra swims, not very fast nor very gracefully, but 
sufficiently well to afford it more rapid transportation when it chooses to 
resort to this method of locomotion. The fringing hairs of its long legs 
are of great help in this. The second and third pairs are the ones used in 
swimming and walking, or otherwise moving about, by this insect, the first 
pair being used almost exclusively for prehension. 



SOME CORRECTIONS TO DR. DYAR'S LIST OF NOCTUIDS. 

BY A. RADCLIFFE GROTE, HILDESHEIM, GERMANY. 

I. 

In Dr. Dyar's recent very full and careful List of North American 
Noctuids, Wash. Cat., pp. 98-247, are a few errors which I would briefly 
point out in this journal. They have mostly arisen from a neglect of a 
couple of papers in Can. Ent., and one in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 1895, 
as well as from a two literal following of Prof Smith's Washington list. 
With regard to the general sequence of the order adopted, I have given 
that preferred by myself in these pages, and can only repeat here that the 
Noctuid series (Lithosia — Nodua) affords a parallel to that of the blues and 
skippers in the butterflies, and that I should place them below the series 
Bombyx, LacJuieis — Geometra, disturbing as little as possible the older 
classifications. 

For sequence and nomenclature see my paper. Can. Ent., XXXIII. , 

116. The papers in Can. Ent. apparently neglected by Dr. Dyar are: 

Vol. XXV., 217, and 153. The types of the forms therein described are, 

I believe, in the National Museum, Washington. They were sent at the 

time to Prof. Riley. 

I shall not especially and in detail again refer to the names of Mr. 
Walker which incorrectly replace for the moment certain of these given by 
me. They have been already discussed in these pages ; all the facts with 
regard to the use of Hormisa are given by me in the paper in the Am. Phil. 
Proceedings, above alluded to, p. 429, 1895. For Hormisa, which is a 
synomyn of Epizeuxis, the term Litognatha should be substituted. 



238 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A small box v/as mailed to me at Bremen by the late Mr. Hill, from 
Albany. As I remember, it contained, among the few specimens, the 
types of Hepialus auratus {Sthefiopis, Cat. p. 580) and Rhewnaptera 
immediata (3404 Cat., marked with a star and type stated to be " loot "). 
The contents of the box were deposited in the Bremen Museum for 
preservation. 

In Dr. Dyar's list of Noctuids, I notice the following double names : 
The specimens identified as 2249 sericea, are probably 2253 veiiustula. 
What sericea is, is not known ; the erroneous determination came from 
Albany. No. 2134 and No. 2143 I considered identical. No. 2201 
should be referred as synonymous with No. 2223. The original name was 
changed by the authors. 

2473. Formosa is type of Chrysanympha, Grote, Proc. Am. Phil. 

Soc, 417, 1895. I cannot regard this as congeric with moneta, 

which is type of Polychrysia, Hubn. (Grote, id.). But I may be 

wrong. 

2475. '^reoides, not '■' ceroides^'; this mistake is copied from Smith, 

Wash. Cat. 247. 
2479. Festticce is type of C/irysaspidia, Hubn. Verz. (Grote, id.), and 
illistris is type of Euc/ia/cia, which latter term is therefore here 
wrongly employed, and should be dropped. Speyer, Staudinger 
and myself agree that Putnami is not a race of festucce, but a dis- 
tinct species, and it appears to be also Asiatic in its range (Stand, 
and Rebel Cat. 2547, p. 237). 
2489. Egena : the identification of this species from Florida, given 
in Smith's List, p. 251, Can. Ent., XV., 26, should have been 
cited. 
2493. The identification oi fratella with on is incorrect, as stated 
by Smith, Wash. List, p. 252. The two are distinct species, in 
my opinion. Any confusion between them seems to arise from 
a wrong identification of Guenee's species. 
On page 206 of Dr. Dyar's List, the genera, Oxycilla tripla and 
Zelicodes lifiearis, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, I.e., 1895, are omitted. Linearis 
is wrongly cited under '' Hortnisa" No. 3033. Of this . species Prof. 
Smith has written that it does not belong to Litognatha, and is not a 
Deltoid at all. Types of these two species are in coll. Neumogen, where 
Dr. Dyar examined them for me, I.e., p. 418. 



Mailed August 1st, 1903. 



l\t €mdk\\ %n\mtiU^hl 



Vol. XXXV. 



LONDON, SEPTEMBER, 1903. 



No. 



LIST OF CANADIAN COLEOPTERA. 

BY JOHN D. EVANS, TRENTON, ONT. 

The following list has been prepared from collections made in the 
Northwest Territories of Canada during the seasons of 1879, 18S0 and 
1 88 1, by Prof. John Macoun, Botanist of the Geological Survey Depart- 
ment of Canada. 

During the summer of 1879 collecting was done, starting from Fort 
EUice, thence to the head of Long Lake: thence to the elbow of the South 
Saskatchewan ; then after crossing the river, in an almost straight line to 
Battleford ; then south to the Hand Hills, and still south to Blackfoot 
crossing ; thence west to Calgary, and up the Bow River to the gap in the 
Rocky Mountains. 

In 1880 collecting commenced at Brandon ; thence to Moose Moun- 
tains, from there to Moose Jaw ; thence by Swift Current Creek to the 
Cypress Hills and Fort Waish ; from Fort Walsh to Dunmore, and then 
towards the South Saskatchewan, and on to Humboldt, on the old north 
trail, and thence to Fort Ellice. 

In 1 88 1, starting from Portage la Prairie ; thence to Lake Manitoba; 
then up Lake Manitoba and Lake Winnipegosis to its head; then up 
Red Deer River to its head ; then down Swan River to Livingstone, and 
across to the Assiniboine at Fort Pelly, and down it to Fort Ellice. 

The first two years were almost wholly on the plains, and collections 
made largely on mud by pools and in sand hiils. The third year wa« 
almost wholly by water. 

The species taken during each of these seasons are indicated by the 
abbreviated figures '79, '80 and '81, respectively. 

An asterisk (*) before the several names indicates a species not here- 
tofore recorded as having occurred in Canada, in so far as the Society's list 
and lists appearing subsequently in The Canadian Entomologist are 
concerned. 

The numbers are those of Henshaw' s List. 



240 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The compiler is very grateful to all who have assisted in determining 
these insects, particular mention being made of Mr. Henry Ulke, the late 
Dr. John Hamilton and Prof. H. F. Wickham. for their very many acts 
of kindness. 

Cicindeiidce. 
\tc, Cicindela Montana, Lee, 1879. 
*25a, " Audubonii, Lee, '79, '80. 
25d, •' lo-notata, Say, '80. 

26a, " generosa, Dej., '80. 
30a, '• limbata, Say, '79, '80. 
T,2, '" vulgaris, Say, '80. 
33, '• repanda, Dej., '80, 'Si. 
35, " hirticollis, Say, '79 

*36, " cinctipennis, Lee. '79, '80. 
*55, •' lepidii, Dt-j., '79. 

Carabidce. 

*92, Cychiu^ angusticoUis, Fi^-cli., '79. 

116, Carabus Marauder, Fi.-ch., '81. 

119, " tyedatus. Fab.. '79, '80, '81. 

121. " serratus, Say, '79, '80, 'Si. 

*i37, Calosoma obsoletum, Say, '79, '80. 

142, " calidum, Fab, '79, '80. 

142a, '• tepidum, Lee, '79, '80. 
*i45, " moniliatum, Lee, '79. 
*i48b, " Zimmermanni, Lee, '79, '80 

153, Elaphrus cicatricosus, Lee, '79, '80 

157, " riparius, Linn., '79. 

160, " ruscarius. Say, '80, '8i. 

165, Blethisa multipunctata, Linn., '81. 

178, Notiophilus sibiricus. Mots., '79, '80. 

180, Leistus ferruginosus, Mann, '79, 

217, Pasimachus elongatus, Lee, '80. 

225, Dyschirius nigripes, Lee, '80. 

305, Bembidium carinula, Chd., '79, '81. 
*3o('), " Lorquinii, Chaud,, '79. 

307, " littorale, Oliv., '81. 

311, " coxendix, Say, '79. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 241 

313, Bembidium nitidum, Kirby, '79, '80. 
*, " fuscicrum, Motz., '79. 

359, " scopulinum, Kirby, '80, 

*36i, " postremum, Say, '79, 81. 

363, " Grapii, Gyll., '80. 

*378, '■ viridicoUe, Laf., '79, '80, 

*38o, " variolosum, Motz. 

384, " conspersum, Chd., '79, 'So, 'Si 

386, " patruele, Dej., '81. 

389, " nigripes, Kirby, '79, '80. 

*403. " Scudderi, Lee , '79, '80. 

*42o, " semistriatum, Hald,, '79. 

*, " timidum, Lee, '79, '80, 

2 sp., '79. 
2 sp., '80. 

449, Tachys nanus, Gyll,, '79, 

550, Pterostichus punctatissimus. Rand., '81. 
*558, " scitulus, Lee, '79. 

'*56i, " corvus, Lee, '79. 

565, " lucublandus, Say, '80. 

*567, •' convexicollis, Say, '80. 

583, " Luczotii, Dej., '79, '81. 

588, " femoralis, Kirby, '80. 

*628, Amara jacobinse, Lee, '80. 

647, " latior, Kirby, '79, 
^654, " longula, Zimm., '79, 'So. 

657, " impuncticollis. Say, '79, '80, 

658, " littoralis, Mann, '79, '80. 
664, " fallax, Lee, '79, '80. 
669, " erratica, Sturm., '80. 
674, " obesa, Say, '79. '80. 

*6-j6, " terrestris, Lee , '79. 

*678, " remotestriata, Dej., '79, '80. 

sp., '79- 
sp., '79, 'So, 
sp., 80. 






242 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



710, 

711. 
742, 

743. 
766, 

*782, 
786, 

796, 

800, 

815. 
818, 

821, 

831, 
835- 
836, 



882a 

911 

940 

*94i 

996 

1021 

1028 

1052 

'•054 



'057 


I06I 


1079 


loSi 


1082 


1087 


1094 


1096 


1099 


I lOI 


II02 


1106 



Diplochila laticoUis, Lee, '79, '80. 

" impressicollis, Dej., '80. 

Calathus gregarius, Say, '80, '81, 

" ingratus, Dej., '81. 
Platynus sinuatus, Dej , '79, '81. 

" funebris, Lee, '79, '80. 

■' errans, Say, '79, '80, '81, 

" corvus, Lee, '79, '80. 

" cupripennis, Say, '79, '80. 

'' placidus, Say, '79, '80, 

•' cupreus, Dej., '79. 

'• obsoletus, Say, '79. 
ruficornis, Lee, '79. 
liitulentus, Lee, '81. 
nigriceps, Lee, '79. 
sp., '79. 
sp., '80. 
Lebia moesia, Lee, '80. 
Blechrus nigrinus, Mann, '79. 
Cymindis cribricollis, Dej., '79, '80. 

" planipennis, Lee, '79, '80. 
Chlaenius sericeus, Forst., '80. 

" pennsylvanicus, Say, '80, '81. 

" interruptus, Horn, '81. 
Geopiniis incrassatus, Dej., '79, '80. 
Nothopus zabroides, Lee, '79, '80. 
Piosonia setosuni, Lee, '79. 
Agonoderus pallipes, Fab., '79, 'So. 
Harpalus erraticus, Say, '80. 

" amputatus, Say, '79, '80. 

" viridi89neus. Beau v., '80. 

" Pennsylvanicus, Dej., '80. 

" herbi vagus, Say, '79, '80, 

" ventralis, Lee, '80. 

" ellipsis, Lee, '80. 

" cautus, Dej., '79, '80. 

" innocuus, Lee,, '79. 

" Lewisii, Lee, '79. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 243 

iiio, HarpaUis funestiis, Lee, '79. 
1117, " basilaris, Kirby, '79. 

3 sp., '79. 
" 2 sp., '80. 

I r4o, Stenolophus conjunctuF, Say, '79, '80. 
1 158, Bradycellus rupestris, Say, '80. 

Dytiscidce. 
1302, Coelambus impressopunctatus, Sch., '80. 
1399, Ilybiosoma bifarius, Kirby, '80. 
1425, Agabus punctulatus, Aiibe, '80. 
*i436, '' strigulosus, Cr., '79, '80. 
1438, '^' infuscatiis, Aube, '80. 
1444, " erythropterus, Say, '80. 
1466. Rhantus bistriatus, Ber^st., '81. 
1474, Colymbetes sculptilis, Harr., '79. 
1 49 1, Dytiscus Harrisii, Kitl)y, '8r. 
sp., '79, '80. 

(To be coniinued.) 



A NEW PARANOMIAFROM BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, A. M., D. SC. 

Faranoniia Venablesii, sp. nov. — 9- Length 10.5 mm. Black; 
abdominal segments 1-4 at apex with bands of a golden-yellowish 
pubescence ; the head in front, the cheeks, the occiput, the thorax in 
front at the sides, the postscutellum, the legs, and the abdomen beneath, 
all clothed with a pale or whitish pubescence. Wings hyaline, fuliginous 
at apex, the costifi and parastigma black, the stignial and internal veins 
testaceous. Legs mostly black, with tarsal joints 2-5 mostly yellowish. 
The head is rather finely, sparsely punctate, the thorax more closely and 
densely punctate, but with the punctures finer on the scutellum, while the 
metathorax is shagreened, opaque. The abdomen has the first segment 
minutely punctulate, the following segments being more or less alutaceous. 

Type.— Cat. No. 6224, U. S. N. M. 

Described from a single specimen, captured July 20th, 1902, at 
Vernon, B. C, by Mr. E. P. Venables. 



244 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 

SOME DIPTERA FROM ARIZONA. 

BY JAMES S. HINE, STATE UNIVERSITV, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Tn a collection of Diptera, taken in Arizona by J. Thomas Lloyd, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, during the summer of 1902, I find some species of 
sufficient importance to warrant recording notes concerning them at this 
lime. 

Chrysops prociivis, O. S. — Specimens of this species were taken in 
Oak Creek Canyon, July 5th. I have not seen a record of the species 
from this territory heretofore. 

Tabanus hyalinipcnnis, n. sp. — Female. Eyes bare ; length 15 mm.; 
antennae entirely black ; proboscis black ; palpi yellowish, with short 
white hairs ; face and front brown, but this colour concealed by gray 
pollen ; lower part of face and cheeks clothed with long white hair ; front 
rather narrow, slightly narrowed below ; frontal callosity shining brown, 
nearly square, and as wide as the front and with a linear prolongation 
above it ; thorax reddish above, with four distinct black stripes, which 
extend back to the scutellum ; margin of scutellum reddish, with white 
hair, remainder blackish, with black hair; femora black, with gray pollen 
and white hair ; tibiae reddish ; apices black, or at least dark ; tarsi 
black ; wings entirely hyaline ; veins and stigma brown, all the posterior 
cells wide open. Abdomen black dorsally ; first segment broadly white 
on each side ; posterior margin narrowly white, and a white spot beneath 
the scutellum ; second segment with a prominent white triangle on each 
side of the middle and a white hind margin, which is three or four times 
as wide external to the triangles as between them ; third segment with a 
narrow white marking on each side corresponding to the lateral triangles of 
the previous segment and white hind margin, which expands at the middle 
into a prominent spot, truncate before and attaining the middle of its 
segment ; fourth segment with a narrow white hind margin, which ex- 
pands into a prominent median triangle, which attains the anterior border 
of its segment ; fifth, sixth and seventh segments with very narrow white 
hind margins. Ventrally the abdomen is dark, darkest on the middle, 
and clothed with gray pollen. 

Habitat. — Oak Creek Canyon. Several specimens, two of whicli are 
before me ; one taken July 2nd and the other July 7th. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 245 



In form and appearance the species suggests T. trimaculatus, but 
the hyaline wings, the abdominal markings and smaller size are distinctive-. 
It lacks the large median white triangle on the second segment, so 
conspicuous in sodalis. 

Leptomydus venosus, Lw.— The species of this genus seem not to be 
easily recognized, because the sexes of each species are widely different, 
and all the original descriptions were written from a single sex, some from 
males and some from females. In the collection before me are the sexes 
of a species, the male of which agrees very well with venosus. I give 
below the descriptions of both sexes, hoping that such may be of use to 
some future student of the group : 

Male. — Head and its appendages black ; face and front clothed with 
long yellowish gray pile. Thorax black, with four light-coloured stripes 
above ; anterior and middle legs black, with extreme bases of all the 
tibiae yellowish ; broad bases of posterior femora and tibia3 yellow, other- 
wise these legs are black or brown ; wings uniform dilute yellowish. 
Abdomen reddish; posterior margins or all the segments narrowly yellow, 
and on each side of the second segment the yellow margin surrounds a 
small reniform black spot ; anterior margins of all the segments black ; the 
first segment is wholly black, except the yellow hind margin, and on the 
sixth and seventh segments the black is mostly confined to the sides. 
Length 15 mm. 

Female. — Whole insect reddish-yellow ; eyes, proboscis and part of 
front blackish ; thorax with light yellow stripes ; abdominal segments 
margined behind with distinct light yellow ; on each side of the second 
segment this yellow margin includes a small reniform black spot ; spines 
at end of abdomen red; wings coloured as in the male. Length 19 mm. 

In both male and female the first posterior cells of the wings are 
wide open. 

Habitat. — Both sexes taken in Oak Creek Canyon, June 30th. 

In the female the black proboscis, the lack of black stripes on the 
literal margins of segments (two to seven) and the red spines at the end 
of the abdomen serve to distinguish this sex from brachyrhynchus of Osten 
Sacken. 

Myiolepta aurinota, n. sp. — Male. Length 9 mm. In general 
coloration the antennae are reddish, but the first two segments are d'arker 
and more shining than the third ; arista at base concolorous with the 



246 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

segment chat bears it, at apex darker. Region surrounding the ocelli, a 
space above the antennae, a triangular spot on the face, including the 
facial callosity and cheeks, shining black ; remainder of the face and front 
gray poUinose, with sparse white hairs near the eyes. Mesonotum, includ- 
ing the scutellum, entirely densely clothed with coarse golden hair; pleura 
with white hair ; wings nearly hyaline, but from certain views they appear 
slightly clouded; general colour of legs black, with white hair; all the 
tibiae yellowish at base; first two segments of each of the middle and 
hind tarsi yellow ; first two segments of each front tarsus dusky, but 
lighter in colour than the three remaining segments ; all the femora 
swollen, and with short black spines below on apical parts. Abdomen 
black, clothed on dorsum with black and golden hair, on sides with white 
hair ; the black hair of the dorsum is very short, and distributed as 
follows : the anterior half of the second segment, a rectangular patch on 
anterior middle of the third segment, occupying two-thirds of the length 
and over half of the width of this segment, and a triangular patch on the 
anterior third of the fourth segment. The golden hair is longer and 
coarser than the black, and most dense on the fourth segment. The first 
segment, and all the sutures between segments, are thinly gray poUinose, 
giving the effect to the unaided eye of gray bands. 

Habitat. — Phoenix, Arizona. Taken June i8th. 

The species has most affinities with strigilata, Loew, and auri- 
cauihita, Williston, but on comparison with the former species in the U. 
S. National Museum, I find the two have a very different appearance. 
From the latter the coloration of the abdomen and legs, the lack of 
"golden tomentum" on the frontal triangle, and the larger size are 
sufficient to distinguish it. In accordance with what has been observed 
in related species, 1 should expect that the vestiture of the female is paler 
than in the male. 

Milesia bella. Townsend. — Several specimens of this beautiful 
syrphid were taken at Elden Mountain, June 17th. The black front 
tibiae and tarsi and the thoracic markings easily distin^guish the species 
from ornata, Say, which is our common eastern member of the genus. A 
reference to Townsend's fine description in the Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History, Ser. 6, Vol. XIX., 142, will reveal the characters oibella 
and its differences from ornata. Townsend's types were taken in 
southern New Mexico. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 247 

A LIST OF CALIFORNIA APHIDTD^. 

BY WARREN T. CLARKE, BERKELEY, CALIF. 

Our knowledge of the group Apliididaj in California has been.h'mited 
in the jiast to certain forms that were of economic importance in their 
relations to cuhivated crops. No systematic list of these interesting 
insects has heretofore been attempted in this region, and this has not been 
due to any lack of material, for the varying conditions of climate here 
seem to be particularly favorable to them. 

In Hunter's list of the Aphididse of Nortli America (Bull. No. 60, 
Iowa Ag. Ex. Sta., 1901) we find nine forms that may be considered as 
reported from California. Only five of these forms are directly referred to 
this State, while the other four are stated to be found, as in the case of 
Nectarophora avence, Fabr., " throughout the United States." One of the 
five forms directly referred to the State is Aphis mali, Fabr. Tne writer 
is doubtful of the occurrence of mali here, and believes that other species 
have been confused with it, and therefore does not include it as a 
CaHfornia form. With this exception the following list is made up from 
the reported Aphididae of California and from the writer's own collections 
in the State during the past eighteen months. 

Forty-three species are listed, including ten new species. Thi^ num- 
ber does not by any means exhaust the group so far as this State is C'Ui- 
cerned, as it represents but fe^v localities, yet it is believed that the 
presentation of the list at this time is desirable, in that it may stimulate 
further study of the group by other observers. 

Table of Genera. 

A. Third discoidal vein wanting Phylloxera. 

AA. " " " simple Pemphigus. 

AAA. " '• •' one-branched .Schizoneura. 

A A. A A. " " •' two-branched. 

B. Antennae five-jointed Lachnus. 

BB. Anlennie seven-jointed. 
C. Style long. 

D. Frontal tubercles toothed internally Phorodon, 

DD. Frontal tubercles not toothed internally. 

E. Frontal tubercles approximate Nectarophora. 

EE. Frontal tubercles distant Myzus. 

CC. Style short. 



248 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

F. Honey tubes long. 

G. Antennas on frontal tubercles . . ..... Rhopalosiphum. 

GG. Antennce not on frontal tubercles. 

H. Honey tubes clavate Siphocoryne. 

HH. Honey tubes cylindrical. 

I. Body long . . Hyalopterus. 

1 1. Body short Aphis. 

FF. Honey tubes short. 

J. Antennae shorter than body . . . . Chaitophorus. 
JJ. Antennae longer than body. 
K. Honey tubes longer than 

broad Drephanosiphum. 

KK. Honey tubes shorter than 

broad Callipterus. 

Phyiloxera. — Vasiatrix, Planchon ; Vitig vinifera ; California. 
Pemphigus. — Stigma more than twice as long as hro^.d, pop iilicau/ is ; 
less than twice as long as broad, betie. 

Poptilicaidis, Fitch ; cottonwood and poplar ; Fresno, Berkeley, 
Rumsey. 

Betie, Doane \ sugar-beet, Canaigre (Rumex hymenosepalous) ; red 
dock ; Berkeley, Placer County, Palo Alto. 

While these two forms of Pemphigus are reported as separate species, 
it is the opinion of the writer that it will be found that one is a migrant 
form of the other. I have noted betce to be extremely prevalent on sugar. 
beets planted near cottonwoods infested w'wh popu/icaulis. 

ScHizONEURA — Abdomen chocolate-brown, lanigera ; pale green, 
pinicola ; black, querci ; lilac brown, Americafia. 

The colour effect is best obtained by bathing the fresh specimens for 
a short time in 95% alcohol. 

La7tigera, Haus. ; apple j throughout the State. 
Pinicola, Thos. ; Pine (P. radiata) ; Berkeley, Palo Alto. 
Querci, Fitch ; various oaks ; Berkeley. 
Americana, Riley ; elm ; Berkeley, Newcastle. 

Lachnus.^ — Alnifoliie, Fitch ; alder {A/nus, sp.) ; Berkeley, Colfax. 
Chaitophorus. — Viminalis, Monell ; willow; Newcastle, Watson- 
ville. 

Callipterus — 

A. Body with dorsal setae. 
B. Body less than twice as long as broad. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 249 



C. Colour very pale hyalinus. 

CC. Colour dark yellow coryli. 

BB. Body more than twice as long as broad. 

D. Four rows of setiferous tubercles on back of 

abdomen castanese. 

DD. Setiferous tubercles not in rows arundicolens. 

AA. Body without dorsal set^e. 

E. Seventh joint of antennae shorter than sixth caryse. 

EE, Seventh joint of antennae longer than sixth . . . betul9ecolei>s. 
Caryce, Monell ; black walnut ; Berkeley. 
Betulacoleiis, Fitch ; birch ; Berkeley. 
Castanece, Fitch ; chestnut ; Berkeley. 
Arnndicoiens, n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.54 mm.; width 69 mm. Length of joints of 
antennae : III., .77 mm.j IV., .50 mm.; V.. .54 mm.; VL,.27 mm.; VIL, 
.27 mm. Body setiferous; general colour light lemon-yellow to darker 
yellow. Nectaries reduced to tubercles. Cauda wart-like. Rostrum 
reaching to second coxae. Antennal joints IIL, IV. and V. black at 
outer ends. Tarsi dusky. Eyes red-brown. 

Alate viviparous female. 
Length of body, 2.19 mm.; width, .81 mm. Expanse of wings from 
tip to tip, 7. tg mm. Length of joints of antennae : III., 1.04 mm.; IV., 
.58 mm.; V., .61 mm.; VI., .35 mm.; VIL, .35 mm. General colour of 
body light lemon-yellow. Wings hyaline ; veins and stigma greenish. 
Cauda short, tip black. Nectaries reduced to tubercles. Tarsi dusky. 
Eyes red. Sixth antennal joint dusky; Vth and IVth black at outer end; 
Ilird ringed with black one-third distance from joint II. and at outer end. 
Small colonies, and also distributed singly on under sides of leaves 
of bamboo {Arundo, sp.), Berkeley. 

Hyalinus, Monell ; oak ( Quercus inibricata) ; Berkeley. 
Cotyli, Goetze ; hazelnut {Corylus, sp. ) ; Berkeley. 
Urephanosiphum. — Acerifolii, Thos. ; live oak ; Berkeley. 
Yl\M.0VT^KV?,.— Ar7ifidi?iis, Fabr. ; apricot; Berkeley. 
Aphis. — 
A. Antennae not more than half the length of body. 

B. Honey tubes reaching not quite half way to tip of abdomen. 

C. Honey tubes red-brown. . Alamedensis. 

CC Honey tubes yellow calendulicola. 

CCC. Honey tubes black. 



250 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I). Body less than ivvice as long as broad persicje-niger. 

DI). Body ni'ire than twice as long as broad maidis. 

BB. Honey tubes reaching more than halfway to tip of abdomen. 
E. Cauda more than twice as wide at base as at 

tip (conical) mori. 

EE. Cauda about as wide at base as at tip 

(filiform) oenoiheia'. 

AA. Anlenn;e three-fourths or more length of body. 

BBB. Honey tubes reaching beyond tip of abdomen. 

F. Cauda inconspicuous sorbi. 

FF. Cauda evident. 

G. Cauda about as wide at tip as at base 

(filiform) gossypii. 

GO. Cauda more than twice as wide at tip as at 

base (conical) ceanothi. 

BBBB. Honey tubes not reaching to tip of abdomen. 

H. Cauda inconspicuous brassicte. 

HH. Cauda evident cratiegi. 

Brassicce, Linn.; throughout the Slate on various cruciferns. 
CalenduUcola, Monell ; marigold ; Berkeley. 
Crai(7gi, Monell ; hawthorn {Cratcegus, sp.); Berkeley. 
Gossypii, Glover ; shepherd's-purse, watermelon ; Newcastle, Wai- 
sonville. 
Ceanothi. n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.46 mm.; width, 1.19 mm. Length of joints of 
antennae : IIL, .31 mm.; IV., .16 mm.; V., .16 mm.; VL, .13 mm ; VII., 
.27 mm. Body smooth, globular ; general colour clouded yellow-brown. 
Nectaries reaching beyond end of body, black. Cauda conical, incon- 
spicuous. Legs and antennae of a uniform yellow-brown colour. Eyes 
black. 

Alate viviparous female. 
Length of body, 1.54 mm.; width, .58 mm.; expanse of wings from 
tip to tip, 5.58 mm. Length of joints of antenn?e : III., .38 mm.; IV., 
.19 mm.; V., .19 mm.; VI., .15 mm.; VIL, .27 mm. Colour of head and 
thorax jet black ; abdomen clouded yellow-brown. Wings opalescent, 
veins dark green. Third discoidal vein obsolete at base. Cauda conical, 
yellow-brown in colour. Nectaries reaching beyond tip of body, black. 
Tibi?e yellow-brown except outer tnd, which is dusky. Other joints of 
legs dusky, Antennal joints yellow-brown. Eyes black. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 251 



Large colonies on tender tips and on blossoms of Cea/iothus inte^er- 
riiiius, Colfax. 
A/emedensis, n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.27 mm.; ividth, .50 \\v^^. Lengtii of joints of 
antennje : IIL, .15 mm.. IV\, 08 mm ; V., .15 mm.; VL, .oS mm ; VIL, 
.23 mm. Body smooth, general colour yellow green to red-brown. Nec- 
taiies redbrown, reaching not quite half-way to tip of abdomen. Cauda 
conical. Eyes red. 

Alate viviparous female. 

Length of body, 2,31 mm ; width, .77 mm. Expanse of wings from 
tip to tip, 6.15 mm. Length of joints of antennag : III , .50 mm.; IV., 
.31 mm.; V., .19 mm.; VI , .12 mm.; VIL, .38 mm. Head and thorax 
black. Abdomen yellow-green to dark brown. Wings hyaline, 
veins yellowish. Third discoidal vein obsolete at base. Cauda 
conical and of same colour as rest of abdomen. Nectaries not 
reachmg to end of body, black. Legs dusky. Antennae dusky yellow. 
Eyes dark red. Flocculent masses of wax covering abdomen. 

Rather large and numerous colonies on leaves of Greengage. 
Alameda County. 

Maidis, Fitch ; sorghum, corn ; Berkeley, Watsonville. 
Mori, n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.04 mm.; width, .65 mm. Length of joints of 
antennae; III., .12 mm.; IV., .06 mm.; V, .06mm.; VI., .12 mm.; VIL, 
.15 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, abdomen dark green. Nectaries 
fuscous, reaching to tip of abdomen. Cauda conical. Tarsi dusky, 
other joints of legs yellow green. .\ row of six dark spots extends from 
the nectaries to the thorax on each side of the abdomen. Rostrum 
extends to middle coxa?. Eyes dark. 

Alate viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.22 mm.; width, .54 mm. Expanse of wings from 
tip to tip, 3.77 mm. Length of joints of antennae: III., .15 mm.; IV., 
.12 mm.; V., .12 mm.; VI. , .08 mm.; VIL, .23 mm. Head and thorax 
greenish-black. Abdomen yellowish-green, with two black dorsal patches. 
Wings hyaline, veins greenish. Stigma, long, narrow, greenish. Cauda 
conical, dusky. Nectaries black, reaching to tip of abdomen. Legs and 
antennae dusky. Eyes black. 

Found on under sides of leaves of mulberry {Morns, sp.), appearing 
in enormous numbers, and giving the attacked trees a dirty, smutty 
appearance. 



252 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 

QinothercE, Oestl.: CEnotherabectiatia, Epilobmm ; Berkeley. 
Persicce-niger, Smith ; peach, plum ; Placer County. 
Sorbi, Kalt ; apple ; Placer County. 

SrPHOCORYNE. — Fceniculi, Pass.; sweet fennel {F. vulgare); Berkeley, 
Newcastle. 

Rhopalosiphum. — Diaiithi, Schrank ; English ivy ] Berkeley. 
Myzus. — Cerasi, Fabr.; Greengage; Berkeley. 
Phorodon. — Scrophularice, Thos.; Scrophularia. sp. ; Berkeley. 
Humuli, Schrank. Reported as present on hops and Prumis 
domesiicus, in this State. Unknown to me. 
Nectarophora. — 
A. Antennae as long or longer than body. 

B. Honey tubes reaching beyond tip of abdomen. 

C. Honey tubes black valerianise. 

CC. Honey tubes clouded yellow. 

D. Body more than twice as long as broad. 
E. Cauda more than twice as wide at base as at 

tip (conical) rosj?. 

EE. Cauda about as wide at base as at tip (filiform). Californica. 
DD. Body less than twice as long as broad. 

F. Cauda more than twice as wide at base as at 

tip (conical) rhanuii. 

FF. Cauda about as wide at base as at tip 

(filiform) baccharidis. 

BB. Honey tubes reaching to tip of abdomen. 

G. Honey tubes black sonchelhu 

GG. Honey tubes yellow lycopersici. 

AA. Antennre shorter than body. 

H. Honey tubes and cauda black citrifolii. 

HH. Honey tubes and cauda clouded yellow, . .jasmini. 
Citrijolii, Ashm.j orange ; Azusa. 

Jastnini, n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.73 mm.; width, .58 mm. Length of joints of 
antennas: HL, .23 mm ; IV., .23 mm.; V., .19 mm.; VI. ,.12 mm.; VH., 
.38 mm. General colour yellowish-green. Nectaries reaching beyond i\\) 
of abdomen, clouded yellow in colour, with outer ends darker. Tarsi 
dusky ; other joints of legs light yellow. Antennal joint HL light ycilow; 
others dusky. Rostrum reaching to third coxte. Eyes pink. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 25^ 



Small colonies on under sides of leaves of jasmin. No winged speci- 
mens found. Berkeley. 

Sonchella, Monell ; Sonc/ms, sp. (Sjw thistle) ; Berkeley, Palo Alto, 
Newcastle. 
Lycopersici, n. sp. — AjJterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 2.31 mm. widih, .58 mm, Lengtii of joints of 
antenna;: III., .65 mm.; IV., .54 mm.; V., 54 mm.; VI., .15 mm.; VII., 
.77 mm. General colour green. Nectaries yellow, (jccasionally dusky at 
outer end, reaching to tip of abdomen. Cauda prominent, green, out- 
lined with black." Tarsi black. Tips of tibiae black. Rest of tibite and 
femora dusky. Eyes red 

Alate viviparous female. 

Length of body, 2.50 mm.; width, .96 mm. Expanse of 
wings from tip to tip, 8.65 mm. Lengrh of joints of antennae ; 
III., .77 mm.; IV, .58 mm; V., .58 mm.; VI., .19 mm.; VII. 
.77 mm. General colour green. Nectaries yellow, occasionally dusky at 
outer end, reaching beyond tip of abdomen. Cauda prominent. Tarsi 
black. Tip of femur and tibiaj black, rest of joints of legs greenish, 
yellow. Antennae dusky. Wings hyaline, veins and stigma yellow-green. 
Third discoidal vein obsolete at base. 

A handsome insect, found on tomato, generally on the blossoms, 
which they destroy. Occasionally found on tender leaves. Individuals 
isolated or in very small colonies. Berkeley. 
Valeriania, n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 2.85 mm; width, 1.15 mm. Length of joints of 
antennte : III., .81 mm.; IV., .69 mm.; V., .58 mm.; VI., .19 mm ; VII., 
.88 mm. General colour of body yellow-brown. Nectaries black, reach- 
ing beyond tip of abdomen. Cauda prominent. Antennas dusky. Tarsi 
and outer ends of femur and tibia black. Rest of joints of legs yellowish. 
Rostrum reaching to third coxpe and tipped with black. Eyes yellowish. 

Alate viviparous female. 

Length of body, 2.92 mm.; width, 1.15 mm. Expanse of wings from 
tip to tip, 9.61 mm. Length of joints of antennas : III., i.oo mm.; IV., 
.77 mm.; V., .65 mm.; VI., .19 mm.; VII , .96 mm. Antennae and head, 
back of thorax, nectaries and outer ends of femora and tibiae black. 
Geniera4 colour of rest of body and legs yellow-brown. Wings greenish- 
yellow, veins darker. Third discoidal vein obsolete at base. Rostrum 
reaching to second coxae. Cauda prominent. Nectaries reaching beyond 
tip of abdomen. Eyes black. 



254 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Small colonies on growing tip of valerian (Valeriana officinalis), 
Berkeley. 
Rhamni, n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.73 mm.; width, .Si mm. Length of joints of 
antennae: III, .50 miri.; IV., .38 mm.; V.,.38 mm.; VI., .19 mm.; VII., 
.96 mm. General colour green. Nectaries greenish-yellow, reaching 
beyond tip of abdomen. Cauda prominent, conical. Legs and antennie 
light yellow. Rostrum reaching to middle cox;e. Eyes dark red. 

Small colonies on under sides of leaves of Rhammis Californica. 
No winged specimens found. Lander. 
Baccharidis, n. sp. — .\pterous viviparous female. 

Length of body, 1.38 mm.; width, .62 mm. Length of joints of 
antennte: III., .58 mm.; IV., .27 mm.; V., .27 mm.; VI., .11 mm.; VII., 
.38 mm. General colour of body green. Nectaries clouded yellow, 
reaching well beyond tip of abdomen. Antennne, tibiae and tarsi dusky. 
Cauda prominent, filiform. Rostrum dusky, reaching to second ccxte. 
Eyes dark red. 

Alate viviparous female. 

Length of body, 2. 11 mm.; width .77 mm. Expanse of wings from 
tip to tip, 6.92 mm. Length of joints of antennae : III., .62 mm.; IV., 
.31 mm.; V., .31 mm.; VI , .15 mm.; VII., .38 mm. General colour of 
body green. Nectaries, tip of femora, tibice and tarsi black. \Vings 
hyaline, stigma greenish, veins dusky. Cauda prominent. Nectaries 
reaching much beyond tip of abdomen. Eyes dark red. 

Isolated individuals and small colonies on Baccharis, sp. Berkeley. 

Rosce, Linn. Very common on rose in many parts of the State. 

Californica, n. sp. — Apterous viviparous female. 

Length of b ^dy, 1.92 mm.; width, .77 mm. Length of joints of 
antennje: 111 , .35 mm ; IV., .38 mm ; V., .50 mm.; VI., .19 mm.; VII., 
i.oS mm. General colour green. Joints of the antenna3 and the tarsi 
black. Rostrum reaching to second cox?e, tip black. Nectaries yellow- 
green, reaching beyond tip of abdomen. Eyes pale. 

Small colonies on tips of new growth of willow. No winged 
individuals present. Newcastle. 

AvencE, Fabr. Present in the State, but unknown to me, and not 
included in synoptical table. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 255 



FOUR NEW SPECIES OF CULEX. 

BY D. W. COQUILLETT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Culcx cantator. new species. — Female. Near sylvestris, but the 
seventh abdominal segment almost wholly yellow scaled, etc. Head 
l)lack, oral margin and base of antennas yellow, remainder of antennae and 
the proboscis black, palpi brown, its scales chiefly concolorous, no cluster 
of white hairs or scales at their apices ; narrow scales of middle of occiput 
golden yellow, the upright ones chiefly black, sides of occiput covered 
with depressed whitish scales and with a small cluster of black ones ; 
thorax reddish brown, scales of mesonotum golden yellow, becoming pale 
yellow in front of the scutellum and on the pleura ; abdomen black, its 
scales black, except a crossband of yellowish white ones at base of each 
segment, the bands considerably narrowed at the middle, similar scales 
scattered over the sixth and nearly the whole of the seventh segment and 
along apices of the two preceding segments ; legs yellow baeally, becom- 
ing brown on the tibic^ and tarsi, scales of femora chiefly pale yellow, of 
the tibiae mostly black, those on the hind side pale yellow, on the bases 
of the tarsal joints whitish, those on the second joint of the hind tarsi cov- 
ering about one-fourth the length of the joint, front tarsal claws toothed ; 
wings hyaline, lateral scales of the veins long and narrow, hind crossvein 
nearly its length from the small crossvein, petiole of first submarginal cell 
from one-half to four-fifths as long as the cell; length, 4 mm. One speci- 
men bred May 6, by Mr. LaRue Holmes. 

Habitat. — Summit, New Jersey. 

I have also examined 8 females and as many males, bred by Prof. J. 
B. Smith, from the salt-marshes of New Jersey. In the male the scales of 
the palpi are black, those of the under side and at bases of the last two 
joints yellowish white, no whitish band at base of the antepenult joint. 

Prof Smith informs me that the larva is readily separated from that 
of sylvestris. 

Ciilex auri/er, new species. — Female. Near triseriatus, but the 
scales on sides of mesonotum golden yellow instead of white, and the 
venter is without crossbands of black scales. Black, the halteres, coxte 
and femora largely yellow ; scales and hairs of palpi brown, scales of occi- 
put golden yellow, the upright ones brown ; scales in middle of mesono- 
tum brownish black, those on the sides and many in front of the scutellum 
golden yellow, those of pleura pale yellow ; scales of abdomen black, those 
on the venter pale yellow, sometimes encroaching a trifle on the dorsum, 



256 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 

hairs of the first segment and at the apices of the others pale yellow ; 
scales of femora and on posterior side of tibiae pale yellow, remaining 
scales of tibiae and those on the tarsi black, front tarsal claws toothed ; 
wings hyaline, lateral scales of the veins long and narrow, hind crossvein 
about its length from the small crossvein, petiole of first submarginal cell 
three-fifths the length of the cell; length, 4.5 mm. 

Three specimens, collected June 22 and 25, by Dr. H. G. Dyar. 

Habitat.— Centre Harbour, N. H. 

I have also examined two males and two females from Lahaway, N. 
J., bred by Dr. J. B. Smith, who writes that the larva is very different 
from that of iriseriatus. The adult male is similar to the female except 
that the hairs of the palpi are chiefly whitish, and the dorsum of the 
abdomen has several yellow scales on the apical half. 

Cidex nanus, new species. — Female. ^eSiX Jamaicensis, hwi much 
smaller, the light-coloured scales on the tibiae not collected into spots, 
mesonotum without round spots of yellowish scales, etc. Black, the base 
of the antenna; except the first joint, a band at middle of proboscis, the 
halteres and bases of femora yellow ; scales and hairs of ]ial|)i black, 
appressed scales of occiput golden yellow, the upri^^^ht ones black, scales 
of mesonotum golden yellow, those of the abdomen black and with a broad 
crossband of whitish ones on the hind margin of each segment, the last 
two segments nearly wholly whitish scaled ; scales of venter white, those 
of femora and tibiae mixed black and whitish, the latter forming a ring near 
three-fourths the length of each femur, scales of tarsi black, those at narrow 
bases of the joints whitish, tarsal claws simple ; wings hyaline, the scales 
mixed black and white, the black ones not collected into spots, lateral 
scales of the anterior veins narrowly lanceolate, those of the other veins 
almost linear ; length, 3 mm Four specimens collected at Key West, 
Florida, in August, 1901, by Mr. August Busck, and six by Mr. E. A. 
Schwarz, April i to 3, 1903. 

Type.— No. 6893, U. S. National Museum. 

Culex disco/or, new species.— Female. Differs fiom the above 
description oi nanus as follows : palpi with a cluster of while scales at the 
apices, upright scales of occiput yellow, whitish crossbands of abdomen 
prolonged forward in the middle, crossing or almost crossing the segments, 
scales on posterior side of front and middle tibia; and on anterior side of 
the hind ones almost wholly pale yellow, first tarsal joint bearing many 
yellow .scales, black and yellow scales of wings not evenly distributed, the 



THE CANTAUIAN EN 1 OMOLOGIST. 257 



black ones forming a distinct spot at forking of the second vein with the 
tliird, another on ui)per branch of fifth vein at the hind crossvein, and a 
third on the apical third of ihe last vein, remaining scales of this vein 
wholly yellow ; length 4 mm. A specimen from Delair, New Jersey, 
received from Prpf. J. B. Smith. 

Type. — No. 6894. U. S. National Museum. 



CORRECTIONS AND NOTES ON DR. DYAR'S LIST OF 

NOCTUIDS.— II. . 

BY A. RADCLIFFE GROTE, HILDESHEIM, GERMANY. 

Page 99. Apatela. As might have been expected from the incon- 
spicuous markings and uniform gray colour of the moths, the identifications 
of species of Acronyda, described by Walker and Guenee, have proved 
difficult and often contradictory. I am now inclintd to waive all objec- 
tions and accept Dr. Dyar's list as it stands. The only point I make is, 
the difficulty I have in believing that, having identified xylhii/ormis, 
Guen., already and originally for Riley, I should have redescribed 
specimens at a later period a.^paiiidico»ia; it seems to me yet possible that 
two forms are here "mixed up," although I know xyLniforniis to be 
inconstant. 

106. Fragilis having been transferred to Apatela^ dipliteroides 
becomes type of Microcoelia. Guene'e writes Diphtera, following 
Ochsenheimer. Hiibner originally wrote Diphthera, which is 
the correct Greek form. 

107. The generic term should read " Cyathissa" not " Cyathisa.^' 

112. This genus should be called Monodes, Guen., type jiucicolora 
(r. nucicolor) ; the type of Oligia being st?-igi/is. 

113. Crasia, Auriv., 1891, Stand, and Rebel, 295, is a synonym of 
Ilillia, (irote, 1S83. According to the European catalogue iris, 
Zeit., is an older name for the variable species. 

\2\. The genus is '^ Afomaphana," not " Moinophana." 

120. No. 1267. The name illepida should be preferred, since the 

type of divirsilineata had patclud wings and the species is 

irrecognizable from this description, and the identification of the 

type uncertain. 
124. As I have shown in these pages, the citation to Pseudanarta of 

Hy. Edwards is spurious. There is no such name 'in Proc, Cal. 

Acad. Sci., Pac. Coast, Le[)., Nos. i to 22. 



258 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



132. Blanda, cited, I believe, wrongly under Afetaiepsis, is repeated 
in the right place on page 178 under Psei-idoglaea. It should be 
struck out here. 

138. Prof. Smith is responsible for the confusion in the name of this 
common species. Subgothica of Stephens is = jaculifera, Guen. 
The original subgothica of Haworth is claimed as British by 
Tutt. In the meantime Slingerland says subgothica of Haworth is 
tricosa, Lintner. My original determination should not iiave been 
altered. But whether jaculifera, Guen., tricosa, Linlner, and 
heriiis, Grote, which I still claim as the correct scientific names for 
the three forms (leaving out Haworth's variously interpreted name 
entirely, for the sake of clearness and precision) are distinct 
species and not forms of one, seems not definitely known. 

140. The new name Paragrotis is unnecessary. Carnendes being 
preoccupied, the genus should be called F/eotiectopoda, with the 
type Lewisi, which has in any way priority. In the meantime I 
cannot but believe the genus must be represented in Europe, and 
that some Hiibnerian name will eventually be found for it. Others 
of our American names at expense of Agrotis, Lederer, may be 
found in the same case. 

149. It should be aratrix, not ''atratrix.'" 

150. From photographs and descriptions, I cannot believe that Prof. 
Smith's profundus and obscurus are distinct species from our 
eastern Anytus sculptus. 

154. At length the dispute as to comis is decided in my favour, and 
the type is therefore not "like typical olivacea, but so spread that 
the insect appears more pluniii, shorter winged and differently 
marked"! It now appears that after having disposed of my species 
in this manner. Prof Smith has redescribed the form or species five 
times, thus affording ample proof of the incorrectness of the 
original statement. Time, as Mr. Strecker used to say, at length 
sets all things even. 

157. Instead of Neuronia (preocc.) it would appear that Epineuronia, 
Rebel, should be used for No. 1883. 

167. The term Acerra with the type twrmalis should be used here 
as being more correct and also earlier published than Streichia, 
described as a notodont, and which I regard as a synonym of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 259 

Ferigrapha, Led. I am not agreed with tlie reference of muricina 
\.o p/iisii/orttiis, hut I have no material of the former to compare. 

173. For Asteroscopus, Boisd. Bracliionyclia, Hiibn., should be 
used ; see Staud. & Rebjl, p. 181, 1. c. 

177. Xanthia. The type is paleacea. According to Staud. & 
Rebel, 207, the species cited as '■• //avago," No. 2199, should be 
called hitea, Strom.; it belongs to Citria, Hiibn. From the photo- 
graph /Z(t/^/i^//<? bel )ngs to Orthosia ; this specific name is too often 
used. Ptcta is same as Orthosia enroa.* 

181. Morrison sent me apiata as '^G/cea, n. s.," Bull. B. S. N. S., 21 1, 
1875. It was not type oi sericea which I noted, Bull. Brklyn Ent. 
Soc, 37, 1880, but a s[)ec. of venustula so named. But Morrison's 
original description cannot well apply to a Glcea at all, as elsewhere 
shown by me. At any rate venustula is being called sericea. 

No. 2183. The authority should read Grote, not Grote & Robinson. 

2197. I regard a;/^///ti/rt ('^x/r/w^//^^ as a distinct species. 

Page 178. It is my fault that Trigonophora is here used. The genus 
should be Habryntis, Lederer, 1857. I have a specimen of the 
green H. scita, which shows an orange-brown tinting, and recalls 
thus more nearly the American species. 

179. For '' Cosmia, Ochs," read Xanthia, Hiibn. 

No. 2222. I prefer ferruginoides for the species and bicolorago for 
the variety, since this arrangement brings the forms into corre- 
spondence with the original descriptions. It ought to make no 
difference which stands first on Guenee's page. The important 
point is, that the name is sustained by the original description, 
which should always be looked up, and is the only basis and 
warrant for the application of the name. 

2354. ^r<://"<?ra is a dimorphic $ form o{ Spraguei ; a similar varia- 
tion is shown by brevis and atrites. I figure both sexes of 
Spraguei with yellow hind wings. I wonder how many times 
more I must repeat this. I have never seen a male arcifera with 
black secondaries. 

2358. I think inortua might stand as an immaculate form of 
Packardii; nobilis merely has the lines more distinct than the 
latter, better written. 



260 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

2617. For " pentia " read />enita. 

2650. For " lixivia " read lixiva. 

2696. I draw attention to my papers in Can. Ent , Vols. IX. and 
XI. I believe the three forms here cited to be distinct. I refer 
tortricina to Spragueia. Fruva fasciatella and obsoleta appear to 
differ in the structure of the front as well as in ornamentation. 
The Californian acerba is nt2iX fasciatella. I do not know who is 
responsible for the present jumble. If these forms are not kept 
separate they will inevitably be described over again. 



A NEW GECANTHUS FROM ILLINOIS. 

BY E. S. G. TITUS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

CEca?tthus Forbes i, n. sp. — ^. General colour pale yellow. Length 
to tip of wings 17 mm.; greatest width acri^ss closed wing-covers, 3.5 mm. 
Very slender, elongate in general shape, somewhat resembling Zabea 
hiptinctata (DeG.), but the outline of the closed wing-covers is more 
elongate. 

Face rather more elongate than in other species in the Gi^canthinas ; 
maxillary palpi 5-jointed,^r.f/' and .f^r£'«^ short, broadened at tips; third 
slender, elongate, as long as fourth and fifth united ; fourth slightly clavate, 
distinctly constricted at the middle ; fifth shorter than fourth, elliptical, 
elongate, and very dark ; all the joints pubescent ; labial palpi \y'\\\\ first 
joint short ; second yi longer ; third slightly longer than second, obliquely 
truncate at tip and very slender at base. Eyes reddish-brown. Antennee 
filiform, almost as long as the body ; all the joints except basal two 
alternately equal in length up to 20th joint (except also the fifth, it being 
slightly elongate), i2-i5th joints not elongated. First basal joint with a 
broad longitudinal black stripe on the inner side beneath, and a slight 
trace of a brownish horizontal line near the apex on the outside ; second 
joint with two longitudinal parallel black lines beneath. This joint and 
those following have each at their apex, beneath, a brown line. 

Thorax elongate, narrower anteriorly ; sides deflexed, with their lower 
margins slightly reflexed. Wing-covers flattened, very narrow ; wings ys 
longer than covers. Hind legs long and slender, their tib,i?e armed with 
six pairs of medium spines, all tipped with black. All the tarsi and claws 
black. Abdomen quite dark beneath. 

Male cerci reaching almost to tip of the wings. 

Habitat. — Urbana, 111., September; C. H. Hart. 



TLIE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 261 

This differs from typical (Ecanthus by not having maxillary palpi 
with last three joints elongate, subequal, and last joint excavated at tip 
beneath; from Zabea by not having fifth joint of maxillary palpi longer than 
third and fourth very short. It can easily be separated by the antennal 
characters noticed above from other species in the subfamily {CE. 
argetitinus and CE. calif ornicus not seen.) 

In all other species examined there were several joints between the 
second and twentieth of the antennt« that were much elongated. 

This species was first noticed by the author when classifying the 
species of (Ecanthince in the 111. State Laboratory of Nat. History, for the 
purpose of making some food studies in the group. It is described at the 
request of the Director of the Laboratory, Dr. S. H. Forbes, in whose 
honour I have named the species. 



NOTES ON CULEX KELLOGGII, THEOBALD. 

BY D. W COQUILLETT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

In the Canadian Entomologist for August, Mr. Theobald described 
a Ctilex Kelloggii as new; the description agrees well with the specimens 
on which I founded Ciilex tarsalis*, and undoubtedly refers to the same 
species. 

My specimens were from the same lot as the one which Dr. Williston 
described as Culex, n. sp.f, to which description Lieut. Giles applied the 
name of Culex Willistoni. n. sp.j; the latter name is therefore also a 
synonym of tarsalis. 

On page 25 of the Kansas University Science Bulletin, June, 1903, 
Mr. C. F. Adams described a Culex affinis, n. sp. ^not of Stephens, 1825), 
which is evidently founded on a somewhat abraded specimen of tarsalis. 
The synonymy at present is therefore as follows : 
Culex TARSALIS, Coquillett, 1896. 
Culex, n. sp., Williston, 1893. 
Culex Willistoni, Giles, 1900. 
Culex affinis, Adams, June, 1903. 
Culex Kelloggii, Theobald, August, 1903. 

*Can. Ent., Feb.. 1S96, p. 43. 

tNorth American Fauna, No. 7, May 31, 1S93, p. 253. 

+Handbook of Gnats or Mosquitoes, 1900, p. 281. 



262 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



EUTHRIPS AND HEDYCHRIDIUM IN NEW MEXICO. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL, EAST LAS VEGAS, N. MEX. 

THRIPIDyE. 

Euthrips trittci (Fitch.). — At Las Vegas, Hot Springs, N. M., on 
May 17, 1903, I found Ribcs cereiiin, Dougl, presenting numerous flower- 
galls of rather pumpkin-like form and greenish-white colour, about 9 mm. 
long and 8 broad. These consisted of the swollen and deformed flowers, 
the walls of the calyx being thickened and greatly inflated. I rathar 
expected to find in them dipterous larvae, but they contained nothing but 
thrips, which, I am sure, is responsible for the damage. After careful 
comparison with the published accounts, and especially that of Mr. W. E. 
Hinds, I am quite unable to separate the thrips from the well-known 
Euthrips tritici. 

ChRYSIDID/E. 

Hedychridium amabile, sp. n. — Length about 3 millim., shining green 
and crimson. Head yellowish-green, the vertex crimson, shading into 
yellow ; antennae black ; thorax green, the pro- and mesothorax mostly 
crimson dorsally, the crimson shading into golden at the sides ; scutellum 
suffused with the same colours ; sides of post-scutellum, and hind corners 
and narrow hind border of proihorax, more or less brilliant blue ; abdomen 
yellowish-green shot with crimson. Ocelli in a not far from equilateral 
triangle ; prothorax and mesothorax, seen from above, about equal in 
length ; prothorax with large, close subconfluent punctures ; mesothorax 
with well-separated punctures of various sizes ; triangular area at base of 
metathorax with no median ridge, the area is minutely transversely ridged, 
except at the lateral corners, where the ridges run obliquely ; sides of 
metathorax irregularly cancellate ; abdomen very closely punctured, third 
segment without any fovea or peculiarity of sculpture ; legs dark, basal 
half of tarsi light reddish. AVhen the abdomen is viewed laterally, the 
apex of the second segment is level with the base of the third. 

Plab. — Mesilla Park, N. M., on campus of Agricultural College, May 
8, 1900. ( Cockerell ). A lovely little species, known from others by its 
metathoracic sculpture. 

1 will take this opportunity to record Chrysis inflata, Aaron (det. 
du Buysson), from the Wiegand Ranch, near Las Vegas, N. M., March r. 
Wiih this the recorded New Mexico Chrysididse now number 19 species. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 263 

TWO NEW PTINID.4^.. 

BY C. SCHAEFFER, MUSEUM OF THE BROOKLYN INST. OF ARTS AND 

SCIENCES. 

A number of new species, either entirely new or known only from 
Mexico or Central America, have been brought back by me from the 
lower Rio Grande. The description of these new species, together with a 
list of the species known to occur in that region, will be published by me 
in the Bulletin of the Museum of the Brooklyn Inst, of Arts and Sciences. 
The two following species are here described in advance, in order that 
they may be included in the revision of the Ptinidae on which Prof Fall 
is at work. 

The types are in the collection of the Museum of the Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts in Sciences. 

Trichodesfna Texana, n. sp. — Cylindrical oblong, form of sordida, 
black, twice as long as wide, with white and fulvous recumbent pubescence, 
intermixed with longer erect hairs. Antennae brown, last three joints 
longer than the preceding. Head black, densely granulated, pubescence 
white, intermixed with fulvous. Thorax broader than long, sides arcuate 
in front, sinuately narrowing to the hind angles, disc gibbous, hardly 
sulcate at the gibbosity, surface granulate and densely clothed with white 
and fulvous short recumbent hairs, intermixed with longer erect hairs, 
gibbosity with four black spots, two at the summit and two below these, 
no brush-like tufts. Elytra as broad as the thorax at middle, regularly 
striate, with coarse, deep, closely-placed punctures, very densely clothed 
with white recumbent pubescence, reaching nearly to the apex, terminated 
by a few black spots ; apex sparsely clothed with fulvous pubescence. 
Body beneath black, shining, with dense gray pubescence.- 

Length, 4-5 mm. 

Esperanza Ranch, near Brownsville, Tex. 

This species seems to be very near T. albina, Gorh.*, but, judging 
from the description and figure, is distinct from it. All the specimens I 
have laken are quite constant, except in the distinctness of the hind angles. 
These are in some specimens distinct, and the sinuation before them is 
very pronounced, in others the angles can be called rounded, in these the 
sinuation is much less pronounced. 



"Biol. Central. Americana, Vol. III., part 2, p. 199. 



264 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

T?-ichodesina pulchella, n. sp. — Oblong, slightly more robust than 
gibbosa, black, with very short brown recumbent pubescence, intermixed 
with longer erect hairs, sides of thorax, base of elytra, a narrow strongly 
dentate median band and apex with a denser vvhite pubescence. Antennae 
brownish, last three joints as long as the preceding. Head black, 
with not densely-placed granules, clothed with white pubescence, denser 
at apex. Thorax broader than long, sides arcuate in front, slightly to the 
hind angles, which are almost rounded, disc gibbous behind, slightly 
sulcate from the apical margin to the summit of gibbosity, surface 
distinctly granulate, clothed with dense, very short hairs, white at sides 
and apex, light brown at middle, without brush-like tufts at gibbosity. 
Elytra as wide as the thorax at middle, surface with irregular, closely- 
placed, coarse, deep punctures, clothed with very fine, short recumbent 
brownish hairs, a band at base, a narrow, sharply dentate median fascia 
and apex of dense white pubescence. Between the median fascia and the 
white apical space near the suture is a white longitudinal streak on each 
elytron, reaching to the apical space and terminated by a black spot. At 
the apex of the white basal band is also a black spot on each side. Body 
beneath black, shining, densely pubescent, with short, fine gray hairs. 

Length, 5.5-7 mm. 

Esperanza Ranch, near Brownsville, Tex. 

A number of this beautiful species I obtained by beating ebony, but 
it occurred on different other trees also, but rarely. A few specimens of 
a species which I take to be T. sordida, Horn, were taken at the same 
place. 

CULEX CONSOBRINUS : A REJOINDER. 

BY J. M. ALDRICH, MOSCOW, IDAHO. 

In the August number of this journal, Mr. Coquillett has given his 
reasons for not accepting Culex inortiatus as the proper name for the 
species which he has called C. cofisobrinus. He bases his claim for the 
name consobrinus on a supposed error of Desvoidy's in the indentifica- 
tion oi pipiens, relying on the length mentioned, 3 lines, as proof that 
Desvoidy's species could not have been the real pipiens. My own article 
on the subject, in the July number, had intimated that Desvoidy had 
erred in the measurement given. Since then I find that Theobald (Mon. 
Culicida\ II.; 135) gives 6 mm. as the maximum length of pipietis ; this, 
of course, is equivalent to Desvoidy's 3 lines. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 265 



The locality given by Desvoidy, " Pennsylvania," is not of great 
significance, as it was not uncommon for the older entomologists to assign 
this locality to material received from Philadelphia, even if not collected 
near there. It is Osten Sacken, I think, who in one place instances a 
species published with the locality Philadelphia, which has not since been 
taken except in Texas. 

Considering the facts brought out in this discussion, it is clear that 
nobody knows, or can know, what consobrifius is. Whether a sufficient 
probability has been adduced to justify the use of the name, is a question 
upon which entomologists may differ ; as before, I think the name should 
not be used. A much larger problem is involved here than the name of a 
single species. The use of old names which are of more or less doubtful 
application has been overdone in the Diptera in recent years, in my 
opinion. The idea that we must " do something " with all the old names 
seems to me unscientific. Rather we should try to follow the rule of not 
using a name unless we know that it stands for something. The difficulty 
of harmonizing the practice of entomologists arises from the fact that there 
is no definite criterion in most cases, and the decision rests on the '•' ento- 
mological sense " of the person making it ; what is convincing to one will 
not be to another. 

I have not the slightest interest in saving the name ifiornalus from 
synonymy, except from the fact that it is the only name which is 
positively known to apply to the species under consideration. I doubt 
if the species could be recognized from the description ; but in this 
case we have the type in the U. S. National Museum, examined by Mr. 
Coquillett and found to be this species. 

I have in my previous article explained why impatiens z.nd phiguis 
cannot be used for this species. Mr. Coquillett seems to argue that 
either name is available unless somebody can disprove it ; my position is 
that affirmative proof is necessary. 

Miss Alice L. Embleton, of Newnnam College, Cambridge, Eng- 
land, has been awarded the Royal Society's Mackinnon Studentship in 
Biology, the object of which is to encourage scientific research in any 
department in this great field of natural science. She has decided 
to confine her investigations to the parasites of destructive insects, 
in the hope that she may be rewarded with discoveries of great 
economic importance by finding natural enemies of greater efficiency 
than any artificial insecticides. It is much to be hoped that she 
may prove a worthy successor of the late Miss Eleanor Ormerod. 



266 THE CANA.DIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

BOOK NOTICE. 
A Catalogue of the Coccid.^ of the World. — By Mrs. Maria E. 
Fernald, A.M., Amherst, Mass. Special Bulletin (No. 88) of the 
Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
1903. One Vol., 8vo., pp. 360. 

The authoress gives us in this volume a most valuable and complete 
catalogue of the Coccidas of the World, the results of nearly twenty-five 
years of patient and careful labour. No one who has not attempted work 
of this kind can form any idea of the difficulties of the task, the immense 
number of publications to be gone over, the care and accuracy that are 
required and the systematic methods that must be adopted, and conse- 
quently few estimate as highly as they should the gratitude that is due 
to one who spends years of toil in making the way easy for all future 
students in the particular department of natural science that is 
taken up. The classification of the Coccidae has long been in a 
somewhat chaotic condition ; the present work will help very 
materially in reducing the confusion and bringing out order and 
system instead. Mrs. Fernald does not expect entire agree- 
ment with her conclusions, but we venture to think that few will 
endeavour to criticise her work, inasmuch as it has been done with such 
care and freedom from prejudice. In every case where changes in no- 
menclature are made the history 'of the genus or species is given by means 
of the full bibliographical references, and the evidence seems complete. 
No less than 15 14 species are listed, and of each one bibliographical 
references are given, with the geographical distribution and food-plants 
when known. The volume is well and clearly printed, and its value is 
much enhanced by the very full index to species as well as genera with 
which it closes. 

A Coleopterous Conundrum. — There has been so great a desire to 
obtain specimens of the remarkable beetle described by ^Nlrs. Slosson in the 
May number of this magazine, that she is compelled to say that she has 
only a few examples left and is unable to give away any more. 

Dr. Dyar, in his zeal for the laws of priority, contends that the 
name jocularly given to the insect by Mrs. Slosson {Igtiottis miigmaticus) 
should be taken as founding a new genus and a ne^v species. This 
seems absurd, when there was no attempt made to give a scientific 
description of the creature, and the authoress says expressly that she 
merely applied the name " sometime^, in chat over her discovery !" 

Mailed September 4th, 1903. 



%l\t €attat{tcii| Jntonmla^bt. 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, OCTOBER, 1903. No. 10 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 

The fortieth annual meetuig of the Society was held at Ottawa on 
the 3rd and 4th of September. On the former day a meeting of the 
Council for the transaction of business was held in the morning ; in the 
afternoon reports were read from the various Branches, Sections and 
Officers of the Society, as well as several papers of an interesting character. 
In the evening a public meeting was held in the Assembly Hall of the 
Normal School, at whicli the President, Professor Lochhead, read his 
annual address. He was followed by Dr. L. O. Howard, of Washington, 
United States Entomologist, who gave a very clear and most interesting 
account of the transmission of yellow fever by mosquitoes. The second 
day was occupied with the reading and discussion of papers, the election 
of officers and the examination of a number of specimens brought by the 
members. A full account of the proceedings will be given in the Annual 
Report of the Society to the Legislature of Ontario. 

The following were elected officers for the ensuing year : 

Preside7it — Professor William Lochhead, B. A., M. S., Ontario 
Agricultural College, Guelph. 

Vice-President — T. D. Evans, C. E., Trenton. 

Secretary — VV. E. Saunde.rs, London. 

Treasurer — J. A. Balkwill, London. 

Directors: Division No. i — C. H. Young, Hurdman's Bridge. 
Division No. 2 — C. E. Grant, Orillia. 
Division No. 3 — J. B. Williams, Toronto. 
Division No. 4 — G. E. Fisher, Freeman. 
Division No. 5 — R. W. Rennie, London. 

Directors Ex-officio (ex-Presidents of the Society) — Professor William 
Saunders, LL.D., F.L.S., F.R.S.C, Director of the Experimental Farms, 
Ottawa; Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S.C, London; James 
Fletcher, LL.D., F.L.S., F.R.S.C, Entomologist and Botanist of the 



268 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Experimental Farms, Ottawa; W. H. Harrington, F.R.S.C, Ottawa; 
John Dearness, B.A., Vice-Principal Normal School, London ; Henry H. 
Lyman, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.E.S., Montreal: Rev. T. W. Fyles, D.C.L., 
F.L.S., South Quebec. 

Librarian and Curator — J. Alston Moffat, London. 

Auditors — W. H. Hamilton and S. B. McCready, London. 

Editor of the Canadian Entomologist — Rev. Dr. Bethune, London. 

Editing Committee — Dr. J. Fletcher, Ottawa ; H. H. Lyman, 
Montreal ; J. D. Evans, Trenton ; W. H. Harrington, Ottawa ; Professor 
Lochhead, Guelph. 

Delegate to the Royal Society — Rev. Dr. Bethune, London. 

Delegates to the Western Fair — J. A. Balkwill and W. E. Saunders, 
London. 

Finance Committee— Dr. Bethune, J. Dearness and the Treasurer. 

Committee on Field Days — The Chairmen of the Sections and Dr. 
Woolverton, Messrs. Balkwill, Bowman, Law, Moffat, Rennie and 
Saunders, London. 

Library and Rooms Committee — Messrs. Balkwill, Bethune, Bow- 
man, Dearness, Moffat and Saunders, London. 



A NEW BOM BUS FROM COSTA RICA. 

BY J. C. CRAWFORD, JR., WEST POINT, NEBR., AND MYRON H. SWENK, 

LINCOLN, NEBR. 

Bombus leucomelas, n. sp. — ^. Black, with deep black pubescence, 
except that on anterior half of mesothorax, which is grayish, tipped with 
black, and on abdominal segments 3-6, which is pure white ; clypeus 
arched, weakly and very sparsely punctured ; labrum basally with two 
widely separated tubercles ; joint i of flagellum equal to 2 and 3 together; 
wings deeply infuscated, iridescent ; basal joint of hind tarsi not pointed 
at apex ; pubescence of legs black. Length 21-22 mm. 

^'. Similar to ? , but much smaller, the third abdominal segment with 
black pubescence, the clypeus more strongly punctured. Length, 10-14 
ram. ^ . Unknown. 

One 5, Cartago, June, 1903; one $, Volcano Irazu, February 22, 
1902 ; four 5$, Monte Redonda, March 3, 1902. 

Near to B.funebris, Sm., from which it differs in its larger size, the 
pubescence of the mesothorax not snow-white on the disc, and the third 
abdominal segment not black. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 269 



NOTES ON THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OFISODONTIA, 

PATTON, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW 

SPECIES AND VARIETY. 

BY H. T. FERNALD, PH. T>., AMHERST, MASS. 

The North American species of Isodontia may be distinguished by 
means of the following table : 

1. Mandible with two teeth (anterior tooth sometimes partly divided) . . 2 
Mandible with three teeth 7 

2. Petiole black 3 

Petiole yellow exornata, n. sp 

3. Third segment of antenna longer than seventh or eighth 4 

Third segment of antenna shorter than seventh or eighth 5 

4. Median segment above with long white 

hairs macrocephala^ var. cinerea, n. var 

Median segment above without long white hairs . . .macrocephala, Fox 

5. Body hairs gray 6 

Body hairs black azteca, Sauss., var 

6. Front part of wings fuscous azteca, Sauss 

Wings entirely fuscous azteca, Sauss., var 

7. Legs more or less yellowish 8 

Legs black apicalis, Sm 

8. Abdomen black tibialis, Lep 

Abdomen more or less yellowish elegans, Sm 

I atn hardly prepared at present to accept Isodontia elegans^ Smith. 
as a variety of /. apica/is, Smith. The differences between the two seem 
to be very constant, and their distribution appears to be somewhat differ- 
ent, elegans being more a southern and western form, v^\\\\q apical is occurs 
chiefly in the central, eastern and northern States. 

Pation (Proc. Ent. Soc, Wash., III., p. 46) regards fuacrocephala, 
Fox, as a synonym of azteca, Sauss. With this I am unable to agree, all 
the specimens of a large series of both of these species before tne being 
distinguishable almost at a glance. The type specimen of macrocephala 
has the anterior tooth of the mandible v/ith a groove dividing it into two 
portions, which leads me to believe that in this insect the mandible was 
originally three-toothed, but that the anterior two have partially fused. 
All my specimens of azteca, on the other hand, indicate an originally two- 
toothed mandible, and though the anterior tooth is blunt in many cases, it 



270 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 



shows no trace of any longitudinal groove, such as is present in the type 
of macrocephala. However, the length of the third segment of the 
antenna as compared with that of the seventh or eighth in the two species 
should be sufficient to show that the two are not identical in any case. 

Isodotitia apicalis. Smith, has sometimes been considered as a 
synonym of Sphex philade/phica, Lep. . but I regard this as based on 
insufficient evidence. Lepeletier's description gives no characters which 
would place it in the more recent genus Isodofitia, and in two points 
differs from what has been commonly considered that species. Lepeletier 
says (Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Hymenopteres, III., p. 340) : 
"Thorax niger, nigro villosus," and " tarsorum quatuor anticorum articulo 
extremeo ferrugineo." None of the many specimens of what has been 
considered this insect which I have examined agree in these points with 
this description. An attempt to locate the type in order to settle the 
matter has proved a failure. The insect was in the Serville collection, and 
this is not at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris, and Monsieur R. 
du Buysson writes me : " lis out du etre vendus et separes dans beaucoup 
d'autres collections. Actuellement Ton ignore oii ils se trouvent." I may 
add that Dr. F. Fr. Kohl, of Vienna, who has given much study to this 
group, writes me : " Wahrscheinlich ist Sph. philadelphicus Lepeletiers 
gar keine Isodontia." 

Under these conditions it seems best to apply Smith's name — 
apicalis — to this insect, at least until Lepeletier's type shall be found. 

hodo7itia exornata, n sp. 

Head : clypeus somewhat arched laterally, with a feint median carina 
most pronounced posteriorly, sometimes not perceptible ; anterior edge 
slightly prolonged laterally, with a slight notch at the middle; surface 
covered sparsely with yellow hairs. Clypeus and frons to level of inser- 
tion of antenuce golden pubescent. Mandibles two-toothed, black at base 
and tip 3 elsewhere ferruginous. Eyes somewhat nearer at the clypeus 
than at the vertex. Antennse, first six to eight segments ferruginous, 
terminal segments black ; scape bearing a few yellowish hairs ; third 
segment longest. Head with scattered punctures and sparsely covered 
with long yellowish hairs. A narrow, yellow pubescent band just behind 
the eye. 

Thorax : collar faintly punctured, clothed with scattered yellow 
hairs ; its dorsal edge and the posterior edge of the prothoracic lobe 
golden pubescent. Mesonotum black with yellow hairs, rather coarsely 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 271 

punctured and with a short median, unpunctured groove extending about 
one-third its length from its anterior edge. A small, somewhat triangular 
spot of golden pubescence is situated on the pleuron just posterior to the 
prothoracic lobe, and sometimes a smaller one occurs between this and 
the wing attachment. Tegulas smooth, pale yellow. Mesopleura and 
sternum covered sparingly with long yellow hairs. Scutellum black, 
punctured, the punctures rather more scattered than on the mesonotum ; 
on each side just mesad to the attachment of the hind wings is a golden 
pubescent spot. Postscutellum covered by golden pubescence. Median 
segment coarsely punctured, on each side a golden pubescent band passes 
from the front edge just lateral to the edge of the pubescence on the post- 
scutellum backward below the stigma to the posterior coxa, Just above 
the base of the petiole is a golden pubescent spot. 

Abdomen : petiole slightly curved, ferruginous yellow, somewhat 
darker at the base beneath, covered with yellowish hairs; its posterior 
portion yellowish pubescent. Base of abdomen above, yellowish, remain- 
der black, the hinder edges of the segments, however, dull yellowish ; 
surface finely pale pubescent. A few hairs scattered over the more 
posterior segments. Beneath, minutely punctured, with scattered hairs in 
the female, in the male with a cross row of black hairs on each of the last 
three or four segments. Legs : coxse, trochanters and proximal part of 
femora black, hairy, remainder ferruginous. .Sometimes a yellowish 
pubescence is present on the coxa^ and trochanters. Tips of claws nearly 
black. Spines dark ferruginous. Posterior tibia^ yellow pubescent 
behind. Wings smoky, with a slight violet reflection. 

Length, 16-20 mm. Wing expanse, about 30 mm. 

Described from five male and two female specimens from Indian 
River and Biscayne Bay, Fla., and from N. C. and Ga. Types have been 
deposited- in the collections of the National Museum at Washington, 
American Entomological Society at Philadelphia, Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College, Amherst, Mass., and of Mr. W. H. Ashmead, Washington, 
D. C. 

Isodoiitia macrocephala, var. cinerea, n. var. 

This variety differs from the typical form only in the fact that the 
thoracic hairs are longer and whiter, giving the insect a noticeably gray 
appearance very different from that of the typical form, which is glossy 
black, the few gray hairs not modifying this, and, in fact, being generally 
overlooked unless the body is closely examined. 



272 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

EUCOREFHRA, A GENUS OF CULICID.^. 

BY D. W. COQUILLETT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Eucoret/ii\T, Undeiwood.* 

Intermediate between Corethrella and Sayomyia, having the antennse 
14-jointed, as in the former, but the spaces between the verticels almost 
bare, as in the latter; differing from each in the much shorter second joint 
of the antenn:i3, which is only slightly longer than wide. Antennas of male 
rather robust, submoniliform on the basal half, the first six joints only 
slightly longer than wide, the remaining joints increasing in length and 
decreasing in diameter toward the apex, the antepenult about half as 
long as the penult, verticels composed of numerous very long bristly hairs 
except on the last joint ; antennie of female nearly cylindrical, the joints 
gradually increasing in length to the apex, scarcely thickened at the inser- 
tion of the verticels, which consist of a few rather short bristly hairs ; 
proboscis about one and one-half times as long as height of head, palpi 
inserted near three-fourths of its length, 4-jointed ; first tarsal joint much 
longer than the second ; venation as in Culex. Type, the following 
species : 

Eucorethra Ujiderwoodi, Underwood. 

Black, the bases of antenn?e, of wings, stems of halteres, coxae, 
femora except their broad apices, and the tibiae, yellow; thorax gray 
pruinose and marked with three velvet black vittje, the median one 
extending from the front end to slightly beyond the middle, and divided 
lengthwise by a gray line, the lateral ones reaching from the hind end of 
the mesonotum nearly to the suture ; abdomen somewhat polished, its 
hairs yellow ; hairs of legs chiefly black, those at apices of femora and 
tibiae golden yellow, tarsal claws of female with a single tooth near the 
base, those of tiie male with an additional tooth near the middle ; wings 
hyaline, a large brown cloud on veins at apices of first and second basal 
cells, at base of second vein, of first submarginal and second posterior 
cell, hairs of veins black, small and hind crossveins interstitial, petiole of 
first submarginal cell three-fourths as long as that cell, petiole of second 
l)osterior cell noticeably longer than the cell; length, 8 mm. A specimen 
of each sex bred at Kaslo, British Columbia, June 23 and July 8, by Dr. 
H. G. Dyar. Type, No. 6925, U. S. National Museum. 

I have also studied a feinale specimen bred March i, by Prof. W. L. 
Underwood, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, after whom the 
species is named, in recognition of his first discovery of this interesting 
form. Prof. Underwood's specimens were obtained in the woods of 
Maine. 

*Science, August 7th, 1903, patje 182. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 273 



THE LIFE HISTORY OF MAMESTRA LAUDABILIS, GUENEE. 

BY HARRISON G. DYAR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The eggs of this species were received from the Rev. R. W. Ander- 
son, of Wando, North Carohna. They hatched May 22, and the larvae 
were matured by the middle of July. The larvte are coloured to resemble 
a piece of wood or bark, and remain all day motionless, hidden on the 
ground. They are remarkably sluggish, can be handled freely for a con- 
siderable time without making the slightest motion. They are general 
feeders. 

Egg. — -Shape of two-thirds of a sphere, somewhat flattened. About 
24 sharp, vertical ribs, diminishing in number by alternation towards 
vertex, waved, joined in a ring around the micropyle ; cross striae distinct, 
about like the ribs, forming a large, coarse reticulum. Whitish, with a 
broad, irregular dark-red ring and vertical spot, partly confluent. 
Diameter .6 mm. 

Stage I. — Head slightly bilobed, shining brownish black, mouth 
broadly pale luteous, jaws red-brown; width about .3 mm. Body robust, 
short and stout, normal, joints 5 to 7 slightly arched, feet of 7 and 8 
shorter than the others, but distinct. Pale whitish, tubercles small, black, 
but strongly raised. Sette long, pale and distinct. Cervical shield black, 
angularly shaped, containing four raised pale tubercles. Later the 
cervical shield and tubercles are black except a lateral pale patch ; anal 
plate defined by black ; leg shields faintly dusky. Still later there appear 
narrow dorsal and subdorsal white lines. 

Stage II. — Head rounded, apex in joint 2, shining brownish black, 
mouth paler; width about .5 mm. Body robust, equal, normal, joint 12 
not enlarged ; shields not differentiated. Olivaceous gray, paler in 
curved bands in the incisures ; a faint, pale, subdorsal line edged below 
with blackish ; stigmatal band broad, whitish. Tubercles black, 
moderate ; setse stiff, long, dark, curved backwards. Later brownish- 
gray, the dorsum checkered with blackish X-marks intersegmentally. 

Stage III. — Head pale brown on face, vertex broadly sooty black 
with a bar running down a little way on each lobe before ; width about .7 
mm. Body robust, joint 12 not enlarged. Wood-brown, dorsal line 
white, narrow, subobsolete, dorsal space tessellated with intersegmental 



274 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

X-maiks of grayish-black, more solidly filled on thorax. Subdorsal line 
white, straight, distinct, filled in below with black to a waved, narrow, 
white, lateral line. Subventer gray shaded. Tubercles black, not raised ; 
setcC coarse, pale. 

Stage IV. — Head brown, obscurely mottled, a broad, curved, black 
band on face of lobe and spot on eye ; width i mm. Body flattened, 
sluggish in habit, setae stiff, curving alternately forwards and backwards ; 
no shields ; joint i 2 not enlarged. Pale wood-brown, the dorsal smoky 
lattice-work obscurely cut by faint, pale, broken dorsal line. Subdorsal 
line concolorous with the ground, narrowly edged with blackish above. 
Sides black shaded ; stigmatal region broadly pale ; subventer and venter 
black shaded. Tubercles small, black. Skin granular spinulose. 

Stage V. — Head pale brown, the clypeus and vertex darker ; 
reticulations and curved band dull black; width 1.8 mm. Body flattened, 
squarish, densely papillose granular; setce short, thick, broadly clavate ; 
joints 12 and 13 dorsally folded, elevated. Light brown, brokenly 
reticulated in black, dorsal diamond - shaped lattice dark brown ; 
subdorsal line straight, pale, of the ground colour, edged with black, 
forming triangular, segmentary velvety patches on a gray-black ground 
laterally. Substigmatal band of ground colour, broad, sharply edged, 
undulate ; subventer blackish shaded. Feet pale. Tubercles small, 
black. 

Stage VI. — Head slightly bilobed, rounded, apex in joint 2; wood- 
brown, mottled with black and reticulate, with curved vertical bands ; 
width 2.3 mm. Body flattened, thorax depressed, subventral region 
prominent, joint 12 with distinct folds at tubercle ii. and 13 at tubercle 
i., rigid, resembling a broken piece of wood. Ground colour yellowish 
wood-brown, black dotted reticulate, papillose granular. Dorsal pale line 
edged by small black segmental lines, being the remains of the obsolete 
dorsal lattice marking. Joint 12 posteriorly shaded with black, behind 
the folded hump of tubercle ii. Subdorsal line pale, narrow, narrowly 
edged with black above, below with trigonate black lateral patches and 
traces of a lateral line; substigmatal band broad, whitish, waved, dotted with 
blackish. Subventer and venter gray - black, pulverulently shaded. 
Thoracic feet black-ringed, abdominal ones gray dotted. Tubercles 
small, black, iv. above the centre of the spiracle. Setre short, stout, 
broadly swollen at ti]), compressed, dentate, somewhat like scales, pale 
brown. Spiracles black. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 275 

LEPIDOPTERA IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Successful collections of Lepidoptera were made in British Columbia 
this season at Kaslo by myself, with the assistance of Mr. Caudell and 
Mr. Currie, and under the advice of Mr. J. W. Cockle. Over 20,300 
specimens rewarded our efforts. Of these a large part are Noctuidae, 
collected at sugar, showing some very fine series. Nearly 200 larvai were 
observed. The material will be worked up at the U. S. National Museum. 
The National collection has been further enriched by the donation of 548 
specimens from Messrs. Taylor, Bryant, Hanham, Bush and Harvey, whom 
I had the pleasure of meeting at the close of the collecting season. 

Harrison G. Dyar, Washington, D. C. 



THE GENUS PLATYLABUS, WESMAEL, WITH DESCRIP- 
TIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES. 

BY J. CHESTER BRADLEY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The table which I here present of the genus Platylabtis must be 
considered merely as a preliminary or working table of the species in the 
collection of the American Entomological Society, or in my own cabinet. 
The other species, known to me only by description, I have included for 
the sake of convenience, and have placed a star before their names. I 
cannot vouch for the correctness of these. 

P. thoracicus, Cresson, including Phygadeuon iinpressus of 
Provancher, which Cresson placed as a synonym of the former, var. 
erythropygtis, Prov., of thoracicus, and P. quadricarinatus., Provancher, I 
have omitted, as the metathoracic spiracles are nearly or quite circular, 
placing them in the tribe P/ueogetiiiii, and probably in either the genus 
Apceleticus, Wesmael, or Herpestomus, Wesmael. As I have not seen 
specimens of Apceleticus, I cannot be sure that they belong to it, but from 
the descriptions it would seem probable, and it is there that I would 
provisionally transfer them. 

Mr. G. C Davis, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1894, p. 185, from 
examination of Provancher's types, finds the following synonymy : 

crassicornis = Phygadeuon. 
mitralis = Phygadeuon. 
aciculatus = Phygadeuon. 
cincticornis ^ Cryptus. 



276 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



The genus is placed by Mr. Ashmead in the Ichneumonini, and has 
the basal third of the petiole flattened, wider than thick dorso-ventrally, 
and the scutelluni margined to beyond the middle. 



a 



n 



\ 



a. 



^p::? 



)■ — I 

3 



q 



u 






n 







/ 




Fig. 13. 








Explanation of Fig. 


13- 


I. 


Areola on metathorax of F. 


dams. 


2. 


:. u ii a 


p. 


mctaUicus. 


3- 


(t u (i <i 


p. 


censors. 


4. 


<( (1 <; (( 


p. 


Canadensis. 


5- 


ii (( u '; 


p. 


montanus. 


6. 


i( (I It (( 


p. 


Luzernensis. 


7- 


n 1. u u 


p. 


signatus. 


8. 


u u 11 1' 


p. 


ornatus. 


9- 


K i; It (< 


p. 


lineolattcs. 


lO. 


tt tt t< 't 


p. 


Californicus 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 277 



1. Black, or rufous, or both 3. 

Metallic blue ; species large; antennte of female flattened before 
the apex ; joints of flattened portion, broader than long ; 
metathoracic spines very prominent. 

2. Areolet on metathorax subhexagonal (fig. 13,1); apical line not angled; 

scutellum of ? white ; antenntB of ^ without white 

annulus ci.arus, Cresson. 

Areolet on metathorax shaped as in fig. 2 ; scutellum of ^ black ; 
antennae of (^ with white annulus metallicus, n. sp. 

3. Thorax black 4. 

Thorax more or less rufous i y. 

4. Abdomen more or less rufous. 

Abdomen entirely black, antennas with pale annulus ; spot on 
scutellum white 5. 

5. Metathorax with areola polished, shining in centre ; legs red, apex 

femora, tibise and tarsi black. Length 5 mm. Prov. Quebec, 

Canada *rubricapensis, Provancher. 

Metathorax with median and two lateral apical areas transversely 
reticulate ; superior area glabrous ; tergum of petiole polished ; 
postpetiole shagreened ; legs clear, ferruginous, with apex of hind 
tibiffi and tarsi black. Length 9mm. Idaho. . . .*incabus, Davis. 

6. Second segment only of abdomen red 7. 

More than second segment of abdomen red 8. 

7. Wings hyaline; anterior orbits enlarged below ; anfennce with white 

annulus, third joint very short and red ; metathorax finely 
punctured^ pubescent, carinse not prominent ; legs black, the four 
anterior red in front ; posterior femora red at base, and a more or 
less distinct red ring at base of posterior tibiae ; petiole polished, 
long ; abdomen with white spot at its extremity ; second and base 
of third segment stained red. Length 
7 mm *scuT£LLATUS, Provaucher. 

8. Antennae with pale annulus 12. 

Antennae without pale annulus ; scutellum black 9. 

9. Petiole aciculated 10. 

Petiole polished ; abdomen entirely rufous (in one specimen darker) ; 

face white, with median black band ; metathoracic spines and 
carinae but slightly marked ; discocubital nervure with a more or 
less distinct stump of a vein. A consors, Cresson. 



278 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

lo. Antennte black, slightly thickened beyond the middle ; abdomen 
polished; 2 dorsal carinse of petiole not reaching apex ; carinse on 
metathorax indistinct, angles subspinose ; legs rufous ; coxae and 
trochanters black ; abdomen red. Length 
9 mm *PACiFicus, Harrington. 

Antennse red, in cJ black at apex, mtich thickened at apex ; 
metathorax with distinct carinse ; face finely punctate ; petiole large 
at apex. Length 5 mm *ruficornis, Provancher. 

12. Petiole broad at apex; scutellum entirely white ; generally no v/hite 
between eyes and mandiblec, but a white line between antennae and 
eyes, between pro- and mesothorax, and between pleura and 
dorsum of mesothorax 14. 

Petiole slender, narrow at apex, not very rough, black ; apex red ; 
following 3 joints abdomen red ; no white on thorax or face, except 
between the eyes and the mandibles and the apex of scutellum; 
flagellum rufous at base. Length of antennae 9 mm., of insect 
8 mm Canadensis, Cresson. 

14. Dorsum of 3 basal abdominal segments piceous, rest of abdomen 

rufous ; face, mouth-parts, broad orbital lines, cheeks, neck, stripes 
on mesonotum, most of pleura and sternum, large spot on meta- 
pleura, apical spot on metathorax (but black in centre), petiole, 
broad margin of remaining segments and parts of legs white ; 
carince on metathorax prominent, spines long ; petiole scabrous, 
with two distinct carinoe. Length 8 mm Foxi, Davis. 

Abdomen red, apical portion more or less dark ; only an anterior 
orbital line, ring on antenna, scutellum and humeral lines white. 15. 

15. Abdomen long and narrowly oval; face uniformly and closely 

punctured, not polished ; anterior orbital line reduced to a mere 
short stripe; antennae long, 6 mm.; basal joints of flagellum more 
than twice as long as broad ; metathoracic carinte well marked ; 
spines not prominent ; apex of petiole aciculated ; base of second 
segment shagreened ; abdomen red ; base of petiole darkened. 
Length 7-8 mm montanus, Cresson. 

Abdomen short and very broadly oval ; face sparingly punctured, 
smooth and polished anteriorly and on clypeus ; white line in front 
of eyes long and broad ; antennae short, 4 mm.; basal joint of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 279 



flagellum not twice as long as broad ; metathoracic carinfe and 
spines prominent ; petiole smooth, polished ; second segment of 
abdomen evenly punctured ; abdomen red ;' apex of 4th and base 
of 5th segments black, rest of apex white. Length 
6.5 mm LuzERNENis, n. sp. 

17. Thorax entirely rufous 22. 

Thorax more or less black 18. 

18. Scutellum while ; pleura, propodeum and legs rufous; white annulus 

on antennte ig. 

Scutellum black or rufous 21. 

19. Antennae as long as body, or longer 20, 

Anlennse considerably shorter than body ; anterior orbital line white, 

interrupted medially ; metathoracic carinas and spines inconspicuous; 
petiole broad apically, roughened, very finely subaciculate ; 
abdomen moderately broadly oval, rufous ; fifth segment fuscous, 
apex white signatus, Provancher. 

20. Antennae longer than the body ; anterior orbital broad, not inter- 

rupted, also a fine posterior orbital line present; a bright white stripe 
on anterior margin of prothorax ; propodeum, legs, pleura, stains 
on mesonotum and abdomen, except base of petiole, rufous ; 
metathoracic carinse and sphies sowewhat more strongly marked 
than in signatus ; petiole not so broad apically, and abdomen more 
narrow and longer than in that species ; petiole sub-polished at 

apex, laterally carinate ornatus, Provancher. 

Antennae as long as body ; prothorax, mesonotum and abdomen 
beyond second segment black, remainder of insect rufous ; broad 
orbital lines, face except transverse spot above clypeus, clypeus 
except central apical spot, scape beneath, collar, humeral line, line 
beneath each wing, stripes on mesonotum and mesopleura, two 
spots on metathorax above hind coxse, broad apical margin on all 
abdominal segments, more or less of anterior coxse and 
trochanters, white, apex of femora, apical third of tibice posteriorly 
and tarsi of hind legs black ; metathorax rugose ; superior area 
subpolished ; petiole very broad, finely and rather sparsely 
punctured *Bak:eri, Davis. 

21. Antennse without white annulus. One specimen of consors that I 

have seen has the propodeum slightly 

rufous CONSORS, Cresson (pars.) 



280 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

2 2. Antennas with white annulus, rufous at base, black at apex; abdomen 
and petiole rufous, smooth polished, without 
carinse lineolatus, Provancher. 

Antennas without white annulus 23. 

23. More or less shiny; rufous, stains of black on mesothorax ; third 
abdominal segment rufous ; legs all red ; areolet in wings moderate 
in size ; base of metathorax punctured, carinate ; poslpetiole not 
very broad, polished, but sparingly 
punctured Californicus, Cresson. 

Opaque ; pale ferruginous ; base of third abdominal segment and 
apex of posterior tibiae black ; areolet in wings very large ; base of 
metathorax rugose and without carinas ; postpetiole very broad and 
shagreened *opacitus, Davis. 

1. P. CLARUS, Cresson. 9- 6- 

1867. Ichneumon clar^is, Cresson, V- Tr. Amer. Ent. Soc, Vol. 
I., p. 297. 

1877. Platylahjis darus, Cresson, V- $,  I'''- Am. Ent. Soc, 
VI., p. 199. 

1886. Platylabus magni_ftci/s, Provancher, ?. Add. Faun. Hym. 
Can., p. 36. 

This, and the following species, are easily distinguished by their large 
size and brilliant blue colour. Areola, shown in figure i, from 
the description jnagnificus, Prov., must belong here. 

Habitat. — Mass. ; Becancour, Can. {magnijiais). 

Type in coll. American Ent. Society. 

2. P. IVIETALLICUS, U. sp. ^ . $ . 

Bright metallic blue ; wings hyaline ; white annulus on antennse ; 
metathoracic area shown in fig. 2. Length of antennc-e 12 mm.; 
of insect i 2 mm. 

5 . Metallic blue ; anterior orbital line interrupted medially, short 
posterior line, annulus on antennte, front tibiae and apex of femora 
anteriorly, trace on middle femora and tibia? anteriorly, white ; 
remainder of front 4 tibiae and tarsi and posterior tarsi ferruginous ; 
clypeus broadly truncate, labrum prominent, face narrowed in 
front of eyes ; base of clypeus marked by suture, two longitudinal, 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 281 



well-impressed, grooves on face, which is evenly and closely 
punctured ; antennae as long as the body, thickened and flattened 
beyond the apex, the joints of flattened portion broader than long ; 
thorax evenly punctured, more densely on the pleura ; scutellum 
slightly reddish at apex ; metathorax above and at apex 
transversely wrinkled, areola smooth, polished, carinae well 
marked, tooth at hind angles large and distinct ; wings hyaline ; 
abdomen shagreened, especially at base of second segment ; 
petiole with two very well marked and angular carina}, not reach- 
ing apex ; postpetiole finely shagreened ; gastroca2li large. 

$ . Metallic blue ; face, anterior and posterior orbital lines, 
mandibles, annulus on antennte, scape beneath, short line beneath 
the wings, scutellum, anterior legs in front, coxae, trochanters, 
tibiae, tarsi and apex of femora in front white, rest of tibife and 
tarsi of front 4 legs and tarsi of posterior legs ferruginous. In 
other respects like the female. 

The type ? of this species was included by Cresson in his 
redescription of clarus in Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, VI., 1877, p. 199, 
and was the exception which he made as to the white scutellum 
of that species. The male specimen was added to the collection 
afterwards, and differs from the male of clarus in having the white 
annulus on the antennas, as well as in the metathoracic character. 

Habitat.—^. H. ( $ type). Me. ( $ type). 

Types. — In the collection of the American Entomological Society. 

3. P. RUBRiCAPENSis, Provancher, 5 . 

1882. Phitylahus rtcbricapeiisis^ Provancher, $. Nat. Can., XIII., 

P- 329- 
Habitat.- -Cdi^ Rouge, Canada. 

4. P. INCABUS, Davis, $ . 

1897. Platylabus incabus, Davis, 9 . Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIV., 

P- 352- 
Habitat. — Moscow, Idaho (Aldrich). 

5. P. scuTELLATUS, Provanchcr, ? , c? • 

1875. Ischnus scutellatus, Provancher. Nat. Can., VII., p. in. 

1 87 7. Platylabus scutellatus, Cresson. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, VI., 

p. 200, ff . 



282 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Habitat. — Ca;) Rouge, Canada. 

6. P. CONSORS, Cresson, $. 

i^']']. Platylabus consors, Cresson, ^. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, VI., 
p. 200. Cresson says this may be the male of Californicus. See 
figure 3. 

Habitat. — California. 

Types. — In the collection of the American Entomological Society. 

7. P. PACiFicus,' Harrington, ?. 

1894. Platylabus pacificus., Harrington, $ . Can. Ent., XXVI., p. 210. 
Habitat. — Vancouver's Island (Taylor). 

8. P. RUFicORNis, Provancher, ? , (^ . 

1886. Piatylab/is n/ficornis, Provancher, %, $. Add. Faun. Hym. 
Can., p. 38. 

Habitat. — Ottawa, Canada (Harrington). 

9. P. CANADENSIS, Cresson, ? . 

1S77. Platylabtis canadensis, Cresson, ?. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, VI., 

p. 200. Figure 4; 
Habitat. — Canada. 
Type. — In the collection of the American Entomological Society, 

10. P. Foxi, Davis, ^ . 

1897. Platylabus Foxi, Davis, ^ . Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIV., p. 353. 
This species has much more white on it than any other. Most of 
the males of the genus have more white than the females, and 
when the female of this species is known it will doubtless be less 
plentifully supplied with white. 

Habitat. — Camden, N. J. (Fox). 

11. P. MONTANUS, Cresson, 9- 

1877. Platylabus montanus, Cresson, $. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, VI., 

p. 20c. Figure 5. 
Habitat.—^. H. 
Types. — In the collection of the American Entomological Society. 

12. P. LUZERNENSIS, n. Sp., $ . 

Black; abdomen and legs mostly rufous. Length, 6.5 mm. See 

figure 6. 
$ . Anterior orbital lines not broad nor continued below the eyes, a 

short line behind the eyes near their top ; annulus on antennae. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 283 

humeral line, line below the wings and scutellura white ; legs 
rufous, except coxje and trochanters and knees, tarsi and apex 
of tibiae of hind legs, which are fuscous. Remainder of insect as 
described in the table. A quite distinct species. 

Habitat. — White Haven, Luzerne Co., Pa., Aug. 15, 1902. (Taken 
by the author.) 

Type. — One female, in the author's collection. 

13. P. siGNATUS, Provancher, $ . 

1874. Phygadeuon signatiis, Provancher. Nat. Can., VI., p. 282. 
1877. Platylabus signatiis, Cresson. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc , VI., p. 200. 

Figure 7. 
Habitat. — P. Que., Canada. 

14. P. ORNATUS, Provancher, 5- 

1875. Phygadeuon ortiatns, Provancher, ^. Nat. Can., VII., p. 181. 

1877. Platylabus orfiatus, Cresson. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, VI., p. 200. 
Figure 8. 

Habitat. — P. Que., Canada. 

15. P. Bakeri, Davis, $. 

1897. Platylabus Bakeri, Davis, $ . Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIV., 

P-352. 
Habitat. — Ann Arbor, Mich. (Baker). 

16. P. LiNEOLATUS, Provancher, 9. 

1875. Tchneumoii liiieolatus, Provancher. Nat. Can., VII , p. 82, 
1875. Phygadeuon ricfipes, Provancher. Nat. Can., VII., p. 181. 
1877. Platylabus lineolatus, Cresson. Tr. .^.m. Ent. Soc , VI., p. 201. 

Figure 9. 
Habitat. — P. Que., Canada. 

17. P. CALiFORNicus, Cresson, $. 

1877. Platylabus californicus, ?. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, VI., p. 201. 

Close to the preceding species. Figure 10. 
^rti^/V^/.— California. 
Types. — In the collection of the American Entomological Society. 

18. P. OPACiTUS, Davis, $. 

1S97. Platylabus opacitus, Davis. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIV., p. 353. 
Habitat. — Moscow, Idaho (Aldrich). 



284: THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SYNOPSIS OF EPEOLIN^. 

BY CHARLES ROBERTSON, CARLINVILLE, ILLINOIS. 

Females. 

Segment 5 with a more or less evident bevelled or truncate space, false 
pygidium, which is rather sparsely short, bristly and fuscous, 
purplish or sericeous in certain lights ; ovipositor (applied here to 
one of a pair of appendages often exserted one on each side of 
the sting) setiform, fimbriate, apex with several curved divergent 
spines ; mandibles simple ; maxillary palpi 3-jointed ; scutel 
finely punctured, sub-bilobed ; segments 1-4 with apical fascite of 
pale appressed pubescence Triepeolus. 

Segment 5 with a silvery lunule at apex ; ovipositor ligulate, bare or 
pubescent, apex acute, its edges dentate ; at least the mandibles, 

tegulse and legs red i . 

I. Maxillary palpi 3-jointed; mandibles with an internal tooth; closely 
punctured ; scutel sub-bilobed ; pleura and pectus with surface 
nearly concealed by pubescence ; mesonotum bilineate ; border 
of segment i interrupted on apical margin, 2 with fascia produced 
laterally and interrupted medially, 3-4 with apical fasciae notched 
in the middle, 5 with two lateral patches ; tubercles, labrum and 
joints 1-3 partly red ; 8 mm.; minima in gn. nov., type Triepeolus 
minifuus, Rob Argyroselenis. 

Maxillary palpi 2-jointed Epeolus. 

Males. 

Maxillary palpi 2-jointed Epeolus. 

Maxillary palpi 3-jointed i. 

I. Mandibles with an internal tooth; minima in Argyroselenis. 

Mandibles simple Triepeolus. 

Triepeolus, Robertson. 
Females. 

Ventral segment 5 flattened, concave, strongly produced and bent 
down at apex ; dorsal segment 5 with a semicircular sericeous 
truncation ; black ; mesonotum anteriorly with a broad pale- 
yellow band ; border of segment i broad, interrupted basally and 
sometimes apically ; fasci:e continuous on 2-4, gradually or 

abruptly widening on sides of 2 ; 13-16 mm concavus. 

Ventral segment 5 simple ; dorsal segment 5 usually with lateral 
patches i . 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 28; 



1. Border of segment i hardly wider on the sides ; fascia on sides of 2 

abruptly produced forward ; mesonotum bilineate ; apex of 

pygidium convex 6. 

Border of segment i much wider on the sides 2. 

2. Mesonotum bilineate ; pygidium longitudinally carinate 4. 

Mesonotum with a subcordate completely enclosed space; black. . .3. 

3. Fascise continuous except on base of segment i, abruptly widened on 

sides of 2 ; space on mesonotum hardly trilobed ; patch on 
pleura subquadrate ; scutel flat, spines nearly obsolete ; 

14-16 mm Nevadensis. 

Fasci?e interrupted on segments 1-2, gradually widening on sides of 2 ; 
space on mesonotum trilobed ; patch on pleura L-shaped ; scutel 
sub-bilobed, spines distinct; 10-14 nim remigatus. 

4. Segment 5 shining, rather coarsely punctured, apex concave, bevelled 

space and lateral pubescent patches indistinct ; apex of pygidium 
truncate ; scutel rather strongly bilobed ; black, labrum, middle 
of mandibles, tegulae, tibiae and tarsi tinged with red ; segment i 
with transverse subquadrate patch, the apical fascia interrupted or 
continuous ; fasciae on 2-4 continuous, paler on 4 ; lunate patch 
on pleura separated from patch surrounding tubercle ; ventral 

fascise none ; 13 mm.; sp. nov simplex. 

Segment 5 opaque, densely punctured, apex convex, bevelled space 
always and lateral pubescent patches usually distinct ; apex of 
pygidium convex ; scutel less bilobed : patch on segment i 
usually triangular; fasciae on 1-2 interrupted, 3-4 continuous, 
that on 4 of the same colour; lunate patch on pleura usually con- 
nected with patch surrounding tubercles ; ventral segments 2-4 
with apical fascise 5. 

5. Labrum, mandibles, joints 1-3, tegulse and legs red; 

11-12 mm lunatus. 

Labrum, mandibles, joints 1-3, tegulse and legs black ; 

10-13 mm concolor. 

6. Ornaments cinereous ; fascia on segment i, and sometimes on 2, 

interrupted; black; closely punctured; 11-12 mm . . . .donatus. 
Ornaments cream colour ; legs usually red 7, 

7. Pectus coarsely and sparsely punctured ; mandibles, labrum, joints 1-3 

and tegulse sometimes tinged with red ; fascia on segment i, and 

sometimes on 2, interrupted ; 8-1 1 mm pectoralis. 

Pectus finely and closely punctured 8. 



286 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

8. False pygidiuin small ; apex of ventral segment 5 narrow ; black ; 

coxae and front trochanters black ; closely pnnctured ; fascias 

interrupted on segments 1-2 ; 12 mm.; sp. nov micropygius. 

False pygidium large 9. 

9. Pleura with an L-shaped patch ; middle and hind femora red ; fasciae 

on segments 3-4, and usually on 2, continuous; 10 mm.helianthi. 

Pleura with a lunate patch; femora usually more or less black; 
labrum, mandibles; scape, tubercles and tegulre usually red; the 
legs rarely black ; fasciae usually interrupted on segments 1-3, 

usually continuous on 4 ; 8-12 mm Cressonii. 

Males. 

Border of segment i hardly broader on the sides ; mesonotum 
bilineate ; abdomen 6-fasciate 6. 

Border of segment i broad laterally, forming lunate or subquadrate 
patches ; ornaments cream colour i. 

1. Disc of mesonotum not enclosed by a complete border 3. 

Disc of mesonotum black, subcordate, with a complete border; black. 2. 

2. Abdomen 5-fasciate, rarely a faint fascia on segment 6 ; the bands 

continuous, that on 2 suddenly widened on the sides ; scutel flat, 

spines nearly obsolete ; 13-16 mm Nevadensis. 

Abdomen 6-fasciate, bands interrupted on segments 1-2, gradually 
widening on sides of 2, cinereous on 6 ; 10-15 mm. . . .remigatus 

3. Mesonotum anteriorly with a broad band ; abdomen 5-fasciate, 

segment i with fascia continuous or interrupted, 2-5 with continu- 
ous fascias wider on sides of 2-3 ; black ; 12-15 nnH' • .concavus. 
Mesonotum bilineate 4. 

4. Abdomen 5-fasciate, bands continuous or interrupted on segment i, 

continuous on 2-5, cinereous on 4-5 ; black patch on segment 1 
transverse subquadrate ; black, labrum, mandibles, base of 
antennae, tegulse, tibiae, tarsi and pygidium more or less tinged 

with red ; 1 2 mm simplex. 

Abdomen 6-fasciate, bands interrupted on segments 1-2, sometimes on 
3, cinereous or whitish on 5-6 ; black patch on segment i usually 
triangular ; 10-13 mm 5. 

5. Labrum, mandibles, joints 1-3, tegulse and legs red lunatus. 

Labrum, mandibles, joints 1-3, tegulse and legs black ..... .concolor. 

6. Ornaments cinereous; fasciae usually interrupted on segments 1-2, 

white on 6 ; black ; 9-12 mm donatus. 

Ornaments cream colour ; tibiae and tarsi usually red 7. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 287 



7. Middle and hind femora red ; mandibles, labrum, antennae and tegulte 
black ; pleura with an L-shaped mark ; lo-i i mm .... helianthi. 
Middle and hind femora more or less black ; mandibles, labrum, base 
of antennae and tegula; red ; rarely entirely black ; pleura 
commonly covered with pubescence ; fasciae usually interrupted ; 
8-1 1 mm Cressonii. 

Epeolus, Latreille. 
Females. 

Front with a large tubercle on each side ; mesonotum not bilineate ; 
middle of segment i and apex of 2 with golden fascite ; mandibles 
with an internal tooth ; head and thorax coarsely, abdomen finely 
punctured ; pectus with coarse, sparse punctures ; labrum, joints 
1-3, collar, tubercles, line above, tegulse, scutel and axilla3 red ; 
spurs black ; wings fuliginous ; stigma rather large ; 
7-9 mm bifasciatus. 

Front simple; mesonotum bilineate; border of segment i, apical 
margins of 2-4. and lateral patches on 5 of pale pubescence. . . . i. 

1. Pleura below finely and closely punctured ; scutel low ; transverse, 

opaque ; mandibles simple or with an indistinct internal tooth ; 

fasciie continuous or nearly so • • • 3- 

Pleura below coarsely and sparsely punctured ; sculel bilobed, shining; 
fasci?e interrupted, that on sides of 2 projecting forward; abdomen 
finely punctured; tubercles, axillary spines and spurs more or less 
red 2. 

2. Thorax coarsely, rather sparsely, punctured; mandibles simple ; fasciae 

cinereous, pointed on the disc ; silvery lunule subtriangular ; 

joints 1-3 more or less red ; 9 mm lectoides. 

Thorax rather finely and closely punctured ; mandibles with an 
internal tooth ; fasciae club-shaped on the disc ; silvery lunule 
transverse ; joints 1-3 red ; scutel usually more or less red ; 
7-9 mm interruptus. 

3. Scutel quite surpassing lateral spines ; spurs red ; lateral patches of 

segment 5 separate ; femora more or less black ; 

9-1 1 mm autumnalis. 

Scutel hardly surpassing lateral spines ; spurs black ; lateral patches of 
segment 5 connected across the disc; femora red ; 
7-8 mm pusillus. 



288 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Males. 
Front with a large tubercle on each side ; mesonotum bare; 

7-9 mm bifasciatus. 

Front simple; mesonotum bilineate; segments 1-6 with apical 

fascial i . 

1. Pleura below finely and densely punctured ; scutel flat 3. 

Pleura below coarsely and sparsely punctured ; scutel bilobed 2. 

2. Mandibles simple; thorax coarsely punctured lectoides. 

Mandibles with an internal tooth ; 7-9 mm interruptus. 

3. Scutel quite surpassing lateral spines ; spurs red ; 7-9 mm.autumnalis. 
Scutel hardly surpassing lateral spines ; spurs black; 6-8 mm.pusillus. 



LIST OF CANADIAN COLEOPTERA. 

BY JOHN D. EVANS, TRENTON, ONT. 

(Continued from page 243.) 
Gyrinidce. 
1505, Gyrinus minutus, Fab., '80. 
*i5i4, " aquiris, Lee, '80. 
sp., '80. 

Hydroph ilid^s. 

1542, Helophorus oblongus, Lee, '79, '80. 

1543, " lacustris, Lee, '80. 
1546, " linearis, Lee, '80. 
1597, Hydrocharis obtusatus, Say, '80.- 
1614, Berosus striatus, Say, '80, 'Sj. 

*i622, Laccobius ellipticus, Lee, '80. 
1653, Hydrobius fuscipes, Linn., '79, '81. 
Cercyon, sp , '81. 

Slip hides. 
1698, Necrophorus marginatus, Fab., '79, '80. 
1702, " vespilloides, Hbst , '8r. 

1706, Silpha lapponica, Hbst, '79, '80. 

1707, " irituberculata, Kirby, '81. 

1709, " noveboracensis, Forst., '81. 

17 10, '' Americana, Linn., 'Si. 
*i7ii, " ramosa, Say, '79, '80, '81. 



The CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 289 



Staphylinidcs. 

2055, Aleochara bimaciilata, Grav., '79. 
2100, Quedius fulgidus, Fab., '79. 
21 19, Creophilus villosus, Grav., '79, '80, '81. 
2124, Staphylinus badipes, Lee, *8i. 

2149, Philonthus seneus, Rossi., '79, '81. 

2150, " furvus, Nord., '79. 
2167, " hepaticus, Er., '79, '80. 

*2233, " Lecontei, Horn., '79. 

*2303, Stenus bipunctatus, Er., '81. 

2573, Pfederus littorarius, Grav., '8r. 

2732, Bledius ruficornis, Lee, '81. 
Homalium, sp., '81. 

Scaphidiidce. 
2976, Scaphium castanipes, Kirby, '81. 

Phalacridce. 
*2993, Phalacrus politus, Melsh., '79. 
*2996, Olibrus vittatus, Lee, '79, '80. 
2998, " striatulus, Lee, '79, '80. 
" 2 sp., '79 and '80. 

Coccinellidce. 
*3035, Nsemia episcopalis, Kirby,' 79. 
3041, Hippodamia 5-signata, Kirby, '81. 
3043, " Lecontei, Muls, '79. 

3046, " convergens, Guer., '80. 

3050, " 13-punctata, Linn., '79, '80. 

3051, " parenthesis, Say, '79, 80. 

3058, Coccinella 9-notata, Hbst., '79. 

3059, " transversoguttata, Fab., '79, '80. 

3060, " monticola, Mills., '79. 
3072, Harmonia 12-maculata, Gebl., '8t. 
3075, Anatis 15-punctata, Oliv., '80, '81. 

*309sd, Brachyacantha albifrons, Say, '79, "80. 

Erotylidce. 
3236, Tritoma thoracica, Say, '79. 

Cucujidce. 
3314, Pediacus fuscus, Er., '81. 



290 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Dermestidce.. 

*34i8^ Dermestes marmoratus, Say, '79, 'So. 
3425, " lardarius, Linn., '79. 

3428, " vulpinus, Fab., 'So. 

Histe7-idce.. 

3480, Hister interruptus, Beauv., '79. 

3494, " depurator, Say, '79, 'So. 
*3583, Saprinus lugens, Er., '79, '80. 

3586, " Oregonensis, Lee, '79, 80. 
3586a, " distingiiendus. Mars., '79. 

*36io, " fimbriatus, Lee, '79. 

Nitidtdidce. 
Nitidula, sp., '79. 
3664, Cercus abdominalis, Er., '79. 
*3734, Pocadius helvolus, Er., 'So. 
*3739, Meligethes mutatus, Hor., '79. 

Byrrhidcv.. 
3887, Cytilus sericus, Eorst., '80. 
Byrrhus, sp., '79. 

Heteroceridce. 
Heterocerus, 2 sp., '81. 

Dascyllidce. 
4016, Cyphon variabilis, Tliunb., '81. 
" 2sp., '81. 

Elateridce. 
10049, Cryptohypnus nocturnus, Esch., '79, '80. 

4245, Elater apicatus, Say, 'So. 

4253, Urasterius elegans, Fab., '79. 'So. 

4287, Agriotes limosus, Lee, '79, 'So. 

4297, Dolopius lateralis, Esch., '79, 'So, '8r. 

4322, Melanotus fissilis, Say, 'So. 
*4467, Corymbites morulus, Lee, '79, '80. * . 

4482, " hieroglyphicuF, Say, '81. 

4484, " cruciatus, Linn., '79. 

4495, " metallicus, Payk., '81. 

sp , '79. 



* 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 291 

Buprestidce. 

4576, Dicerca prolongata, Lee, '79, '8r. 
4619, Melanophila longipes, Say, '79, '80. 
4739, Agrilus anxius. Gory., '79. 
4761, Brachys serosa, Melsh., '80. 

Lampyridce. 

4815, Ellychnia corrusca, Linn.. '79, 'So. 
4818, Pyropyga nigricans, Say, '79, 'So. 
4824, Pyractomena borealis, Rand., '79, '81. 
4935) Telephorus nigritulus, Lee, '81, 
4939, " flavipes, Lee, 'So. 

4948. " Curtisii, Kirby, '81. 

*4952, " Oregonus, Lee, '79, '80. 

sp., '79. 

3 sp., '8r. 

Malachidcp.. 

*4999, Col'.ops cribrosiis, Lee, '79, '80. 
5013, " vittatus. Say, '79. 

Clerid(B. 

5159, Trichodes Nuttalli, Kirby, '79. 
5232, Necrobia violaceus, Linn., '79, '80. 

Lucanidce. 
5419, Platycerus depressus, Lee, '79. '80, 

Scarabceidce. 

5435, Canthon lasvis, Drury, '80. 

5444, Copris anaglypticus, Say, '81. 

5459, Onthophagus janus, Panz , '79. 

5510, Aphodius hamatus, Say, '80, '81. 
*55i3, " occidentalis, Horn., '79, "So. 

5528, " granarius, Linn., 'So. 

*555°' " consentaneus, Lee, '79, '80. 

^5620, Trox sonorce, Lee, '79, '80. 

5623, " unistriatus, Beauv., '80. 

5650, Hoplia trifasciata, Say, '81, 



292 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

5656, Dichelonycha elongata, Fab., '79. 

5659, " testacea, Kirby, '80. 

5662. " Backii, Kirby, '79. 

5674, Serica vespertina, Gyll., '79. 
sp., '79. 
10240, Lachnosterna dubia, Smith, '79. 
*582 2, Polyphylla decemlineata, Say, '79. 
*5925, Cremastochilus Knockii, Lee, '79. 

5939, Trichius affinis, Gory., '79. 

CerambycidcB. 

5975, Criocephalus agrestis, Kirby, '79. 

6062, Elaphidion villosum. Fab., '80. 

61 S3, Xylotrechus undulatus. Say, '79. 

6248, Pachyta liturata, Kirby, '79. 

6259, Acmaeops bivittata, Say, '79, '80. 

6273, " proteus, Kirby, 79. 

6279, Bellamira scalaris, Say, '81. 
*6295, Typocerus balteatus, Horn., '79. 
6323a, Leptura convexa, Lee, '79, '80. 

6361, " mutabilis, Newm., '79. 
*6369, Monilema annulatum, Say, '79, '80. 

6386, Monohammus maciilosus, Hald., '80. 

6387, " scutellatus, Say, '81. 
(To he continued.) 



* 



A RARE BUTTERFLY. 



On July 1st I caught a Hypolimiias inisippus, Linn., J , at the sugar 
estate " Isabel," ten miles north-east of this town. Gundlach, in his 
" Entomologia Cubana," 1881, states that he has only caught one male 
in 1 85 1 at Cardenas, and two females in 1869 and 1876, respectively. I 
do not know of any other male having been caught in the island, and 
should be very glad to hear from any of your correspondents who may 
have caught them since 1881. 

My specimen is quite perfect and measures 57 mm. across the 
wings, and is therefore slightly smaller than the specimen illustrated in 
Holland's " Butterfly Book." Theo. Brooks, Guantanamo, Cuba. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 291 



BOOK NOTICES. 



The Orthoptera of Indiana. — By W. S. Blatchley, State Geologist, 
Indianapolis, Ind. From the 27th Annual Report of the Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana, 1902. One 
Vol., 8vo., pp. 123 to 471. 
No one better qualified than the author of this work could possibly 
be found to prepare a handbook of the Orthoptera of Indiana, and admir- 
ably he has performed his self-imposed task. For nearly twenty years he 
has been a close observer and student of the insects of this order and has 
published many papers of both a systematic and descriptive character 
upon them. Several of these have appeared from time to time in the 
pages of this magazine. The book contains the results of his investiga- 
tions and studies, and is designed to impart a full and clear knowledge of 
this important group of insects to school pupils and young people on the 
farm. Certainly anyone desiring to study the order, whether living ii> 
Indiana or Ontario, or any of the neighbouring States, will find his way 
made easy by this work, and will learn without much difticulty how to 
distinguish the species and what their life-histories and characteristics are. 
The opening pages of the book give a full and clear account of the 
external anatomy of a Locust, the natural enemies of the Orthoptera, and 
a bibliography of the more important books and papers on the order. The 
main portion of the volume is termed " A Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Orthoptera Known to Occur in Indiana." Convenient keys are given to 
the families, genera and species, facilitating the identification of a speci- 
men, and these are followed in each case by scientific descriptions, the 
synonymy, geographical distribution and other information ; in the case 
of the Locusts especially the accounts of the habits of the species are very 
full and interesting. The work is rendered complete by a chapter on 
the Life-zones of the State as illustrated by the distribution of the 
Orthoptera, a glossary of the terms used and a full index. There are over 
120 excellent figures in the text, largely taken from Lugger's Orthoptera 
of Minnesota, and a beautiful coloured plate of the remarkable pink 
variety of the Oblong-winged Katydid (Amblycorypha oblongi/olia). 



204 THE CAXADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



A Classificatiom of North American Spiders. — By Prof. Jo'in Henry 
Comstcck, Ithaca, N. Y. Comstock Publishing Co., 1903. Large 
8vo., p]). 56. (Price, 50 cents.) 

Anyone taking up the study of Spiders will find this a useful manual, 

as the tables will give him a clue, without much difficulty, to the families 

and genera ; for the determination of species he will require to have 

recourse to some other work, such as Eraerton's " Common Spiders of the 

United States." The tables require for their use some previous knowledge 

of the external anatomy of the Spiders and the technical terms used in 

their description. The author has in preparation a textbook of North 

American Arachnida, and publishes these tables in advance in order that 

they may be tested before publication of the larger work. 



The Insect World : A monthly magazine, edited by Y. Nawa, Gifu, 
Japan. Vol. VII., 1903. 

Recent numbers of this remarkable magazine have contained a page 

or two in English, giving an illustrated description of some Sphinx Moth 

or other interesting insect. Hitherto one has only been able to read the 

English title, admire the excellent illustrations and turn over the pages 

with a great longing to be able to read Japanese. In the January number 

there was an account of a remarkable moth, whose larva lives as a parasite 

on certain species of Cicada ; a coloured plate is given showing the 

different stages of the insect, the neuration of the wings of the moth and 

the host with parasites attached. Mr. Marlatt gave, at the meeting of 

Economic Entomologists, very interesting descriptions of Mr. Nawa and 

his entomological laboratory and museum, which he visited last year. 

DEATH OF PROFESSOR GROTE. 

It is with profound regret that we record the death of our greatly- 
esteemed friend, Professor Augustus Radcliffe Grote, A. M., the 
tidings of which has just reached us. The sad event occurred on 
Saturday, September 12th, at Hildesheim, Germany, where he had been 
living for the past nine years ; during the previous ten or eleven his 
home had been at Bremen. With the exception of this last score of years, 
his life was spent in the United States, and was devoted almost entirely 
to the study of the Lepidoptera of North America, 

We beg to offer our deepest sympathy to his widow and children in 
their affliction. It may be some slight consolation to them to know that 
their grief is shared by many on this side of the Atlantic who were his 
friends and colleagues in earlier years. 

Mailed October 3rd, 1903. 



Can. Ent., Vol. XXXV. 



Plate 6. 





' 8 ^ J 






10 >»/ II xy '* ^y 13 






''t- 




is' v It 






17 ^z li ^ ly ^V loxj n 








»»\/ -^tV/ 2r 





14 








XT 3.6 19 30 31 ^ 32.^^ JjNy 34. 







3B \J 36 V/ 3 7 







THE GENUS PODISMA. 



\\t Cauariiaij Jntumdlagbt. 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, NOVEMBER, 1903. No. 11 

THE GENUS PODISMA IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

BY E. M. WALKER, B.A., M.B., TORONTO. 

Podisma (Latr.) is a particularly interesting genus of Melanopli, 
since it is the only one of that immense group that occurs in the Old 
World, where, indeed, it is represented by considerably more described 
species than it is in North America. It is also of interest from its dis- 
tinctly boreal and alpine distribution, being almost peculiar to high 
latitudes or altitudes. It is a circumpolar genus, inhabiting the mountains 
and boreal parts of Europe, Asia and North America, a larger number of 
species having been described from Europe than elsewhere. 

The North American species are found in two widely-separated 
regions : the Rocky Mountain region from Alberta to New Mexico in the 
west, and from North-western Ontario to Maine and south to Pennsyl- 
vania in the east. It is to the eastern species that the reader's attention 
will be directed in the present paper. 

Although in some cases Podisma is but narrowly separable from 
Melatioplus, it is on the whole a distinct type, differing from the lattei 
chiefly in the widely-separated mesosternal lobes, the interspace in the 
male being transverse and as wide or nearly as wide as the lobes them- 
selves, and in the female strongly transverse and as wide as or wider than 
the lobes. The pronotum is always short and sometimes subcylindrical, 
with the lateral carinse poorly defined or absent, and the hind margin trun- 
cate or slightly emarginate, or at most obtusangulate. The tegmina are 
normally abbreviate, and often entirely absent. Of the North American 
species, those from the east have no tegmina, while of the western forms 
these organs are present in all but one species. 

Two species of Podisma have been described from eastern North 
America, P. glaciaiis, Scudd., from the mountains of New England, New 
York and Pennsylvania, and P. variegata, Scudd., from specimens taken 
at Ithaca and Enfield Falls, Tompkins Co., N. Y. Before the description 
of the latter was published the writer sent drawings to Mr. Scudder of 
specimens of Podisma taken at De Grassi Pt., Lake Simcoe, Ont., which 
were pronounced P. variegata, and later on specimens from the same 
locality were sent to him. On Sept. 12th, 1900, while collecting at North 



296 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Bay, Lake Nipissing, 175 miles north of De Grassi Pt., a series of speci- 
mens of Podisma were taken, which showed features belonging to both 
species, but were nearer P. glacialis. Some of these were sent to Mr. 
Scudder, who named them glacialis, " vaiying slightly towards variegata, 
especially in the (feebly) banded hind femora." 

Since then I have collected a considerable series of specimens from 
two localities intermediate in latitude between Lake Simcoe and Lake 
Nipissing, viz., at Tobermory, near Cape Hurd (Bruce Co.), and at 
Algonquin Park. I have also examined a series of 4 $ ^ and 3 $ $ taken 
at several different localities in Pennsylvania, belonging to the museum of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and kindly loaned 
to me through Mr. J. A. G. Rehn. To complete my collection, I have 
specimens of typical glaciahs from the following localities in New Eng- 
land : Mt. Washington, N. H. (3 ^J cJ , 3 V ? ); Greylock Mt., Mass. 
(2 (J cJ , 2 V ? ) ; Speckled Mt., Stoneham, Me. (3 cT c? , 3 ? ? )• 

A careful study of all these specimens lias revealed a complete series 
of gradations from the typical glacialis of the White Mountains to the 
typical variegata from Pennsylvania, though these extremes are widely 
different, not only in structure and markings, but in habits and character of 
environment. 

The chief points of distinction between the two forms as given by 
Mr. Scudder may be tabulated as follows : 





P. glacialis. 


P. variegata. 


Eyes. 


Moderately prominent. 


Very prominent, especially in 

the $. 


Antennaj. 


Slightly shorter than hind 
femora. 


Distincily longer than hind 
femora {$). 


Hind 
femora. 


Yellowish grass-green, ob- 
scurely bifasciate with 
dark olivaceous green. 


Flavo-testaceous, broadly 
bifasciate with blackish fus- 
cous. 


Furcula. 


Crosses basal fifth or less of 
supra-anal plate. 


Hardly longer than last seg- 
ment. 


Cerci 

of $. 


Stouter, middle breadth not 
less than ^ basal breadth. 


Very long and slender; middle 
breadth less than ]/> basal 
breadth. 



A study of my series gives the following results : 

I. Eyes. — Those of the N. E. specimens (yj'^xQ.sX glacialis) are the least 
prominent, the specimens from Mt. Washington having less prominent 
eyes than those from Speckled Mt. and Greylock Mt. Among the rest of 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 297 



ihe series there is but little variation, the greatest degree of prominence 
being seen in the Pennsylvania specimens (typical variegata) and the Lake 
Simcoe specimens. The eyes of some of the $ $ from North Bay 
approach pretty closely those of the $ $ from Speckled Mt., and the $ 2 
from the latter locality are quite like those from North Bay in this respect. 
There is, however, very little range of variation among the Canadian 
specimens. An idea of the total amount of variation in the prominence 
of this organ can be obtained from the accompanying plate. 

2. Antennae. — The variation in the length of this structure can be 
seen by a glance at the table of measurements. The specimens from Mt. 
Washington have relatively the shortest antennti?, and it is plain from the 
measurements of the New England specimens that they average distinctly 
shorter than the Canadian specimens. From Algonquin Park southward 
to Pennsylvania, except at high altitudes, we find a gradual but steady 
increase in the length of the antennae, the longest ones belonging to 
Pennsylvania specimens. In typical variegata the antennae of the ^ are 
distinctly longer than the hind femora, in glacialis slightly shorter. In 
most of the Canadian specimens they are about equal in length, being 
faintly shorter in the North Bay specimens, faintly longer in those from 
Lake Simcoe. 

3. The hind femora are relatively shortest in the N. E specimens, but 
are practically constant in length throughout the remainder of the series. 
Some of the Algonquin Park series, however, are inseparable from the N. 
E. specimens on this score. A more important feature is the colour and 
distinctness of the bands of the hind femora. In specimens from Algon- 
quin Park and North Bay, hke those from N. E., they are uniform green, 
with the faintest traces of bands, but in the majority from this locality they 
are more or less distinctly though feebly banded, the lighter areas being 
yellowish green. A number of <? (^ , however, have the superior sulcus 
as conspicuously banded as in the Pennsylvania specimens. The hind 
femora of the latter are in the $ strongly fasciate with pale yellowish and 
dark brown or blackish, the contrast being much greater in the main than 
in the specimens from Lake Simcoe, which most resemble them. Every 
gradation is present in the series. 

4. The furcula shows great diversity of size and form. As with the 
other characters, the most northern of the Ontario specimens are most like 
typical glacialis in the form of this structure, and it is longest in some of 
the North Bay and Algonquin Park specimens, shortest in the Pennsyl- 



298 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

vania series. Some from North Bay, however, have the furcula as short 
as those from Lake Simcoe (figs. 56, 57, 58.) 

5. Cerci of ^. — Next to the furcula this structure shows the greatest 
range of variation. It is much stouter in typical giacialis than in typical 
variegata, and Scudder used the character as one of the chief ones by 
which the two species could be distinguished. A glance at the plate, how- 
ever, will suffice to show that no separation into two species can be based 
on the form of this structure. Some of the North Bay specimens have the 
cerci of typical giacialis, but there is a perfectly gradual series of transi- 
tions from the stout cerci of the more northern forms to those of the 
Pennsylvania ones, in which they are most slender. In order to illustrate 
these transitions as accurately as possible, I have drawn the cerci of all 
the $ specimens, from N. E., North Bay, Algonquin Park, Tobermory 
and Pennsylvania, and a sufficient number from L. Simcoe to complete 
the range of variation. 

Other variations of less importance are to be found, especially in the 
general colour and character of markings, but they add nothing to the 
facts gained from the above. 

From these comparisons it is readily seen that the specimens from 
Mt. Washington and those from Pennsylvania are the most widely sepa- 
rated, but that the wide gaps between them can be filled by a complete 
series of links represented by the Canadian specimens, the most northern 
of which closely approach the N. E. specimens, the most southern the 
Pennsylvania ones. 

These variations, hence, appear to be connected with differences in the 
climatic conditions, and it would seem that temperature is an important 
factor. They are also accompanied by certain changes in the insect's 
habits, as evinced by some interesting facts that have been recorded on 
this subject. Mr. Scudder states that in the White Mts. P. giacialis " fre- 
quents the close branches of the dwarf birch, and is rarely or never seen 
upon the ground," while Mr. Morse found most of his specimens " on or 
among the various species of Vaccinium, characteristic of mountain-tops 
and on Ascutney upon dwarf cornel" (Psyche, 1898, 273). It occurs 
at elevations of 2,000 to 5,400 feet, in New England, New York and 
Pennsylvania, but has also been taken at lower levels at Jackman, Me., 
on the Canadian border, " in open woods and bogs " (Harvey. — Psyche^ 
1897, 77). At North Bay and Algonquin Park I found the insect 
common in open woods on bushes, chiefly the common beaked hazel 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 299 



( Corylus rostrata) and the red raspberry. It occurs in both dry and 
fairly moist situations. The specimens from Tobermory were taken 
under similar circumstances, while at De Grassi Pt. they seem to be 
confined to swampy ground where the vegetation is of a boreal character. 
In such places I have taken them on bushes, chiefly raspberry, but have 
often found them on the branches and trunk of the Arbor-vitae, sometimes 
8 or lo ft. from the ground. I have never observed this habit in the 
north, although the species is far more abundant there, but Mr. J. A. G. 
Rehn says, in an interesting article on " The Habits and Distribution 
of Podisma variegata " (Ent. News, XT., 630), that in Pennsylvania they 
occur on the branches of hemlock, and that when removed they will 
quickly return. 

From these various facts it may be inferred that P. glacialis is the 
more primitive form, especially as the genus is typically an alpine one, 
and that it once inhabited a much larger area, but after the retreat of the 
ice-sheet it disappeared from this area, except in the northern part and on 
the mountains farther south. Variegata, on the other hand, may be 
regarded as an incipient species, the product of an effort on the part of 
the parent species to survive amid the altered conditions of its environ- 
ment. These conditions, as we go southward, diverge more and more 
from those to which the insect was originally adapted, and hence it is not 
surprising to find slight modifications of structure and colour-pattern 
corresponding in degree with these changes. 

Its occurrence in swampy stations southward is what would be 
expected from the fact that wet soil is a poor conductor of heat, and such 
places are cooler than the more open, dry country, but its fondness for 
hemlock in Pennsylvania seems to indicate a distinct specialization in the 
insect's habits in this locality. Further observation, however, is desirable 
on this point. 

As many of my Canadian specimens can be classed equally well with 
glacialis or variegata, it will be necessary to give a new racial name to 
these forms, and I have accordingly subdivided the species as follows, 
though it will be understood that these different geographical races cannot 
be sharply separated from one another : 

A. Antennae distinctly shorter than hind femora ( J ), nearly three-fourths 
as long ( 9 ). Eyes not very prominent. Hind femora nearly 
uniform green externally, obscurely bifasciate with darker green. 
Furcula crossing basal fourth or fifth of supra-anal plate. Cerci of 



300 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



B. 



C 



(^ rather stout, middle breadth not less than two-thirds the basal 
breadth. 

Habitat — Mountains of New England. — P. glacialis, Scudd., type. 
Antennae about as long {$), about five-sixths as long ( 9 ) as the 
hind femora. Eyes prominent, especially in the $ . Hind femora 
green externally, more or less distinctly bifasciate with darker green, 
especially on the superior sulcus. Furcula generally crossing less 
than the basal fifth of the supra anal plate, but longer than the last 
segment. Cerci of $ about half as broad in middle as at base. 
Habitat — Northern Ontario. — P. glacialis Canadensis, new race. 
Antennas longer ( (J ), faintly shorter ( 9 ), than hind femora. Eyes 
prominent, especially in the c^ . Hind femora pale-yellow externally, 
strongly bifasciate with dark-brown or blackish, Furcula about as 
long as the last segment. Cerci of ^ less than half as broad in 
middle as at base. Habitat — New York, Pennsylvania, Ontario (L. 
Simcoe, Tobermory). — P. glacialis variegata, Scudd. 
Specimens from Lake Simcoe and Tobermory may be placed with 
variegata, but are not quite typical. I have seen no specimens o{ glacialis 
from the mountains of New York and Pennsylvania, so that I have given 
them no place in the above table. They will probably fall under P. 

glacialis type. 

Measurements. 

Males. 



Antenna. 



Head and Pronotum. Hind Femur. 



Bodv. 



Mt. Wash. 

,:; spec 

Speckled Mt. 

3 spec 

New Engfland. 
(Morse) 48 spec 

North Bay. 
8 spec 

Algonq Pk. 
14 spec 

TcAermory. 
5 spec 

Lake Simcoe. 
14 spec 

Penn'a. 

4 spec 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
(Scudder) 



8.1-8.2 Av. 8.15 
(2 spec.) 

9.0-9.2 A\*. 9.1 
(2 spec.) 

8.0-9.0 

8.5-9.0 Av. 8.8 

8.0-10.0 Av. 8.66 

10.0-10.5Av. 10.16 

lo.o-i i.o Av. 10.5 

12.0 (i spec.) 

10.5 



mm. 
5.5-5.8 Av. 5.53 

5.7-5.8 Av. 5.7J 



5.4-5.8 Av. 5.62 

4.S-5.7 Av. 5.19 

5.7-^.0 Av. 5.84 

5-3-6..^ Av. 5.79 

5.3-5.8 Av. 5.52 



mm. 
9-5-9-7 Av. 9.57 

9.0-9.7 Av. 9.4 

9.5-10.8 

g.5-10.3 Av. 9.9 

8.4-10.0 Av. 8.8 

io.o~io.8 Av. 10.24 

9.5-10.5 .\v. 10.08 

9.5-10.2 Av. 9.8 

9-25 



•-•o-'7-.S Av. 17.3 
17.0-18.0 Av. 17.7 

'5-0-I--5 

17. 0-18.0 Av. 17.27 

15.0-17.5 Av. 16.1 

'-•5-18.5 Av. 18.44 

17.5-20.0 Av. 18.4 

16.5-18.5 Av. 17.5 

16.5 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



301 



Antenna. 



Females. 

Head and Pronotum. Hind Femur. 



Body. 



Mt. Wash. 
I spec 

Speckled Mt. 

3 spec 

New England. 
(Morse) 62 spec 

North Bay. 
5 spec 

Algonq Pk. 

4 spec 

Tobermory. 

5 spec 

Lake Sinicoe. 
8 spec 

Penn'a. 
3 spec 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
(Scudder) 



mm. 
7.2 

8.2-9.0 Av. 8.6 
(2 spec.) 

7.0-8.5 

g. 0-10.5 Av. g.g 
9.o-g.2 Av. g. I 
g.o-ii.oAv. I0.12 

lo.o-ii.oAv. 10. 6g 

11.5(1 spec.) 
8.5 + 



mm. 
7.0 

6.3-7.0 Av. 6.6 

6.3-7.0 Av. 6.86 

6.0-6.8 Av. 6.47 

6-S-7-.5 Av. 7.09 

6.8-7.8 Av. 7.2g 

6.5-7.0 Av. 6.66 



lo.o-i 1.5 Av. 10. g 
10. 0-12.0 

12. 0-12. 6 Av. 12.4 

10.2-12.0 Av. 1 1.2 

I2.2-13-5 Av. 12.3 

1 1. 0-13. 4 Av. 12.4 

12.0-12.5 Av. 12.25 
12-75 



mm. 
25.0 

21.0-26.0 .\\'. 23.0 

ig.0-28.0 

2I-5-25-2 Av. 23.g 

20.0-24.0 .^v. 21.7 

22.0-26.5 Av. 24.8 

24.5-26.5 Av. 25.37 

21.0-24-5 Av. 22.83 

23-5 



Fig. 

I, 2, 7. 

3. 4- 
5.6,8 

9- 

48. 

49- 
53- 

61. 

10-17. 

18-31. 

50- 

54-56. 

62, 63. 
32-36- 
37-42. 



Explanation of Plate 6. 
Podis?na glacialis,\)/\ie, ^ cercus. Mt. Washington, N. H. 
" " " " Greylock Mt., Mass. 

" Speckled Mt., Stoneham, Me. 

From Scudder (Rev. Mel.). 
" " " c? , head and pronotum. Mt. Washington, 

N. H. 

Speckled Mt., Me. 
" " " (? , supra-anal plate and furcula. Speckled 

Mt., Me. 
" ^ , hind femur. Speckled Mt., Me. 
. '• " canadensis, ^ cercus. North Bay, Onl. 

" Algonquin Park, Ont. 

'• '• " (J , head and pronotum. North Bay, 

Ont. 
" " " c? > supra-anal plate and furcula. 

North Bay, Ont. 
" c? . hind femur. North Bay, Ont. 

" •' variegaia, S circus. Tobermory, Bruce Co., Ont. 

" Lake Simcoe, Ont. 



302 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 



43. Podis?naglacialis,variegata,^ctrc\x?,. From Scudder (Rev. Mel,). 
44,4.5- " " " " North Mt., Penn'a. 

46. " " " " Bellasylva, VVyo. Co., Pa. 

47- " " " " GlenOmoko, Sull. Co., Pa. 

51. " " " c? , head and pronotum. Lake Simcoe, 

Ont. 

52. " " " " " " NorthMt.,Pa. 
57,58. " " " (? , supra-anal plate and furcula. 

Lake Simcoe, Ont. 
59, 60. " " " (? , supra-anal plate and furcula. 

North Mt, Pa. 

64. " " " $ hind femur. Lake Simcoe, Ont. 

65. " " " " " Bellasylva, Pa. 

ON THE SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF THE ORTHOPTEROUS 
GENUS AULOCARA, SCUDDER. 

BY A. N. CAUDELL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Too late for correction, I find that in my recent paper on western 
Orthoptera* I have redescribed Scudder's Anlocara rufuin as a new 
species under the name guajiieri, placing it in the not very nearly related 
genus Heliasttis. This unfortunate mistake was brought about by the 
uncertain position of the genus Aulocara, which possesses both tryxaline 
and oedipodine characters. The general aspect of the species of the genus 
is certainly very strongly oedipodinean and the characters of the declivate 
vertex, subperpendicular front, filiform antenna, small round eyes, obsolete 
lateral carinae, twice or thrice severed median carina, wrinkled pronotum, 
and of the generally present intercalary vein, all indicate close affinity to 
the Q^dipodinse. McNeill, in his revision of the Tryxalinaef, excludes this 
genus, but Scudder considers it to belong to that group. (Edocara, 
Scudd., and the invalid genus Coloradella of Brunner von Wattenwyl|, 
are synonyms of Aulocara, and under the former name Saussure places it 
in the Q^dipodinae§, and Coloradella was established as a tryxaline genus. 
Thus there is considerable difference of opinion among specialists as to 
the systematic position of Aulocara. Upon thoroughly studying the 
group characters exhibited by our species of this genus, I feel very certain 
that its logical position is in the CEdipodinpe. 

* Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvi., 775-809(1903) 
t Proc. Davenp. Acad. Nat. Sc, vi., 179-274 (1S97). 
:J: Ann. Mus Genoa (2) xiii., 123 (1893). 
§ Piodr. CKdipod., suppl., 15 (1888). 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 303 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSORIAL, PREDACEOUS AND 

PARASITIC WASPS, OR THE SUPERFAMILY 

VESPOIDEA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, M. A., D. SC, ASSISTANT CURATOR, U. S. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(Paper No. i6. — Continued from Vol. XXXV., p. 205.) 

Family XLIL— Mutillidae. 

1830. Mutillidae, Family (partim), Leach ; Edinb. Ency., IX., p. 145. 

1855. Mutillidje, Family (partim), Smith; Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 
III., p. I. 

1899. Mutillidae, Family XLIL, Ashmead ; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
VII., p. 49. 

1899. Mutillidae, Family (partim), Fox; Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 
XXV., p. 220. 

1899. Mutiilidse, Famille (partim), Andre ; Spec. Hym. d'Eur. Tom. 
VIII., pp. 1-77. 

1903. Mutillidae, Famille (paitim), Andre ; VVytsman's Gen. Ins., 
Fam. Mutillidae. 

William E. Leach, and not Frederick Smith, as Ernest Andre has it, 
was the first to establish the family Mjitillidce ; but none of these gentle- 
men correctly defined it, and all have included genera which do not 
belong to it. Some of the genera belong to the Bet hy I ides, one belongs 
to the Thymiidce, one to the Cosilidce, and others to the Myrf/wsidce. 

The family, as here restricted, contains only wingless females, with 
the thorax always undivided, or without trace of the pronotal or mesonotal 
sutures, while the males are easily distinguished from those in other 
families by having the abdomen terminating in two slender, straight spines, 
which usually project from between the two plates of the pygidium — the 
epipygium and the hypopygium. All other writers on these wasps, 
namely, Klug, Lepeletier, Leach, Haliday, Radoszkowski, Sichel, Smith, 
Saussure, Blake, Cresson, Fox, Peringuey and Andre, have, in my opinion, 
included in the family genera or groups which do not belong to it, but 
which fall naturally into other families, as I have clearly shown in my 
characterization of the families. All its members are genuine parasites, 
and live in tha nests of various bees and wasps. The family may be 
separated into two closely-allied subfamilies, as follows ; 



304 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Table of Subfaniiiies. 

Abdomen with the first segment broadly sessile with the second, without 

a distinct constriction or furrow between, and never much narrowed 

or petiohform, although sometimes subnodose in some 

males Subfamily I., Mutillinre. 

Abdomen with the first segment J>etiolate or pet ioli/or/n, never hToa.d\y 

sessile with the second, but much narrowed at apex, and usually 

wit/i a constriction or furrow between it and the 

second Subfamily II., Ephutinse. 

Subfamily I. — MutilliniE. 

This group has apparently reached its highest development in 

Europe, Africa and Asia, the typical forms found in America being less 

numerous ; the others show a closer affinity with the next subfamily or 

the Ephutince, tribe Sphaerophthahnini. 

Two minor groups or tribes may be recognized by the following 

characters : 

Eyes small, rounded, hemispherical or ellipsoidal, prominently convex, 

smooth and highly polished, not facetted, or with the facets vaguely 

defined, except in $ Tricholabiodes, Psetidophotopsis and Alloneiirion, 

which have large oval eyes, more or less facetted, that extend to tiie 

base of the mandibles Tribe I., Photopsidini. 

Eyes larger, not rounded or hemispherical, ovate, obovate or ellipsoidal, 

always distinctly facetted, and in the $ sometimes emarginate 

within Tribe II., Mutillini. 

Tribe I. — Photopsidini. 

The majority of the males in this group more closely resemble those 

in the family Myrmosidas, tribe Chyphotini, than any of the others, and this 

resemblance has influenced me in placing the tribe at the head of the 

family Mutillidce, although in cephalic characters, and particularly in the 

rounded eyes, ihey are evidently allied to the tribe Sphaerophthahnini, 

some of the females having been described originally in the genus 

Sphaerophthalma, Blake. 

Table of Genera. 
Males I. 

Females 20. 

I. Eyes large, oval, not hemispherical, occupying most of the sides 
of the head and extending to base of mandibles, usually with a 
feeble sinus in front and behind, delicately facetted 2. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 305 

Eyes not large, hemispherical or rounded 4. 

2. Postscutellum armed on each side with a small erect tooth or spine ; 

mesonotum with complete furrows 3. 

Postscutellum normal, unarmed. 

Front wings with three cubital cells, the third sometimes incom- 
plete, the stigma very small and indistinct ; only one recurrent 
nervure; mandibles strongly excised beneath, 3-dentate at 
apex ; middle and hind tibise armed with spines. 

(Africa ) Tricholabiodes, Radoszkowski. 

(Type Mutilla pedunculata, Klug.) 

3. Front wings with two cubital cells and only one recurrent nervure ; 

both mandibles excised beneath, with a process or projection 
before the incision ; ocelli large. (Africa, 

Asia.) Pseudophotopsis, Andre'. 

(Type Agama Kamarovi, Radosz ) 
Front wings with fAree cuhhal cells and with two recurrent nervures, 
the third cubital cell again divided by a longitudinal vein issuing 
from the middle of the second transverse cubitus. 

(Asia ) Alloneurion, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla Kokpetica, Radosz.) 

4. Mesosternum anteriorly normal, unarmed 5. 

Mesosternum anteriorly abnormal, armed with two (or more) teeth. 

Head quadrate, the temples full ; mandibles at apex 4-dentate ; 
mesosternum laterally at the middle armed with a tooth ; first 
joint of the flagellum as long or nearly as the second. (North 

America.) Tetraphotopsis, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type T. Hubbardi, Ashm.) 

Head not quadrate, the temples not full ; mandibles at apex 
3-dentate ; mesosternum laterally unarmed ; first joint of the 
flagellum shorter than the second. (North 

America.) Odontophotopsis, V^iereck. 

(Type O. exogyrus, Viereck.) 

5. Marginal cell at apex pointed or rounded, but never broadly 

truncate 6. 

Marginal cell at apex broadly, squarely truncate 15. 

6. Mandibles beneath excised, or with a sinus and usually with a tooth, 

or process, before the incision, or at least the left mandible excised 
beneath , , 7. 



306 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Mandibles beneath simple, not excised g. 

7. Mandibles acuminate, or with a tooth within before apex, never 

3-dentate 14. 

Mandibles stout and strong throughout, at apex 3-dentate. 

Front wings with only one recurrent nervure 8. 

Front wings with two recurrent nervures 13. 

8. Ocelli large ; submedian cell a little longer than the median ; first 

and second joints of the flagellum cylindrical, more than twice 
longer than thick, and about equal in length. (North 

America.) Neophotopsis, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Photopsis pluto, Fox.) 

Ocelli small ; submedian cell not longer than the median ; first joint 

of the flagellum a little longer than thick and shorter than the 

second. (North America.) Bruesia, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla harmonia. Fox.) 

9. Front wings with three cubital cells, or the third partially formed. . 12. 
Front wings with two cubital cells, the third entirely absent. 

Mesonotum with distinct parapsidal furrows 10. 

Mesonotum without parapsidal furrows 11. 

10. Mandibles at apex 3-dentate. 

Front wings with two cubital cells. (North 

America.) Neophotopsis, Ashm. (partim). 

11. Second cubital cell triangular; ocelli large; flagellum cylindrical, the 

first joint longer than wide, but shorter than the second. (North 

America.) Micromulilla, Ashmead. 

(Type Photopsis nana, Ashm.) 

Second cubital cell small, irregularly pentagonal ; ocelli not large, 
close together in a triangle. (South 

America.) Scaptodactyla, Burmeister. 

(Type S. heterogama, Burm.) 

1 2. Mandibles strong, 3-deniate at apex. 

Front wings with only one recurrent nervure ; first abdominal 
segment smooth, or at most only sparsely feebly 
punctate Neophotopsis, Ashm. (partim). 

Front wings with two recurrent nervures ; first abdominal segment 
distinctly, closely punctate Photopsis, Blake (partim). 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 307 



1 3. Ocelli large ; submedian cell not or rarely much longer than the 

median ; first abdominal segment closely punctate. (North 

America.) Photopsis, Blake. 

(Type P. imperialis, Blake.) 
Ocelli small ; submedian cell longer than the median; first abdominal 
segment smooth, impunctate. (North 

America.) Nomi?ephagus, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla Sanbornii, Blake.) 

14. Ocelli large; submedian cell a little longer than the median ; two 

recurrent nervures, the second, however, sometimes incomplete or 
subobsolete at apex; first joint of the flagellum about twice as long 

as thick. (North America.) Pyrrhomutilla, Ashmead. 

(Type Sphaerophthalma anthophorse, Ashm.) 

15. Mesonotum without parapsidal furrows 16. 

Mesonotum with parapsidal furrows 18. 

16. Thorax about twice as long as wide, not wider than the head 17. 

Thorax not much longer than wide, wider than the head. 

Submedian cell not longer than the median ; flagellum cylindrical, 
tapering off at apex, the fourth joint not much longer than the 
second; second ventral segment more or less conically produced 
or elevated at basal middle. (Australia. ).Eurymutilla, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla afiinis, Westw.) 

17. Submedian cell longer than the median ; flagellum cylindrical, the 

first joint shorter than the second; second ventral segment normal. 

(.\ustralia.) Ephutomorpha, .\ndre. 

(Type Mutilla aurata, Fabr.) 

18. Front wings with two cubital cells 19. 

Front wings with three cubital cells. 

Head subglobose; ocelli small. Australia. Bothriomutilla, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla rugicollis, VVeslw.) 
19 Head subquadrate ; ocelli small: mandibles excised beneath, 2- or 

3-dentate {teste KxvAxL) (South America.) Tallium Andre. 

(Type Mutilla tenebrosa, Gerst.) 

20. Thorax not or hardly twice as long as wide, usually narrowed 

posteriorly, but never very elongate 21, 

Thorax elongate, thrice as long as wide, or nearly, obpyriform .... 29. 

21. Thorax at least i}^ times as long as wide, obtrapezoidal, obovoid, 

obpyriform, or banjo shaped, or nearly 24. 



308 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Thorax not or only a little longer than wide, quadrate or nearly, 
obtrapezoidal, short ovoid or otherwise shaped. 

Thorax obtrapezoidal or short ovoid 22. 

Thorax hexagonal, a little wider than long, punctate ; head 
subglobose ; first and second joints of the flagellum only a 
little longer than thick. (Australia). .Eurymutilla, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla affinis, Westw.) 

22. Thorax at least i ^/^ times as long as wide 24. 

Thorax obtrapezoidal and only a little longer than wide. 

Mandibles excised beneath 23. 

Mandibles not excised beneath. 

Mandibles conically pointed edentate; first and second joints 
of the flagellum small, not longer than wide, the third 
joint longer than the second . . Micromuiilla, Ashmead. 
Mandibles falcate^ but with a small tooth within before the 
apex; first joint of the flagellum much longer than wide 
and longer than the second .. Neophotopsis, Ashmead. 

23. Mandibles decussate, acute at apex, but with a minute tooth within 

before the apex ? Odontophotopsis, Viereck. 

24. Thorax banjo-shaped, or nearly 32. 

Thorax obovoid or obpyriform. 

Head transverse quadrate, the temples broad ; eyes oval or 
ellipsoidal ; highly polished. 

Mandibles long, acuminate decussate, edentate, first 
joint of the flagellum long, obconical, longer than 
the 2nd and 3rd united. . . .? Neophotopsis, Ashm- 
Thorax obtrapezoidal. 

Head subglobose, the temples rather broad ; eyes ellipsoidal 
or nearly round. 

Scape very long ; first joint of flagellum very long ; 
mandibles long, slender, pointed at apex, v/ith two 

teeth within Scaptodactyla, Burmeister. 

Scape normal ; first joint of flagellum not especially 
long. 

Left mandible ivith an incision beneath 
toward base. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 309 



Mandibles bidentate ; first juint of 
the flagellutn long, fully as 
long as 2nd and 3rd 
united. .? Tetraphotopsis, Ashm. 

Mandibles acuminate, decussate, 

without teeth ; first joint of the 

flagellum obconical, longer than 

the second. .PNeophotopsis, Ashm. 

Left mandibles without an incision beneath, 

simple ? genus. 

24. Thorax banjo-shaped, or nearly, much contracted at the sides. . . .32. 
Thorax obpyriform, obovoid or obtrapezoidal 25. 

25. Mandibles beneath simple, not excised 26. 

Mandibles beneath, or at least the left mandible, excised and usually 

with a process or projection before the incision .... 28. 

26. Mandibles at apex 3-dentate 27. 

Mandibles at apex simple or at most with a small tooth within before 

apex, or bidentate. 

Head rather large quadrate or subquadrate, the temples 
broad Nomiaephagus, Ashmead. 

27. Head subglobose, the temples not especially broad, the antennal 

fovese not deep, without a carina superiorly. . .Brusia, Ashmead. 

28. Pygidium smooth, without a pygidial area ; eyes short, 

oval Tricholabiodes, Radoszkowski. 

Pygidium not smooth, with a pygidial area. 

Body bare or nearly, at the most clothed with a sparse 
pubescence. 

Mandibles edentate, pointed at apex ; first joint of the 
flagellum not, or scarcely, longer than wide, and 
very little longer than the second. Photopsis, Blake. 
Body clothed with a dense pubescence. 

Mandibles acuminate, but with a slight tooth within before 
apex Pyrrhomutilla, Ashmead. 

29. Thorax coarsely, rugosely punctate, pitted or foveolated, the front 

margin truncate, the angles acute or toothed, the lateral margins 
with a prominent tooth at the beginning of the contracted 

portion or in the tegular region 30. 

Thorax not coarsely, rugosely punctate or pitted, although punctate, 
the front angles rounded, the lateral margins without a tooth, 31. 



310 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

30. Head above bare ; mandibles stout edentate, antennal fovese bounded 

by a sharp carina superiorly ; first joint of the flagellum twice as 

long as the second Bothriomutilla, Ashmead. 

Head above clothed with a dense, white pubescence ; mandibles 
elongate, pointed at apex ; antennal fovea not bounded by a 
carina superiorly ; first joint of the flagellum only a little 
longer than the second (South 

America) Leucospilomutilla, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla cerberus, Klug.) 

31. Head transverse or subglobose, bare or nearly; the eyes rounded, 

very prominent ; antennal fovese bounded by a carina superiorly ; 
mandibles edentate ; first joint of the flagellum much longer than 

the second (Australia) Ephutomorpha, Andre'. 

(Type Mutilla aurata, Fabr.) 

32. Head large, subquadrate, somewhat wider than the thorax, but with 

the hind angles rounded and beneath normal, unarmed ; 

mandibles long, bidentate (South America) Tilluma, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla spinosa, Swederus.) 

Head very large, quadrate, wider than the thorax, the hind angles 

acute, and armed on each side beneath with a strong tooth ; 

mandibles long, acute, with a tooth within much before the 

middle (South America) Atillum, Andre'. 

(Type Mutilla bucephala, Perty.) 

A NEW ANOPHELES WITH UNSPOTTED WINGS. 

BY D. W. COQUILLETT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Anopheles Barberi, new species. — Near Waikeri, but only about 
half as large, the upright forked scales of the occiput chiefly yellowish- 
white, body devoid of scales, etc. Black, the base of the antennse, 
clypeus, stems of halteres, coxae and trochanters yellow, thorax and 
scutellum yellowish-brown, front portion of the former and the pleura 
more yellowish, occiput devoid of appressed scales ; thorax somewhat 
polished, thinly bluish-gray pruinose, the hairs and bristles chiefly black, 
those of the abdomen mostly yellowish, of the coxae yellow ; femora with 
a distinct bluish tinge, tarsal claws simple ; wings hyaline, the scales 
brown, the lateral ones lanceolate, petiole of first submarginal cell about 
one-third as long as tliat cell, base of the latter much nearer the base of 
the wing than that of the second posterior cell, hind crossvein less than 
its length from the small crossvein ; length, 3 mm. 

Three females, collected August 14th, 1902, and August 17 and 19, 
1903, on Plummer's Island, Maryland, by Mr. H. S. Barber, after whom 
the species is named. Type No. 6959, U. S. National Museum. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 311 

NOTES ON CULICID/E AND THEIR LARV^ EROM J'ECOS, 

NEW MEXICO, AND DESCRIPTION OF A 

NEW GRABHAMIA. 

BY FRED. V. THEOBALD, M. A., BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON, ENG. 

A small collection of mosquitoes has been sent me by Dr. Grabham, 
collected by himself and Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell at Pecos Canon, New 
Mexico, U. S. A. 

This collection was made in June and contains five species, namely : 

1. Theobaldia incidens, Thomson. 

2. Culex Kelloggii, Theobald. 

3. Culex consobriiius, Desvoidy. 

4. Grabhainia Curriei, Coquillett. 

5. Grabhamia vittata, nov. sp. 

1. The Theobaldia incidens, Thomson (5 $ s), show very evident 
pale leg banding on the hind legs in one or two specimens, and the 
position of the posterior cross-vein also varies, for one has it just before 
the mid cross-vein, another specimen just behind the mid. They were 
taken on the i8th, 27th and 29th of June. The largest specimen 
measures 1 1 mm. in wing expanse. 

2. Culex Kelloggii, Theobald. (Canad. Entom., Vol. XXXV., 
p. 211, 1903. — (Sc^s and i ? ). This species was bred by Dr. Grabham 
from long-siphoned larvae and only a very few specimens were found. 
They are quite typical, but the ^ s are much smaller than the type, one 
only being 4 mm. long. They were bred from the 19th to the 27 th of 
June. 

The larva of C. Kelloggii. — Head bright testaceous ; eyes black, a 
black band behind ; antennae black, at the apex acuminate, ending in 
three long black spines and one very small one ; just above the junction 
of the dark and pale areas is a fan-shaped set of hairs. Thoracic hairs as 
follows : The frontal band composed of two large median triple hairs, a 
couple of small ones next, then two single ones, followed by two triple 
ones outside ; the next lateral area composed of two outer densely 
compound groups, then on the inside a double and single hair ; third area 
composed of two compound bunches. The siphon as long as the three 
preceding segments, pale testaceous black at the apex and with a black 
basal ring and black spot, a row of small bristles on its basal half and a 
line of fine hair tufts on the apical portion, these are four in number 



312 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



and rather more basal than shown in the figure ; at its base three tufts of 
bristles on each side and a group of spines ; anal segment with a few 
long black dorsal bristles and pale ventral fan ; gill plates long and 
narrow. Characteristic basal spines shown at a. 
Length. — 8.5 to 9 mm. 




Fig. 14. — Culex Kelloggii, larva. 

I. Thoracic frontal and lateral hairs; II. Antenna; III. Anal gills; IV. Respiratory- 
siphon, a basal spines. 



3. Culex amsobrinus, Desvoidy. — One $ taken on June 21st. This 
species I do not think has been recorded so far south before. 

4. Grabhatnia Curriei, Coquillett. Culex Curriei, Coquillett. (Can. 
Entomol,, p. 259, 1902.). — A series of 10 9 s, varying greatly in size, the 
smallest 4.5 mm., the largest 6 mm. The metanotum is densely clothed 
with pale straw-coloured narrow curved scales with a median broad 
reddish-brown line, one or two show traces of narrow similarly-coloured 
lateral lines. They were taken from 2olh to 29th of June, during the 
day, and were very troublesome and abundant. The four pairs of black 
abdominal spots on segments 2 to 5 are very marked. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



010 
o lo 



5. Grahhamia vittata, n. sp. — Thorax clothed with rich reddish- 
brown scales and with two narrow broken creamy lines and a ievf pale 
scales at the sides, especially over the roots of the wings ; pleura with 
dense gray scales. Abdomen blackish-brown with basal white bands ; 
venter white. Legs brown, base of femora pale, remainder of femora 




Fig. 15. — Grabhamia vittata, larva. 
I. Thoracic frontal and lateral hairs; II. Antenna; III. Siphon, a basal spines. 



and tibi?e mottled with white scales ; some of the tarsi with basal white 
bands ; last hind tarsal black ; ungues of 9 all uniserrated ; of ^ all 
uniserrated. 

? . — Head brown with narrow curved yellowish scales, palest in the 
middle, with numerous upright yellow and black forked scales, flat 
creamy-white lateral scales with a round patch of flat black ones in the 
middle of each white area, a pale border along the eyes, black bristles 
projecting over them, except in the middle where the bristles are golden ; 
antennae deep brown, basal joint and base of the second joint bright 



314 THE CA.NA.DIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

testaceous; proboscis deep brown; palpi deep brown towards the apex; 
joints testaceous, with a few golden and black hairs, apical joint long, as 
long as the rest of the palpi. Thorax deep brown, clothed with bright 
reddish-brown narrow curved scales, a narrow median black line and a 
narrow line of creamy scales on each side, also a few creamy scales in 
front, over the root of the wings and before the scutellum ; four rows of 
long dark bristles on the posterior half of the mesonotum ; scutellum 
brown with narrow curved pale creamy scales and long dark posterior 
border bristles ; metanotum pale brown ; pleura fawn coloured, densely- 
white scaled. 

Abdomen deep blackish brown with basal white bands and a few 
yellow scales on the apices of the last three segments ; border bristles 
pallid ; venter densely clothed with creamy-white scales. Legs with the 
coxfe pale, with creamy scales ; femora pale basally and ventrally, with 
scattered brown scales becoming densest towards the apex, extreme apex 
with a yellow spot ; tibiae brown, mottled with pale scales, darkest 
towards the apex and with black bristles ; fore metatarsi and first two 
tarsal segments with narrow pale basal bands ; mid-tarsi the same as the 
fore ; hind legs with a pale basal band to the metatarsi and first three 
tarsal segments, last segment black ; all the ungues uniserrated. 

Wings with brown scales except on the subcostal vein and one side 
of the first long vein, where they are mainly white, and also at the base of 
the costa ; the lateral vein-scales on the second, third, fourth and apex of 
the fifth veins long ; the first, third and fifth long veins with darker scales 
than the remainder ; fork-cells short, the first submarginal cell longer and 
narrower than the second posterior cell, its base about level with that of 
the latter, its stem slightly longer than half the length of the cell ; stem of 
the second posterior about the same length as the cell ; posterior cross- 
vein rather more than its own length distant from the mid cross-vein ; 
fringe dense, brown. Halteres with pale testaceous stem and fuscous 
knot. 

Length. — 4.2 to 5.5 mm. 

$. — Palpi brown with a white band at the base of the two apical 
joints, plume hairs brown, yellow opposite the pale basal areas, there is 
also a pale band on the long antepenultimate joint, the last two joints of 
nearly equal length, the apical one slightly the shorter ; apex of the 
antepenultimate swollen. Antennae with brown plume hairs tipped with 
grayish-yellow ; scales of the head gray. Thorax with looser, more 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 315 

scattered, reddish-brown scales in the middle, gray ones at the sides. 
Abdomen as in the $. Legs banded as in the $ , but the pale basal 
bands more of a yellow hue. 

Fork-cells very small ; first submarginal a little longer and much 
narrower than the second posterior, its base a little the nearer the apex of 
the wing, its stem a little longer than the cell ; stem of the second 
posterior cell also longer than the cell ; posterior cross-vein about one 
and a half times its own length distant from the mid. 

Fore and mid ungues unequal, both uniserrated, the larger mid 
ungues rather straighter than the much-curved fore one ; hind ungues 
equal, prominently uniserrated. Basal lobes of genitalia very hairy, 
claspers narrow, thin, terminating in a longish spine. 

Length. — 4.5 to 5 mm. 

Habitat. — Pecos Canon, New Mexico, U. S. A. 

Time of capture. — June i6thto 29th. 

Observations. — A very abundant species, according to Dr. Grabham, 
caught after sunset. It varies very much in size, the smallest specimen 
being 4 mm, the largest 5.5 rnm. The $ has evidently a variable 
adornment on the thorax and is peculiar in having the hind ungues 
uniserrated. 

The species can easily be told from any other Grabhamia with 
banded legs by the basally-banded abdomen and last hind tarsal being 
black and the white-scaled sub costal and first long vein. G. dorsalis, 
which it most nearly approaches, has the abdomen and thorax with 
different adornment and the legs basally and apically banded, not basally 
as in this species. The type is in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

The larva. — Head deep chestnut brown, eyes black, reniform, pale 
around ; antennae pale testaceous at the base, dark at the apex, 
terminating in two small spines and a third larger flattish pointed one, 
paler in colour ; there is also a long lateral spine about half way down 
the antenna; mouth whorls bright golden-yellow; thorax and abdomen 
pale brown with a double darker dorsal line, the front of the thorax with 
four tufts of black hairs in the middle in front, then two separate hairs 
and then another tuft on each side, two pairs of long lateral tufts, the first 
pair with two single black bristles just behind them and a little more 
centrally placed ; the first two abdominal segments with large lateral 
tufts, remainder with small ones ; siphon short and thick, deep brown, 
about as long as the penultimate and antepenultimate segments ; a few 



316 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

tufts of hair near its base and also a patch of characteristic spines shown 
at a. The last segment has a single dorsal tuft with a large bristle below 
it ; the ventral fan rather long and prominent and four ventral small tufts. 

Length. — When mature, 9 mm. 

T\\Q pupa has cylindrical siphons contracted towards the apex, with 
small, slightly-oblique, opening ; there is a dense median tuft on the first 
abdominal segment. The anal fins are large, rounded, with median rib 
and double-contoured border towards the base of each fin ; a distinct 
apical dorsal tuft on the last segment. 

Length. — 5 mm., with anal fins 6 mm. 



HESSIAN FLY REARED IN THE LABORATORY. 

BY F. L. WASHBURN, ST. ANTHONY PARK, MINN. 

It has always been claimed that there is but one brood of Hessian 
Fly in Minnesota. On June 25th of current year larvse of Hessian Fly 
in second stage were found working on wheat in an adjoining county, 
brought to the Experiment Station and the wheat plant placed in moist 
sand in breeding jar in laboratory. These specimens quickly formed 
puparia, and one fly, a female, emerged July 19th. She lived about two 
days, before dying depositing between 80 and 90 eggs on green blade of 
wheat and on dried wheat stem in breeding cage. The eggs were laid 
indiscriminately on leaf and stem, some singly, some in clusters of two or 
three and some in strings attached by ends. 

On July ist one larva was found in field in first stage, brought into 
laboratory on wheat plant, but did not live. 

On the same day larvae in second stage were secured and placed in 
breeding jar in laboratory. Upon July 8th they formed puparia, and on 
Aug. 1 6th one female emerged. She died Aug. i8th without ovipositing. 

The season here has been cold and damp, ideal condition for 
Hessian Fly. Probably more favorable conditions existed outside than 
in the laboratory. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 31 7 

LIST OF CANADIAN COLEOPTERA. 

BY JOHN D. EVANS, TRENTON, ONT. 
(Continued from page 292.) 
Chrysomelidce. 
6550, Orsodachna atra, Ahr., '79, '80. 
*659o, Coscinoptera dominicana, Fab., '80. 
^6592, "" vittigera, Lee, '79. 

6610b, Bassareus pretiosus, Melsh., '80. 
6614a, Cryptocephalus notatus. Fab., 80. 
*6626, " confluens, Say, '79. 

*6633, " calidus, Suffr., '80. 

6683, Pachybrachys carbonarius, Hald., '79. 
6690, " atomarius, Melsh., '80, 

sp., '79. 
Graphops, sp., '80 
6778, Nodonota tristis, Oliv., '80. 
6778a, " convexa, Say, '79. 

6778b, " puncticollis. Say, '79, '80. 

6781, Entomoscelis adonidis. Fab., '79, '80. 
6783, Prasociiris vittata, Oliv., '80. 
6795, Chiysomela exclamationis, Fab., '79, '80. 



6796, 


'• 


conjuncta, Rog., '79, 80. 


6799. 


" 


suturalis. Fab., '79. 


% (( 


(( 


" var.pulchra,Fab.,'8i 


6807, 


<( 


lunata. Fab., '79, '80, '81. 


6808, 


(( 


scalaris, Lee, '80. 


6809, 


(( 


Philadelphica, Linn., 80. 


6810, 


'• 


multipunctata. Say, '79. 


6810a, 


(( 


Bigsbyana, Kirby,'79,'8o,'8r 



*683i, Gastroidea dissimilis. Say, '79, '80. 

6833, " formosa, Say, '79. 

6837, Lina lapponica, Linn., '79. 
*6838, " tremulse, Fab., '79. 

6839, " scripta. Fab., '79, '81. 

6843, Gonioctena pallida, Linn., '81. 

6844, Phyllodecta vulgatissima, Linn., '81. 
6848, Phyllobrotica discoidea, Fab., '79. 

6892b, Trirhabda Canadensis, Kirby, '79, '80. 



318 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

*6894, Trirhabda attenuata, Say, '79, '80. 
6898, Adimonia externa, Say, '79, '80. 
6907, Galeruca decora, Say, '80, '8t, 
6909, " notulata, Fab., '81. 
6915, " erosa, Lee, '79. 

6932, Oedioiiychis vians, III., '79, '80. 

6933, " higens, Lee, '.79. 
6948, Disonycha alternata. III, '79, '80. 
6950, " Pennsylvanica, 111., '80. 

6957, " triangularis. Say, '80. 

6958, " collaris. Fab., '79. 
6960, Haltica bimarginata, Say, '79. 
6962, " carinata, Germ., '81. 

6963a, " inserata, Lee, '79, *8o, '81. 
6968, " evicta, Lee, '79. 
7023, Phyllotreta vittata. Fab. '80. 
7060, Microrhopala vittata, Fab., '80. 
7082, Odontota nervosa, Panz., '80. 
7104, Coptocycla guttata, Oliv., '79. 

" sp., '80. 

7109, Chelymorpha argus, Licht., '79. 

Bruchidce. 
*7i24, Bruchus discoideus, Say, '80. 
*7i48, " fraterculus, Horn, '79. 
sp., '79. 
Tenebrionidce. 
*7254, Asida opaca. Say, '80. 
*7257> " polita. Say, '79, '80. 
*7259, " sordida, Lee, '79. 
^7291, Coniontis opaca, Horn., '79. 
*7320, Eleodes tricostata. Say, '79, '80. 
*7323. " obsoleta. Say, '79, '80. 
♦7327, " extricata. Say, '79, '80. 
*734o, " hispilabris. Say, '79, '80. 
*7357. " opaca, Say, '79, '80. 
7401, Upis ceraniboides, Linn., '79, '80, '81. 
* 10592, Blapstinus gregalis, Casey, '79, '80. 
Paratenetus gibbipennis, Mots., '79. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 319 

Mclaiidryidcc. 
7653, Melandrya stiiata, Say, '79. 

Cephaloidce. 
7759, Cephaloon tenuicorne, Lee, '81. 

MordellidcE. 
111^, Mordella metena, Germ., '79. 
7783, " marginata, Melsh., '79. 

sp., '80. 

Anihicidce. 
Stereopalpus, sp., '79. 
7925, Notoxus anchora, Hentz. , '79, '80. 

MeloidcE. 

8006, Meloe impressus, Kirby, '79, '80. 
*8o28, Nemognatha dichroa, Lee, '79, '80. 
*8o77, Epicauta puncticollis, Mann., '79. 
^8078, " oblita, Lee, '79, '80. 

^8083, " sericans, Lee, '79, '80. 

*8o84, " pruinosa, Lee, '80. 

*8o92, " maculata. Say, '79, '80. 

8104, " Pennsylvaiiica, DeG., '79. 

" sp., '79. 

8132, Cantharis Nuttalli, Say, '79, '80. 

8133. " cyanipennis. Say, '79, '80. 

* " atrata, Fab., '80. 

RhynchitidiE. 
8210, Rhynchites bicolor. Fab., '79, '80. 

Otiorhynch idee. 
^8245, Ophryastes sulcirostris, Say, '79. 

^8279, Nocheles aequalis, Horn, '80. 

*83i2, Tanymechus confertus, Gyll.j'79. 

C'urculion idee. 
8348, Sitones tibialis, Hbst., '80. 
*8357, Trichalophus simplex, Lee, '79. 
8429, Phytonomus setigerus, Lee, '80. 
8437, Lepyrus colon, Linn., '79, '81. 
8444, Listronotus insequalipennis, Boh., '79. 
Macrops, 2 sp., '79. 
2 sp. , '80. 



320 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

8482, Hypomolyx pineti, Fab., '81. 
*8487, Lixiis rubellus, Rand., '79, 
*8497, " mucidus, Lee, '80. 
*85i4, Stephanocleonus cristatus, Lee, '79, 

8543, Eryciis puncticoUis, Lee, 79, '80. 

8615, Magdalis barbita, Say, '79. 

8648, Anthonomus nigrinus, Boh., '79, '80. 
*8659, " rufipes, Lee, '80. 

8661, " cratjegi, Walsh, '81. 

*8842, Ceutorhynchus sericans, Lee, '80. 
■"■11078, " erysimi, Fab., '80. 

CalandridcB. 
89S9, Sphenophorus costipennis, Horn, '79. 

Scolytidce. 
Hylesinus, sp., '80. 
The genus and species of several specimens have not yet been 
determined. 

GASTROPHILUS EPILEPSALIS, French. 

BY F. L. WASHBURN, ST. ANTHONY PARK, MINN. 

Dr. Burnside Foster, of St. Paul, a short time since sent me three 
Dipterous larvae taken from the cutaneous tissue of a three-weeks- 
old infant, born on tlie seventh month, at Superior, Wisconsin. I at 
first thought the insect to be Lucilia, but being in doubt, and having no 
biological collection in this group for reference, I immediately sent it to 
Washington, receiving a telegram in reply that Mr. Coquillett had 
identified it as Gastrophilus epilepsalis. 

In view of Prof. French's description of the type on page 263, Vol. 
32, of this journal, taken with his account of the medical aspects of the 
case described, and in view also of Prof. Aldrich's objection to the 
nomenclature, page 318, op. cit., I regard this as an interesting find. Dr. 
Foster states that two of these maggots were from the neck, one from the 
palm of the hand and one from between the great toe and second toe on 
right foot, all of them in pustules similar to those made by some others 
of this genus. The child had been sleeping out of doors considerably 
during the daytime. The doctor proposes to write an account of the 
case in the forthcoming number of the St. Paul Medical Journal, of 
which he is editor. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 321 

It will be remembered that Prof. French named this species from a 
larva, great quantities of which were found in the evacuations of a child 
subject to periodic epileptic spasms. As these attacks ceased for a time 
after the use of purging medicines, by means of which large numbers of 
the maggots were voided, Prof. French appears to have assumed, 
curiously enough, that the spasms were caused by the reprodtictio?i of the 
larvce in the intestines (the italics are mine) and the effect of the same on 
the nervous tissue ; hence he gave the maggot the specific name 
epilepsalis. 

In sending the above cutaneous larvaj found by Dr. Foster to 
VVashington, I gave no data whatever, and yet they were declared 
identical with Prof. French's type, an intestinal parasite. 

It is a pity no imagoes were reared from the larvee. It appears 
probable that the species is badly named, for it evidently has no 
connection with epilepsy. In any event, much remains to be learned 
regarding it. 

BOOK NOTICE. 



Check List of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America. — By John B. 

Smith, Sc. D., Professor of Entomology, Rutgers College, assisted by 

Henry Skinner, M.D., and W. D. Kearfoot (Kearfott), Philadelphia. 

American Entomological Society, June, 1903. 

Prof. Smith has produced a new edition of his List of 1891, brought 

up to date. There seems a certain savour of rivalry in the appearance of 

this publication immediately after the Washington catalogue (Bull. 52, U. 

S. N. M.), especially as the Edwardsian names for the butterflies are 

again advanced. Still, there may be some excuse for the List in its 

smaller size and more compact form. The absence of a specific index is 

a great disadvantage. As a whole, the Washington catalogue has been 

copied, with a new set of numbers. There are some divergences, on 

which comment may be made. The most marked is Dr. Skinner's 

restoration of the Edwardsian names for the butterflies. I am sure this is 

a false position. As I have repeatedly said, there are probably too many 

genera in Dr. Scudder's system, but they must be fully studied. Prof. 

Grote has shown how it should be done in the Papilio group. A 

wholesale rejection of Dr. Scudder's work is not the way to solve the 
problem. 

In the Sphingidae Prof. Smith makes a few changes, hardly for the 
better. All the forms of Hetnaris teiuiis are given specific rank, which 



322 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



shows a lack of attention to the work of Prof. Smytli. In the Sat- 
urniidse, Attacus, Linn., is preferred to RotJischildia, Grote, and Calo- 
saturtiia, Smith, is revived for our American Saturnia. It would have 
been better if these changes had not been made. The NoHd.-e are 
interpolated after the Lithosidfe, following Sir G. F. Hampson. They are 
really Tineids, as Dr. Chapman and I have shown. In the Nycteolidaj, 
Ear las oblignata, Hy. Edw., again appears. I have been at pains to 
point out that it is a Pyralid, though it is perhaps not surprising that Prof. 
Smith overlooked this, since the species, unfortunately, was omitted in the 
Washington catalogue. Cydosia and Cerathosia again inject themselves 
into the Arctiidte, in spite of the proof adduced by Prof. Grote and myself 
that this is not their correct position. The genus Fenaria appears in the 
Agaristidae along with other genera which I refer to the Noctuidse, but as 
Fenaria appears also in the Noctuid^ (p. 47), it leaves some doubt as to 
Prof. Smith's point of view. 

In the Noctuidae, Prof. Smith's changes in the specific names will 
prove the most valuable part of the' list. I do not think he gives enough 
weight to Prof. Grote's work on the generic names ; but this does not 
greatly matter in the interim of the appearance of Sir G. F. Hampson's 
volumes, which will settle these matters, I hope. Psychophora appears in 
the Noctuidse and again in the Geometridse. Is this a facetious attem|)t 
to express the variation in venation which we observed in the species 
fasciata ? Mr. Beutenmiiller gives a new version of Catocala. 

The small families following the Noctuidi^ are practically unchanged. 
I see that Malacosoma pluvialis and AI. ambisimilis have fallen into the 
synonymy. I wonder if Prof. Smith ever compared the larvae of Cali- 
Jornicu and pluvialis. If he had, he could hardly have made this 
synonymy without comment. May I not justly refer Prof. Smith to the 
words in his own preface : " It is not for the catalogue-maker to decide 
upon the validity of species and genera except where he has special 
knowledge " ? 

The GeometridiB, I presume, have not been changed. Mycterophora 
still masquerades as a Geometrid, though Prof. Smith might have properly 
transferred it to his Noctuid series. In the Limacodidte, some unwar- 
ranted changes have been made. Miiuiia, Reak., is not Shurtleffii, 
Pack. , and Graefii and Fiskeatia are not flexuosa ; aesonia, crypta and 
flavula are good varieties, not synonyms. Some very bad advice has been 
followed here. 

In the Pyralidae and subsequent groups, Mr. Kearfott is responsible, 
and he follows my catalogue closely. I think it would have been better 
if the catalogue had been followed throughout and the same numbers 
retained. Many collectors use the list numbers in correspondence, and 
the divergences introduced will cause a certain inconvenience, not com- 
pensated for by the cases where the changes are an improvement on my 
catalogue. These cases are not numerous, and should have been left for 
a more general revision. Harrison G. Dvar. 

Mailed November 6lh, 1903. 



I|^ fititailicin llntoinuldijbt 



Vol. XXXV. LONDON, DECEMBER, 1903. No. 12 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSORIAL, PREDACEOUS AND 

PARASITIC WASPS, OR THE SUPERFAMILY 

VESPOIDEA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, M. A., D. SC, ASSISTANT CURATOR, U. S. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(Paper No. 17. — Continued from Vol. XXXV, p. 310.) 

Tribe II. — Mutillini. 
This tribe, to the initiated, is readily distinguished by the eyes, which 
are usually quite differently shaped, rarely smooth and shining, and always 
distinctly facetted, although a few females have small ellipsoidal or 
somewhat rounded eyes, as in the tribes Photopsid'nii and Sphaerophthal- 
mini, and therefore, if the greatest care is not given to other characters, 
could be confused with certain genera in those tribes. 

Table of Genera. 
Males I , 

Females 28. 

1. Eyes not large, oval, ovate or ellipsoidal, never emarginate within, 

distinctly facetted 2. 

Eyes large, always distinctly emarginate within 13. 

2. Apterous or subapterous forms 3. 

Fully winged forms 8, 

3. Subapterous or with rudimentary wings 7. 

Apterous or entirely without wings. 

Thorax with distinct sutures, the scutellum more or less 
differentiated 4. 

Thorax without sutures, the scutellum not differentiated, entirely 
absent ; eyes small, oval. (Europe, Africa and 

Asia.) Brachymutilla, Andre. 

(Type B. gynandromorpha, Andre.). 

4. Mandibles dentate c. 

Mandibles edentate, acute at apex. 



324 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Thorax oblong, narrowed posteriorly, rounded in front, the 
scutellum very minute; eyes small, oval. (North 

America.) Morsyma, Fox. 

(Type M, Ashmeadii, Fox.) 

5. Thorax not obbell-shaped 6. 

Thorax ob-bell-shaped, widest in front, the pronotum very short, 

wider than the mesonotum and a little wider than the head. 

Head transverse, the temples narrow; ocelli wanting ; scutellum 
present ; abdomen spotted with white, the first segment 
narrowed into a slight petiole at base, but broad at apex and 
sessile with the second. (Asia, 

Africa ) Spilomutilla, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla perfecta, Radoszk.) 

6. Thorax oblong, but compressed medially at the sides ; head large, 

quadrate, the temples usually very broad, not oblique ; ocelli 
distinct ; scutellum indistinctly differentiated. 

(Africa.) Viereckia, Ashm., gen. nov, 

(Type Mutilla dumbrodia, Pering.) 
Thorax oblong, as wide behind as before, or nearly, and only slightly 
compressed at the sides medially ; head .obtrapezoidal, the temples 
oblique; ocelli subobsolete ; scutellum entirely absent. 

(Africa.) Apteromutilla, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla aeda, Pe'ring.) 

7. Head large, quadrate, usually much broader than the thorax, the 

thorax oblong quadrate, the sides parallel, or nearly, the front 
angles acute ; mandibles 3-dentate. 

Head armed with a large tooth on each side beneath, the upper 
hind angles acute ; scutellum present ; clypeus bidentate ; 
eyes oval, placed anteriorly rather close to the mandibles. 

(North America.) Myrmilloides, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla grandiceps^ Blake.) 
Head unarmed, the upper hind angles not acute ; scutellum 
present ; clypeus not bidentate. (Europe, Africa, 

Asia.) Myrniilla, Wesmael. 

(Type Mutilla distincta, Lepel.) 

8. Front wings with only two cubital cells 9. 

Front wings with three cubital cells, or the third partially formed, 

never entirely absent ...,..., ,...,....,,,,..., H, 



THE CA.NAD1A.N ENTOMOLOGIST. 325 

9. Not entirely black, the thorax red ; head transverse, rounded behind, 

the hind angles not acute 10. 

Entirely black. 

Head transverse-quadrate, the hind angles acute ; mandibles 

bidentate Pseudomethoca, Ash mead. 

(Type Mutilla Canadensis, Blake.) 
Head transverse, rounded behind, the hind angles not 

acute Dimorphomutilla, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla lunulata, Spinola.) 
10. Head transverse, wider than the thorax ; mandibles not long ; 

bidentate at apex. (Europe, Africa.) Myrmilla, Wesmael. 

Head transverse-quadrate, wider than the thorax ; mandibles long, 
narrow, arcuate, tridentate at apex. (Africa.) . . Labidomilla, Andre'. 

(Type Mutilla tauriceps. Kohl.) 

ir. Mesonotum with furrows ; hind tibife spinous on outer face 12. 

Mesonotum without furrows ; hind tibife not spinous on outer face. 
Not entirely black, the thorax red ; front wings with two recurrent 
nervures ; antennal joints 3 and 4 more than twice longer than 

thick. (Europe.) Myrmilla, Wesmael. 

Entirely black ; front wings with only one recurrent nervure ; 
antennal joints 3 and 4 hardly longer than 
thick (?) Dimorphomutilla, Ashm. (partim.) 

12. Mandibles 3-dentate. 

First and second joint of the flagellum not short, fully twice as long 

as thick. (South America.). Euspinolia, Ashm., g. nov. 

(Type Mutilla chilensis, Spinola.) 
First and second joints of the flagellum short, the first distinctly 

shorter than the second. (Africa.) Dasylabroides, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla capensis, Sauss.) 

13. Antennae simple, never flabellate 14. 

Antennae abnormal, flabellate. 

Thorax with distinct parapsidal furrows ; the scutellum with a deep 
furrov/ across the base ; front wings with three cubital cells. 

(Africa.) Psammotherma, Latreille. 

(Type Mutilla flabellata, Fabr.) 

14. Front wings with three cubital cells, or the third at least partially 

formed 15. 



326 tHE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Front wings wiih only two cubital cells, the third entirely 
obliterated 24. 

15. Scutellum abnormal, conically or triangularly elevated, especially 

medially at apex ...16. 

Scutellum normal, not conically or triangularly elevated 17, 

16. Mesonotum with distinct furrows ; mandibles excised beneath, 

bidentate at apex : abdomen with the first ventral segment carinate 
medially, the hypopygium margined laterally, emarginate at apex. 

(Africa.) Trogaspidia, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla medon. Smith.) 

17. Mesonotum with distinct parapsidal furrows, or the furrows indicated 

posteriorly 18. 

Mesonotum without parapsidal farrows 23. 

18. Mandibles beneath, before the middle, excised or sinuaied, and 

usually with a process or tooth before the incision 19. 

Mandibles beneath simple, not excised or sinuated, and never with a 
process or tooth beneath 21. 

1 9. Mandibles bidentate 20. 

Mandibles tridentate. 

Submedian cell longer than the median, the second cubital cell 
more or less triangular, the third large, hexagonal ; first joint of 
the flagellum shorter than the second. (Europe, Africa, 

Asia.) Mutilla, Linne'. 

(Type M. europaea, Linne'.) 

20. Submedian cell longer than the median, rarely equal, the marginal cell 

about twice as long as wide ; first joint of the flagellum about as 
long as the second ; hind tibise spinous and also with long hairs. 

(North and South America.) , TimuUa, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla dubitata. Smith.) 
Submedian and median cells equal, the marginal cell not .much longer 
than wide ; first joint of the flagellum distinctly shorter than the 
second ; hind tibiae not spinous, but with long hairs. 

(Europe.) . Smicromyrme, Thomson. 

(Type Mutilla rufipes, Latr.) 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 327 

2 1. Mandibles tridentate 22. 

Mandibles bidentate. 

Submedian cell longer than the median; disc of clypeus subconvex; 
first joint of the flagellum a little shorter than the second ; 

second ventral segment normal. (Europe.) Ronisia, Costa. 

(Type Mutilla brutia, Pet.) 

22. Second ventral segment carinate, and sometimes dentate posteriorly 

(Africa.) Barymutilla, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla pythia, Smith.) 

23. Submedian cell longer than the median, the third cubital cell 

pentagonal. (Africa.) (?) Dolichomutilla, Ashmead. 

24. Scutellum and metathorax normal, unarmed 25. 

Scutellum and metathorax abnormal, armed with teeth 27. 

25. Thorax with the front margin slightly arcuate, the angles not acute ; 

front wings with t7V0 recurrent nervures 26, 

Thorax with the frontal margin slightly concave, the angles acute; 
front wings with one recurrent nervure. 

Head transverse, not as wide as the thorax ; mesonotum with 
distinct furrows : median and submedian cells of an equal 
length ; abdomen with a white band. 

(Asia.) Radoszkowskius, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla simplicifascia, Radoszk.) 

26. Head subquadrate, with two tubercles between the antennae, the 

temples broad; recurrent nervures converging and entering the 
second cubital cell close together. 

(Africa.) Blakeius, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla bituberculata, Smith.) 

Head transverse, ivithout tubercles between the antennte, the temples 

not broad ; recurrent nervures not converging, widely separated. 

(Africa.) Mimecomutilla, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla purpurata, Smith.) 

27. Scutellum transverse-quadrate, tridentate posteriorly; second ventral 

segment armed with a tooth. (Africa.) . Peringueya, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla erynnis, Pering. 
Scutellum large, flat, bidentate posteriorly, a tooth at each hind angle 
that curves inwardly ; second ventral segment normal, unarmed 

(Africa.) Odontomutilla, Ashmead. 

(Type Mutilla Saussurei, Sechel.) 



328 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



28. Thorax quadrangular, not much narrowed posteriorly, the sides 

parallel or nearly, sometimes laterally slightly sinuate or compressed 

medially, rarely obtrapezoidal 29. 

Thorax quite differently shaped, most frequently obpyriform, obovoid, 
violin-shaped or otherwise, usually narrowed posteriorly or much 
contracted at the sides 39. 

29. Pygidium not perfectly smooth, usually striate^ rugulose, coriaceous 

or punctate, and with a pygidial area, i.e. with an elevated rim at 

the sides 30. 

Pygidium usually smooth, without a distinct pygidial area, or the 
elevated rim is wanting or exceeding delicate 44. 

30. Thorax with the front angles rounded, 7iot acute •31. 

Thorax with the front angles acute ZZ- 

31. Lateral margins of the thorax and the upper margin of the 

metathoracic truncature dentate or denticulate 32. 

Lateral margins of the thorax and the upper margin of the meta- 
thoracic truncature usually simple, not dentate at the most, and 
rarely with only the upper margin of the truncature dentate .... 34. 

32. Thorax with sides parallel or nearly; head subquadrate, without 

tubercles between the antennae ; mandibles simple, unarmed ; first 
joint of the flagellum obconical, about twice as long as thick, the 

second joint transverse. (Africa) (?) Trogaspidia, Ashmead. 

Thorax with side slightly compressed medially ; head large, quadrate, 
with two tubercles between the antennae ; mandibles very long, 
tridentate (two widely-separated teeth within on inner margin) ; 
first joint of the flagellum very long, longer than 2 and 3 united. 

(South America.) Euspinolia, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla chilensis, Spin.) 

33. Head quadrate, a litde wider than the thorax, with two triangular 

tubercles between the antennae (Africa.) . Blakeius, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla bituberculata. Smith.) 

Head transverse, not wider than the thorax, without tubercles 

between the antennae. (Asia.) . . Radoszkowskius, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla simplicifascia, Radoszk.) 

34. Upper margin of the metathoracic truncature armed with three or 

more teeth 3.S • 

Upper margin of the metathoracic truncature normal, unarmed. . .36. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 329 

35. Thorax not twice as long as wide, the upper margin of the triincature 

armed with 3 to 5 teeth ; head large, quadrate, the temples very 

broad. (Africa.) Peringueya, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla euterpe, Pe'ring.) 
Thorax a little more than twice longer than wide, the upper margin of 
the truncature armed with about 8 teeth ; head subquadrate, the 
temples not especially broad. 

(Africa.) Pristomutilla, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla pectinata, Radoszk.) 

36. Mandibles at apex not tridentate 37. 

Mandibles at apex tridentate, the outer tooth the longest. (Europe, 

Africa, Asia.) Mutilla, Linne. 

37. Mandibles not emarginate beneath towards base, without a process 

or projection 38. 

Mandibles emarginate beneath towards base, with a process or 
projection before the emargination. (Europe.). . . . Ronisia, Costa. 

(Type Mutilla brutia, Pet.) 

38. Head subquadrate or transverse, not or scarcely wider than the 

thorax. 

Mandibles bidentate ; third joint of the antenna not longer than 
the fourth, shorter than the fifth, or no longer. 

(Europe.) Smicromyrme, Thomson. 

Mandibles acuminate, edentate, rarely with a slight tooth within 
before apex; third joint of the antennas longer than the fourth, 
usually as long as joints 4 and 5 united. (North and South 

America.) Timulla, Ashmead. 

Head large, quadrate, wider than the thorax, the temples broad ; 
thorax more than twice longer than wide ; abdomen with two white 
dorsal spots on second segment. (Africa.). . . Viereekia, Ashmead. 

39. Thorax not escutcheon-shaped 40. 

Thorax somewhat escutcheon-shaped, sinuately emarginated or 

contracted from about the apical one-fourth, the posterior margin 
and angles rounded ; head transverse, as wide as the thorax ; eyes 
oval. (Africa.) Miniecomutilla, Ashm. 

40. Thorax quite differently shaped, without a lateral tooth at the apical 

third 41- 

Thorax sinuate and slightly narrowed posteriorly from a lateral tooth 
9,t the apical third, 



330 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Mandibles simple, edentate ; third joint of the antennee obconical, 
hardly longer than thick at apex. 
(Africa.) Odontomutilla, Ashmead. 

41. Thorax not hexagonal, usually obpyriform, obovoid, obtrapezoidal or 

violin-shaped 42. 

Thorax distinctly hexagonal, widest at the angles a little before the 
middle, squarely truncate anteriorly. 

Head quadrate, the temples broad ; eyes oblong-oval. 

(Africa.) Xenomutilla, Ashm., gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla eurydice, Pering.) 

42. Thorax not much elongate, less than thrice as long as wide 43. 

Thorax much elongate, obpyriform, at least thrice as long as wide, or 

even longer ; pygidium towards apex usually smooth, shining, the 

pygidial area nearly obliterated. 

Thorax more than thrice as long as wide, coarsely pitted or 
rugose, the front margin rounded, the lateral margin with a 
triangular tooth before the middle ; second ventral segment 
with a median tooth ; head subquadrate, hardly as wide as the 
thorax, rounded beh'nd, the temples broad; mandibles 
acuminate at apex, but with a tooth within near the middle, 
usually not visible when the mandibles are closed. 

(Africa.) Dolichomutilla, Ashmead. 

Thorax about thrice as long as wide, but not coarsely sculptured, 
the front margin squarely truncate, the lateral margins without a 
tooth ; second ventral segment unarmed ; head transverse, 
not wider than the thorax, the temples narrow ; mandibles 

acuminate, edentate. (Asia.) Promecilla, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla regia. Smith.) 

43. Thorax obpyriform, obovoid or subtrapezoidal, narrowed posteriorly. 

Thorax subtrapezoidal ; head subquadrate, rounded behind, the 
temples broad; eyes small, oval ; mandibles arcuate, acuminate. 

(Africa.) Brachymutilla, Andre. 

Thorax obovoid or obpyriform. 

Head quadrate, the temples broad ; eyes ellipsoidal ; mandibles 
conically-pointed ; third antennal joint longer than the fourth, 
but not twice as long as thick. (North 
America.) Morsyma, Fox. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 3^1 

Head subglobose ; eyes not small, oval or ovate ; mandibles 
stout, conically-pointed ; third antennal joint fully twice as 
long as thick, obconicol, longer than the fourth. (Europe, 

Africa.) Dasylabroides, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla caffree, Smith.) 

44. Thorax more or less contracted at the sides, almost violin-shaped or 

obtrapezoidal ; if somewhat quadangular the sides sinuated . . . .45. 
Thorax quadangular or nearly, trapezoidal or obpyriform 46. 

45. Thorax, seen from above, almost violin-shaped. 

Head large, quadrate, wider than the thorax, the upper hind angles 
acute, beneath armed with a tooth on each side ; mandibles 
usually bidentate, rarely simple, the outer tooth the longer. 

(North America.) Pseudomethoca, Ashmead. 

Head transverse, usually wider than the thorax, but with the hind 
angles rounded and beneath unarmed ; mandibles with a tooth 
within before apex. (South 

America.) Dimorphomutilla, Ashmead, gen. nov. 

(Type Mutilla lunulata. Spin.) 

Thorax, seen from above, almost quadangular, with the sides 

bisinuate or crenulate ; head transverse, a little wider than the 

thorax, the cheeks unarmed; eyes ellipsoidal; mandibles bidentate. 

(Africa.) Barymutilla, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla pythia. Smith.) 

46. Thorax not trapezoidal 47. 

Thorax trapezoidal, slightly narrowed antei-iorly. 

No median longitudinal carina on thorax, the lateral margins finely 
denticulate ; head large, nearly (juadrate, wider than the thorax ; 
eyes oval ; hind tibiaj spinous ; scape long, somewhat curved ; 
first joint of the flagellum very long, three or more times longer 
than the second ; tarsi long and slender ; mandibles large, 
falcate. (Africa.) Labidomilla, Andre. 

A feeble median longitudinal carina on thorax, the lateral margins 
not acute, the hind angles acute ; head oblong, longer than 
wide ; eyes oval ; middle and hind tibife smooth, not spinous. 

(Europe, Asia, Africa.) Nanomutilla, Andre. 

(Type Mutilla voucheri, Turn.) 

47. Thorax quadrangular or nearly, the sides parallel or nearly, rarely 

qauch compressed or sinuate at sides medially , ^8. 



332 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Thorax obpyriform or much narrowed posteriorly 52. 

48. Thorax quadrangular or nearly 49, 

Thorax about twice as long as wide, the sides more or less com- 
pressed or sinuate medially. 

Head not wider than the thorax ; abdomen ovate, subsessile, the 
second segment large, with two white spots. 
(Africa.) Apteromutilla, Ashmead. 

50. Head somewhat large, but without a tooth on each side beneath, the 

hind angles rounded, not acute ; eyes oval or oblong ; antennal 

scape not specially long 51. 

Head large, with a tooth on each side beneath, the hind angles acute ; 
eyes oval ; antennae rather widely separated, the scape long, the 
third joint very long ; mandibles long, narrow, arcuate and 
bidentate at apex. (North America.) Myrmilloides, Andre. 

51. Mandibles 3-dentate ; third antennal joint only about twice as long 

as the fourth, or as long as joints 4 and 5 united. (Europe, Africa, 

Asia.) Myrmilla, Wesmael, 

Mandibles acuminate at apex, with a tooth within before apex, never 
tridentate ; third antennal joint more than twice longer than the 

fourth. (Europe, Africa.) Edrionotus, Radoszkowski. 

(Type Mutilla capitata, Lucas.) 

52. Head not wider than the thorax, strongly concave beneath, the 

margins rimmed ; second abdominal segment anteriorly depressed, 
the depression limited by an oblong cushion. 

(Asia.) Platymutilla, Andre. 

(Type P. quinquefasciata, Andre.) 

A NEW JOINT- WORM PARASITE FROM RUSSIA. 

BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, M.A., D.SC, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Homoponis Vassiliefi^ sp. nov. — 9 — Length, 2 mm. Head and 
thorax blui.sh, finely, closely punctured, the face and the pleura with a 
greenish metallic lustre, the metapleura decidedly brassy; antenna? brown, 
the scape yellow ; legs concolorous with the thorax, the hind coxae with a 
metallic greenish fringe, the apices of all femora, all tibiae and tarsi, except 
the last joint, yellow, the last joint dark fuscous ; wings hyaline, the 
nervures brown, the stigmal vein two-thirds the length of the marginal, the 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. o3 



c> 



postmargiDai vciu very nearly as long as the marginal ; abdomen aeneous 
black, tinged with metallic green basally at the sides, ovate, somewhat 
pointed at apex^ very little longer than the thorax. 

Type.— Cat. No. loio, U. S. N. M. 

Host. — Hym.: Isosoma eremitum, Portschinsky. 

Hab. — Oufa, Russia. Described from a single specimen, received 
from Mr. Ivan Vassilief, of St. Petersburg. 

Two of the Russian joint-worms described by Portschinsky, namely, 
Isosoma apteruin and T. eremiium, should be relegated to the genus 
Pkilachyra, Haliday. 



CONCERNING GASTROPHILUS EPILEPSALIS, FRENCH. 
Mr. Washburn's note in the November number (p. 320) induces me 
to state that Gastrophilus epi/epsalis, French, is no Gastrophilus at all ; 
in fact, not the larva of an Qistrid. The figure shows that it is a Muscid 
larva, very probably of Ca/Iiphora, certainly so if the figure is correct. 
The species cannot be identified until more of these forms are reared. 
French's figure indicates that it is very close to the European C. voviitoria 
as figured by Piepers. There is no definite character known to identify 
CEstrid larvae, but the larvte of some Muscida^ can be separated from the 
QsstridcC. The larvae of Calliphora differ somewhat in the structure of 
the mouth from any known CEstrid larvfe. That Prof Washburn had a 
Gastrophilus is quite possible from the habits ; but it is not the G. 
epilepsalis, French. - Nathan Banks. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Sir, — Please insert the following addition to my paper on Isodontia, 
published in the Canadian Entomologist for October, 1903 (p 271): 

Isodontia macrocephala, var. cineiea. Described from four specimens 
taken at Enterprise, Fla.; Columbia, S.C.; Texas, and one without locality. 
These cotypes are in the collections of the U. S. National Museum, 
American Entomological Society, Mass. Agricultural College, and Dr. W. 
H. Ashmead, the collections from which I received them. 

H. T. Fernald. 



334 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 

SOME NEBRASKA BEES. 

BY J. C. CRAWFORD, JR., WEST POINT, NEBR. 

Melissodes brevicorjiis, Cress.— Lincoln, Aug. 12-27, on Teucrhim 
Canademc. The $ differs from the $ only in having the face-parts 
black, pubescence on face lighter, segments 2 to 4 only banded ; the 
scopa is yellowish. The $ ^ taken all had the tibiae and tarsi entirely 
fulvous. 

Noinada grindelUe, Ckll. — V • Head and thorax black, shiny, very 
sparsely punctured ; abdomen red, very sparsely and finely punctured ; 
face covered with decumbent, silvery-white pubescence ; mandibles and 
labrum apically ferruginous ; antennie ferruginous beneath ; mesothorax 
almost impunctate medially ; scutellum sub-bilobate ; pleura of mesothorax 
swollen, whole thorax with white pubescence, especially pleura and 
metathorax ; form more robust than in $ . Length 7 mm. 

^ . — The posterior femora have a small tooth beneath, toward base. 

Common at Lincoln in August ; taken on Soil dago Missouriensis. 
Gj'indelia squarrosa ; Euphorbia and Lactuca. 

Mr. Pierce informs me that it is probably a parasite of Halictus 
Hgatus, Say. 

Steiis lateralis. Cress — West Point, June 10, '01. Taken at the 
holes of Alcidamea simplex in rose bushes. 

Ncopasitcs IHinoieiisis^ Robt. — Lincoln and West Point, Sept. 4 to 
I r, on Sol id ago rigida and Grindelia squarrosa. 

N. heliopsis, Robt. — West Point and Lincoln, Aug. 30 to Sept. 11, 
on Aster, S. rigida ar.d G. squarrosa. 

Ilalictoides marginatus, Cress. — Common at Lincoln and West 
Point in August and September ; found on Grindelia, Ilelianthus, 
Sol/dago, Teucriuin, Bideus. 

H. maurus, Cress. — Sioux Co., June, on Campanula. Mr. Viereck, to 
whom this was sent for comparison with Mr. Cresson's types, informs me 
that the types are all males, and not females, as stated in the original 
description. 

Perdita iiiaura, Ckll. — Many specimens from both Lincoln and 
West Point, but all on Physalis. Dr. Graenicher writes that he has 
found it burrowing in loamy soil at Milwaukee, Wis., and regards it as an 
oligotropic visitor of Physalis. Prof Cockerell writes that it may 
possibly be found on Aster growing in the vicinity of Physalis, and no 
doubt this was the case in the type material. 



THE CANADUN ENTOMOLOGIST, o35 



The abdominal segments 2 and 3 or 2-4 have a small white spot on 
each side. 

P. zebraia, Cress. — Scott's Bluffs, Aug. 14, 1901, on Cleome. New 
to Nebraska. 

Pamirginus Piercei, n. sp. — c^ . Black, head closely and rather 
coarsely punctured above antennpe, sparsely so below ; scape of antennae 
black, coarsely punctured in front ; flagellum dark ; clypeus, labrum, base 
of mandibles, lateral face-marks nearly as high as insertion of antennge 
and broad above, dog's-ear marks, supra-clypeal area, all tarsi, anterior 
tibiae in front, spot at apex of femora in front, base and apex of all tibiae, 
yellow ; pubescence of head and thorax rufo-ochraceous, dense on thorax ; 
thorax rather coarsely and sparsely punctured ; wings dusky, more so at 
apex ; nervures and stigma dark ; tegulse testacous ; metathorax 
roughened, the base irregularly rugose ; base of first abdominal segment 
impunctate, the disc punctured ; all the other segments densely and 
strongly punctured, apical margins broadly depressed, shiny and 
transversely lineolate ; depressed margins at sides and apical segments all 
over with thin whitish hairs ; margin of clypeus and of process of labrum 
black ; clypeus with a median impunctate area, in the middle of which is 
a longitudinal depressed line not quite reaching apex of clypeus. 

Length 8 mm. 

9 . — Similar, form broader, punctuation finer ; yellow confined to 
spots on four anterior knees ; clypeus without impunctate area and 
depressed line ; process of labrum trapezoidal, base much wider than 
apex, slightly emarginate ; wings almost hyaline, nervures testaceous, but 
stigma dark; first abdominal segment impunctate, lineolation plainer than 
in the ^ ; narrow apical margins of segments testaceous ; segments not so 
plainly depressed ; fimbria and scopa whitish. 

Length 8-9 mm. 

A pair from nest, Lincoln, Nebr., Sept. 7, 1903 (W. D. Pierce, coll.); 
also six other 9 9 (not from nests); a <$ West Point, Nebr., Sept. 12, 
1903, on Bidens (Crawford, coll.). 

Dedicated to Mr. Pierce, who first found the species, in recognition 
of his work on the habits and parasites of bees. 

Differs from P. rudbeckice in its larger size, dark tubercles, presence 
of dog's-ear marks, clypeus $. with depressed median line, instead of " a 
broad median depression, which is impunctate or nearly so." 

Pamirginus Nebrascensis, n. s^. — ^ c^ . Black shining labrum, base 
of mandibles, clypeus, lateral face-marks as high as insertion of antennae, 



336 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

supra-clypeal and dog's-ear marks, a line in front of scape of aaicnnt«, spot 
on tubercles, knees, front tibice except black line on rear, base and apex 
of intermediate and rear tibiae, and all tarsi, lemon-yellow ; face with 
sparse large punctures as high as antenna, above this closely and more 
finely punctured ; vertex and head behind eyes with sparse, large and deep 
punctures ; pubescence of head and thorax sparse, whitish ; mesothorax 
with rather large but not close punctures ; scutelluni with coarse 
punctures ; postscutellum closely and more finely punctured ; base of 
metathorax enclosed, longitudinally striate ; truncation and sides dull 
from fine, close punctures ; sides of mesothorax shiny, and with coarser 
and sparser punctures ; tegulae testaceous ; wings dusky, darker apically ; 
base of abdominal segment smooth, beyond with rather close punctures ; 
apices of segments depressed and transversely striatulate ; segments 
beyond first closely and finely punctured, abdominal segments clothed 
with very short yeliowish pubescence, visible only in certain lights. 

^ . — Similar, but lacking yellow marks of male ; mesothorax more 
finely and sparsely punctured; punctures of truncation of metathorax of 
pleura finer ; first abdominal segment almost impunctate ; abdomen 
lacking the pubescence of $ ; anal fringe reddish ; scopa whitish. 

Lincoln and West Point, Nebr.: on Solidago rigida and 6". 
AIissourie?isis, and also GriJidelia sqtiarrosa. Aug. 24 to Sept. 11. 
20 (^ 's, 8 ^ 's. Sexes in copula. 

Andrena Alicice, Robt. — A single specimen on Bidens chrysanthetn- 
oides, Sept 19, 1903, at West Point. New to Nebr. 

Our other fall And}-enas?i\Q pulchella, /ic/iant/ii, solidjginis, nubecula 
and two a[)parently undescribed species. 

Sphecodogastra Texana, Cress. — Lincoln, Sept.; on Grindelia ; West 
Point, Oct. 

Halidus aberrans, n. sp. — 9 • Black, shiny, with thin pubescence ; 
head finely and closely punctured ; thorax rather sparsely and finely 
punctured ; clypeus sparsely punctured ; antennte dark ; tegula; black, 
externally honey coloured ; wings slightly milky and nervures honey 
colour ; legs black, with a very thin loose scopa of silvery-white hairs ; 
base of metathorax finely irregularly wrinkled ; abdomen very shiny, finely 
and sparsely punctured, punctures more dense toward bases of segments, 
margins of segments light testaceous, and with bands of white hair on 
segments one to four. 

Length about 9 mm. 

Three specimens: Sioux Co., Nebr., June 3, on Syinphoricarpos ; 
Crawford, Nebr., July 28, on Cleome ; Manitou, Colo. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 337 

A NEW GENUS OF BEES. 

BY J. C. CRAWFORD, JR., WEST POINT, NEBR. 

ProtciJidrenopsis, new genus. — Labial palpi four-jointed, r about 
twice as long as 2-4 together, 2-4 slightly decreasing in length; maxillary 
palpi 6-jointed, i and 2 subequal, longer than any of the following joints ; 
3, 5 and 6 subequal, 4 slightly longer ; tongue long, lanceolate ; 
mandibles simple ; labrum transverse, process of Jabrum large, almost 
covering labrum ; foveas present, small ; stigma large, well developed, 
nearly two-thirds the length of the obliquely truncate, subappendiculate 
marginal cell, which is about as long as the two submarginals together ; 
second submarginal fully one-third longer than the first, receiving the first 
recurrent nervure about one-third from base and the second near apex ; 
median cell along the median nervure, a little longer than the submedian, 
the transverse median nervure joining the median just before the origin 
of the basal nervure ; scopa on posterior tibiae, first joint of tarsi and on 
venter. 

Type, the following species : 

Protandrenopsis fuscipennis, n. sp. 5 . — Black, somewhat shining, 
almost entirely nude, the pubescence being confined to the golden- 
yellowish anal fringe and scopa on legs, a little inconspicuous pubescence 
around insertion of antennfe and on vertex, a line on prothorax passing 
around behind tubercles, some yellowish pubescence on rear of head, on 
under side of insect and a io-stf plumose hairs at extreme side of abdominal 
segments ; all pubescence inconspicuous and not showing from above, 
except fimbria and scopa ; head closely and rather coarsely punctured, 
more coarsely so on sides of face ; process of labrum very large, concave, 
the anterior margin bent upwards, process smooth and shining, basally a 
little roughened and with a median ridge, apically subemarginate ; rest of 
labrum covered with yellowish pubescence ; foveae narrow, short, deep, 
the lower end nearer eye than the upper; mandibles black, obscurely 
reddish medially ; mesothorax coarsely and rather sparsely punctate, the 
pleura confluently so ; sides of metathorax finely roughened, the 
truncation closely and finely punctate, becoming sparse and coarse at 
top, laterally ; base of metathorax narrow, rounded behind and bounded 
by a carina ; behind this an impunctate space ; enclosed base with 
coarse, quite regular rugae, almost what is called a transverse row of 
shallow pits in the genus Colletes ; wings very deeply infuscated ; 
jiervures and stigma blackish ; tegula; black anteriorly, dark testaceous 



n 



38 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



posteriorly ; legs black, anierior coxa; each with a Io?ig pubescent spine on 
the inside behind trochanters, anterior and middle knees with a yellow 
spot, their femora thickened and keel-shaped beneath ; inner spur of hind 
tibiae finely serrate ; scopa golden-yellowish, more reddish on tarsi, first 
joint of hind tarsi produced to a free apex reaching tip of second joint ; 
abdomen coarsely and rather closely punctate, the apical margins of 
segments 1-4 broadly depressed, shining, somewhat lineolate ; at sides of 
segment 2 a small, oval, depressed spot ; the part of the segment covered 
by the preceding segment is finely lineolate and the posterior margin 
finely punctured ; this covered portion produced at each side of segments 
2-4 as a finely-punctured triangle with the apex jiosterior ; venter black, 
apical half of segments closely punctured, scopa yellowish. 

Length ro mm. 

Two specimens collected by the author at West Point, Nebr., Sept. 
18 and 20, 1903, on Bidens chrysanthemoides. 
^ unknown. 

The intense black colour, unrelieved by any pubescence, and the 
very dark wings, make this a conspicuous insect. Viewed from above, it 
is all black except the fimbria and scopa on legs. 

The generic name is given on account of the similarity to Protandrena 
in venation, in facial characters and general characteristics. It has a very 
different tongue, however. 

In Ashmead's table this would run to Pamirgidce to number 6, but 
differs from either division under that in having the second submarginal 
much longer than the first. It is, I consider, a long-tongued Andrenid 
with but two submarginals, more closely related to Protandrena than any 
other genus, but the tongue about as in /'(;;/7/;-^v';/«^, which genus, it is inter- 
esting to note, has similar foveas, and a large species of which would look 
very similar to Protandrenopsis 9 • From the yellow knees oi fuscipennis 
9 I should imagine that the ^ has more or less yellow on the face. 



Dr. L. O. Howard, Chief Entomologist of the Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, delivered at Toronto, on Saturday, November 
7th, a lecture on "Some International Work with Insects." It was given 
under the auspices of the Canadian Institute, in the new medical building 
of the Toronto University, and was the first of a series provided for by a 
gift from Sir Smdford Fleming. The lectiue attracted much attention, 
and long reports of it were given in the Toronto daily papers on the 
Monday following. 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 339 

MISCELLANEOUS ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 

BY H. H. LYMAN, MONTREAL. 

There must be many facts known to entomologists which, though 
not sufficiently important to work up into an article for the entomological 
magazines, are still of much interest, and worthy of publication, and I 
would like to suggest that a page or part of a page at the end of each 
number of the " Canadian Entomologist" be set aside for this purpose, 
and that correspondents be invited to send brief notes of rare captures or 
other interesting items.* 

Nemeophila Scudderi, Pack. 

In July, 1890, when at Nepigon, I obtained eggs of this species, 

which had been described by the late Henry Edwards under the name 

Selwyuii,\ and carried the larvae through to imago, and in Can. Ent., 

XXV., 248, published a paper on the preparatory stages of this species. 

On account of my rapid travelling across the continent and back again to 

Montreal, and being much occupied in collecting Lepidoptera and plants, 

sight-seeing and photographing, I was not able to give these larvse very 

close attention, and was afraid that I had missed some of the moults, but 

as Dr. Fletcher expressed the opinion that if I had descriptions of four 

moults, that was probably all there were, I ventured to publish my notes ; 

but in 1895 Dr. Fletcher kindly sent me a moth and 12 eggs of the form 

found at Olds, N.-W. T. These I failed to carry to imago, but carried 

two past 7th moult, and so found that my previous observations had been 

inadequate. In 1902 I was again indebted to Dr. Fletcher for eggs from 

Banff, and carried seven to imago, getting some nice variations, but as I 

was exceedingly busy, and knew that Dr. Fletcher and Mr. Gibson were 

also rearing the species, I did not take any further notes. 

Egg of Albuna Torva, Hy. Edw. 

A female of this species having been captured on a flower by one of 
those present at the excursion of the Montreal Branch of the Ent. Soc. 
Ont., to St. Adele, Q., on 6th June, 1896, the writer secured it and 
obtained about 55 eggs, which were laid loose and all at once. 

Length, .875 mm.; width, .625 mm. 

Rather almond shaped, or somewhat like a hen's egg, except that the 
transverse section would be oval. Perfectly smooth and shining. Light 

*The Editor will always be pleased to receive notes of this kind for publication. 
tia Dyar's Citalogue this na^ne is erroneously credited to Neumoegen, 



340 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



brown in colour. On 14th June, eight days after being laid, they 
appeared to be shrivelling as though infertile. They, however, hatched 
on 20th June. Egg period 14 days. 
Egg and Young Larva of Hepialus Argenteomaculatus, Harris. 

Laid on 15th July, 1896. Length, .75 mm.; width, .58 mm. 

Rather even ovai. Smooth, under a 2^-inch objective seen to be 
very slightly roughened. 

White when laid, soon turning black. 

Hatched about 7th August. Egg period about 23 days. 

Length, 1.75 mm. Head rather large, it and the plate on first 
thoracic segment dark brown. Body slender, creamy white, with simple 
set.ie as long as or longer than the diameter of the body. 

Papilio Brevicauda, Saunders. 

At the annual meeting in 1898, Mr. Winn read a paper on this 
species, and Dr. Fyles, in commenting on it, as reported on p. 38 of the 
29th Annual Report, stated that he had found the larvae hard to please. 
He did not mention whether he had tried parsley. 

I never had so large a percentage of success with any other species. 
I received that year, from Mr. D. Brainerd, two eggs out of five which 
Mr. Winn sent him, which duly hatched, and I carried both larvae 
through to imago without the least difficulty. I took them with me to 
the meeting of the A. A. A. S. in Boston, and afterwards to Front's Neck, 
Me. At Prout's Neck 1 found an umbelliferous plant which they 
preferred to parsley, though when I returned home I fed them on parsley 
again. Both imagos are now in my collection. 

Thecla Titus, Fabr. 

A fine female was taken in 1896, probably in August, and confined 
with wild cherry. Five eggs were laid, three on the leaves near the edge 
and two on the twig, one on each side of the base of a leaf petiole. 

The egg is round. Sea Urchin shape ; i mm. in diameter. The 
projections are coarser, and much closer together than shown in Scudder's 
F)g. II, Plate 65. One was pale yellow, the others considerably tinged 
with orange. 

In the spring all the eggs were found to be more or less chipped at 
the micropyle ; one had the whole micropyle bitten out, and the larva 
could be seen inside the shell, but it was apparently dead, as there was 
no movement, and none succeeded in getting out. 

I have had the same trouble with the eggs of Lyaena Scudderii*, 



»Can. Ent., XXXIV., 127. 



THE CANADIA.N ENTOMOLOGIST. oil 

and do not know how to account for it, unless it be that these eggs wiih 
thick shells and heavy sculpture, in which these species pass the winter, 
require to be softened by the carbonic acid washed down by the rain before 
the young larva can eat its way out. 

THE AUTHORSHIP OF PSEUD AN ARTA. 

BY THE LATE A. RADCLIFFE GROTE, HILDESHEIM, GERMANY. 

[In our September number, page 257, the late Professor Grote, in his 
" Corrections and Notes on Dr. Dyar's List of Noctuids," stated : 

" 124. As I have shown in these pages, the citation to Pseudanarta 
of Hy. Edwards is spurious." At the time he wrote these words he had 
sent us the following paper, and supposed that it would have been 
published before these "Corrections" appeared. — Ed. C. E.] 
The history of the generic term Pseudanarta is as follows : 
1878. Grote, Bull. U. S. Geo). Surv. 178 : crocea (flava) sole species, 
and therefore type. 

1882. Grote, New Check List, New York, 27 : flava, var. crocea, 
singula, flavidens, aurea. The genus is credited without citation to Hy. 
Edwards, under the mistaken idea, derived from a previous corre- 
spondence, that this writer had used or described the genus. The name 
Pseudanarta was originally proposed in letters by Grote for Edwards's 
Anarta crocea, in which the eyes are naked, the tibife unarmed, and 
which is, in reality, as originally stated by Grote, allied to Hadena, Led., 
nee Schrank. 

1889. J. B. Smith, Ent. Amer.. V., 175 : falcata, aurea, flava (crocea), 
singula, flavidens. The citation to Hy. Edwards is now supplied and 
reference is made to: " Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci. , Vol, 6, p. 133, 1875 " But 
this page contains the original description of Anarta crocea, and no 
mention is there made of Pseudanarta. This specific description refers to 
what is only a probable variety of the previously described Hadena Jlava, 
Grote. After examination of the communications of Hy. Edwards to the 
California Academy : "Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, Nos. i to 22" (all 
published), no mention of Pseudanarta is found in any one of them. This 
citation by Prof Smith in 1889 justified the subsequent use of Hy. 
Edwards's name as author in the absence of a verification. The erroneous 
citation is twice repeated in the Washington Catalogue, p. 148, and must 
have been made without consulting the text It was probably supplied 
to support Grote 's incorrect use of Hy. Edwards's name as authority for 
Pseudanarta in the first instance. 



342 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

NOl'ES ON THE ENrOMOLOGY OK PECOS, NEW MEXICO. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLO. 

I . T7V0 bees with jitiexpedcd habits. 

Hal ictus galpiJisice, n. sp. 

Halictns amicus., var. u, Ckll., An. Mag. Nat. Hist., Jan., 1901, p. 
126. 

A single specimen was collected one evening at Las Vegas, at a 
flower of Gaura coccinea. I then remarked of it : " Face narrower than 
type ; possibly a distinct species." It seemed strange that it should be 
visiting the Ganra, but it did not occur to me that I had a genuinely 
vespertine bee. On June 22, 1903, at Pecos, I was astonished to see a 
number of bees busily collecting pollen from the flowers of Galpinsia 
feudleri (a large yellow evening primrose) after sunset, at 7.30 p. m. I 
collected some, and found that they were my " Halictns amicus, var. a," 
which is evidently a distinct species. It is readily known from H. atnicus 
by the narrower face and more sparsely punctured clypeus. It belongs to 
Robertson's genus Evylaeiis, and is distinguished from the species in his 
table by the following combination of characters : Abdomen pruinose 
with white hair, the thin pubescent fasciae entire ; first segment shining, 
distinctly but minutely punctured ; hind spur of hind tibia with five teeth, 
the basal three very long ; enclosure of metathorax minutely caiicellate, 
semi-lunar, concave, with a raised rim ; stigma large, reddish-honey- 
colour. The scape is very long ; flagellum dark, faintly brownish beneath 
at the end. The type specimen is from Pecos. 

Halictns ovaliceps, Ckll., 1898. 

Pecos, N. M., at flowers of Castilleia ititegra, June 23 and 24 (W. 
P. Cocker ell.) 

This peculiar bee was known only by a single example, taken at 
Santa Fe. My wife has rediscovered it, and has ascertained that it 
habitually visits the Castilleia, which has not been considered a bee- 
flower at all. (Compare Robertson, Trans. St. Louis Acad., 1891, p. 598.) 

2. A neiv Aphid on Lonicira. 

Rliopalosiphum Grabhami, n. sp. 

9 . — Winged form : Spread of wings 8^^ mm., length of body about 

2 mm., of antennie about 2 mm.; measurements in jl : Antennal joints 

(i) 90, (2) 60, (3) 670, (4) 430, (5) 360, (6a) 120, (6b) 650; marginal 

cell about 850 long; radius 3 to branch (radius 1+2) 800^ cauda 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 343 



broad and thick, about 220 long, 330 broad ; nectaries about 350 long, 
strongly swollen in the middle. Body entirely shining dark olive-brown, 
without markings ; legs whitish, suffused with gray, apical portion of 
femora darkened ; antennas pale ; wings hyaline, including veins ; beak 
short, reaching only about half-way to middle coxse ; frontal tubercles very 
distinct ; third and fourth antennal joints with very numerous sensoria, 
over 30 visible in one view on third, 17 in a row on under side, where 
they are most numerous. 

Pupa with abdomen purplish; immature forms show very minute 
tubercles on abdomen. 

Larva dark green ; abdomen more or less tuberculate. 

Hab. — -Pecos, N. M., June 7, 1903 (Dr. M. Grabham). On Lonicera 
involucrata, curling the leaves, the affected parts of which become deep 
crimson above, the veins white. The first stage of change consists of 
greenish-yellow spots, which give vvay to crimson. The effect on the 
plant is very like that of Rhopalosiphum ribis on Ribes. 



A NEW NORTH AMERICAN CATOCALA. 

Professor N. J. Kusnezov, of St. Petersburg, Russia, has recently 
described a new Catocala from Texas, with four figures. A reprint of the 
description of the species may be of interest to American collectors, hence 
I reproduce it below : 

" Catocala orba, Kusnezov. — Expanse of male 48 mm ; size of 
C. Judit/u Strecker. 

" Antennae of male ciliate, gray, scaled above, with slight tuftings of 
hair below. (Palpi broken off.) Front densely covered with whitish-gray 
hairs. Patagia and front parts of tegulse and mesothorax dark brown ; 
vertex gray ; the rest of tegulte, nota, and crest on metathorax, whitish- 
gray. Upper part, sides and crests of the abdominal somites dark gray ; 
anal tuft long, dark gray, lighter below. Thorax on the under side and 
femora thickly clothed with long, dirty white hairs and scales. (Fore 
tibise broken off.) Middle and hind tibije and tarsi gray, spotted and 
ringed with black. First pair of spurs of hind tibiae very long and acute. 

" Fore wings on the upper side pale gray (resembling somewhat the 
colour of fresh specimens of C. concuinbens, Walker), greatly suffused on 
costa and at base of wings with white scales ; darker in terminal area. 
Transverse lines visible, but very indistinct. Basal line fine, angulated ; 



344 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 

basal dash absent. T. a. h'ne forms a brown spot on the whitish costa 
and two dentations below it ; the rest indistinct. Median space with a 
dark spot in the middle of costa, running into the reniform. T. p. line 
visible in its upper part alone, beginning with a dark spot on the white 
costa and forming two subequal dentations, filled inwardly with black ; 
the rest indistinct. Subreniform absent. Reniform dark gray, edged 
with pure white. Subterminal waved line distinct, whitish, separated from 
the t. p. line by a light brownish irregular shade. Marginal lunules very 
small, almost wanting. Cilia uniformly gray. 

" Hind wings on the upper side black, base covered by brownish- 
gray hairs. Cilia at apex dirty whitish, the rest dark gray. 

" Ground colour of wings on the under side black ; fasciae very 
indistinct. 

" Fore wings : base dark grayish-black, basal fascia absent ; post- 
medial and subapical ones visible, more or less regularly excurved ; 
between them, at costa, a large pure white spot ; apex triangular, white, 
suffused with isolated gray scales. Cilia white, with dark streaks from 
extremities of veins. 

" Hind wings dark grayish-black, a little lighter at base and costa ; 
median fascia hardly visible, highly excurved at vein 3, thus forming a 
right-angle. Cilia light gray, with darker median stripe, at apex whitish. 

" Catocaia orba belonged to the black-winged group of the genus, 
and resembles C. /udith, Strecker, and its variety, miranda, H. Edw., 
but is not intimately allied to them, I believe." 

Here Prof Kusnezov gives in detail points of difference between 
C. orba and the two named allied forms, which it does not seem necessary 
to repeat. I would add that from a casual glance at the figures the 
upper surface reminds one of C. Robinsonii, though smaller and with a 
different fringe to hind wings ; and the under side is entirely different. 

G. H. French, Carbondale, 111. 

BOOK NOTICE. 

Record of My Life Work in Entomology, by C. R. Osten Sacken, 
Cambridge, Mass.: 1903; pp. 204. 

We desire to thank Baron Osten Sacken very heartily for sending; us 
a copy of his autobiographical memoirs, which we have read with 
absorbing interest. To us who enjoyed his friendship or acquaintance 
more than a quarter of a century ago, these reminiscenses of the leading 



THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 345 

Entomologists of our earlier days, including the author himself^ bring back 
the past very vividly and recall many events that had almost passed into 
oblivion. 

The Baron divides the record of his life into three periods, each of 
almost equal length. He was born in St. Petersburg, on the 21st of 
August, 1S28, and began to take an interest in entomology at the early 
age of eleven. When twenty-one he entered into the service of the 
Imperial Foreign Office. During this period he collected all orders of 
insects except Lepidoptera, and published two papers on Tipulidae, 
and a pamphlet of 166 pages, in Russian, contained a general survey of 
the insect fauna of the environs of St. Petersburg. 

The second period of his career embraces the twenty-one years spent 
in the United States (1856-1877), during which he was Secretary of the 
Russian Legation, and afterwards Consul General of Russia in New York. 
In 1871 he resigned his official position and made several visits to 
Europe ; for the last four years he lived as a private citizen in the United 
States. This was the period of his greatest scientific activity, and was 
made memorable by the preparation and publication of his well-known 
works on North American Diptera, which paved the way for all 
subsequent students of this order. 

A great part of his time, he tells us, was taken up •' in acting as a 
purveyor of material for Dr. H. Loew to work upon, and as a translator 
and editor of his manuscripts," which were published by the Smithsonian 
Institution. These volumes evidently owe a great deal of their value to 
Baron Osten Sacken's careful work, without which, indeed, they could 
never have been fitted for publication. His own earliest work in America 
was his Catalogue of the described Diptera, which was published by the 
Smithsonian Institution in 1858, and was the third of its long series of 
entomological works, which liave been such a priceless boon to all 
students in this department of national science. Twenty years later, 
after doing more than any other person to advance the knowledge of 
North American Diptera by his collections, researches and publications, 
he concluded his labours on this side of the Atlantic by the issue of a 
second Catalogue, a critical one, of the order ; this also was published by 
the same Institution. 

The third period of his life, which, we trust, may not be closed for 
many years to come, has been spent almost entirely at Heidelberg, in 
Germany. His first proceeding was to go to Guben, the residence of 



346 THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Loew, now an old and broken-down man, and arrange for the packing and 
transmittal of the magnificent collection of North American Diptera 
which had been accumulated there, to the Museum at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. It contained the original types of all the species described 
by Loew, about 1,300 in number, and about 1,600 other species. Most, 

if not all, of these specimens had been sent to Loew by the Baron, with 
the distinct understanding that they were eventually to be returned to the 
United States. It may be mentioned that Dr. Loew was well paid for all 
his services, and that this invaluable collection reached its destination in 
safety. After accomplishing this task, which, under all the circumstances, 
was no easy one, the Baron settled down at Heidelberg and continued his 
studies and researches, extending his field of observation to all parts of 
the world, and publishing a long series of notable essays and papers as 
the years went by. 

The present " Record " consists of two parts ; the first contains a 
brief introductory sketch of the author's life ; the second, which is very 
much longer, is composed of " twenty-four chapters on historical, 
biographical, critical and purely entomological subjects connected with 
his vvork"; the third part, not yet published, will contain a complete list 
of all his publications. The most interesting feature of the second part, 
to one who is not a Dipterist, is the author's description of many notable 
Entomologists with whom he was more or less intimately associated. 
Chief among these was Dr. H. Loew, with whom he was in constant 
correspondence for over twenty years, and in whose work he took so large 
and important a share. This is somewhat painful reading, inasmuch as 
Loew seems to have been largely affected by selfish motives and jealousy 
of others, and to have lacked the straightforwardness and candour that 
might have been looked for in so eminent a man ; at the same time the 
author closes his account by stating that he is " entitled to a place, not 
only among the heroes, but also among the martyrs of science." 

The briefer notices of others are very delightful, namely, of Kennicott, 
Walsh, Bassett, Le Baron and Hagen, among American Entomologists, 
and of Haliday, VVinnertz, Zeller, Rondani and others of European fame. 
Portraits are given of Haliday and Loew, and a facsimile of the mar- 
vellously minute caligraphy of the latter, showing 132 lines of written 
matter on an ordinary .'^heet of foolsca[) paper 1 

In this " Record of His Life " Baron Osten Sacken has certainly 
given us a volume of very great interest and also of much historical value. 
From its pages one learns to apiMCciate more than ever the excellence of 
the author's scientific work and the unselfish spirit in which he ever 
devoted himself to it. As he truly says : " The best part of my work is 
that which has assisted and stimulated the work of others, and I am 
conscious at the same time that that part of my work is the largest." 



Mailed December 41I1. 1903. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV, 



Acinopterus acuminatus, vtir. bniiiiieus, 

n. var. , 231. 
Acinopterus acuminatus, \ar. varie- 

gafus, n. var., 231. 
Acinopterus acuminatus, var. viridis, 

n. var., 231. 
Acknowledg-ments, 35, 66, loS. 
Acronycta tartarea, n. sp., 127. 
..^gfialites debilis, 125. 
./Enigmatias, occurrence in America of 

the Phorid g-enus, 20. 
^niginatias Schivnrzii, n. sp., 21. 
^Eolothynmts, n. gfen., loi. 
Ai^lia tau larva, 46, 88. 
Agrilus mercurius, n. sp., 70. 
" pinaliciis, n. sp. , 6g. 
Albuna torva, eg-g- of, 339. 
Aldrich, J. M., articles by, 20S, 264. 
Alcttrodes Marlatti, n. sp., 61. 

" spiut'/ern, n. sp., 63. 

Aleurodida;, life-histories of two new 

Oriental, 61. 
Aleyrodes Packardi, n. sp., 2~, (plate). 
Aleyrodes, the Strawberry, life-history 

and description, 25 (plate). 
Aleyrodes vaporariorum, 25. 
Anarta crocea, 341. 
Anaphorids, notes on, 76. 
Andrena albofoveata, n. sp., 166. 

" Aliciic, 336. 

" Cocke relli, n. sp. , 163. 

" Milwaukeoisis, n. sp., 164. 

" ihaspii, n. sp., 162. 

" virbiiriicUa, n. sp., 165. 
Atidreus, n. gen., 156. 

" Abbot fii, n. sp., 156. 
Anopheles annulimanus, 208. 
" Barbcriy n. sp., 310. 

" Sinensis vanus, 84. 

Anopheles, new, with unspotted wings, 

310. 
Anthroccra larva, 45. 
Apantesis (Arctia), notes on Canadian 

species, in, 143 (plate.) 
Apantesis Anna, 119. 

" " var. persephone, 119. 

" arg^C) \22. 

"' Bolanderi, 144. 

Apantesis Celia, description of larva, 

150. 
Apantesis figurata, 1^2. 
Michabo, \\b. 

" " var. minea, 1 16. 

" nais, 153. 



Apantesis Nevadensis, var. incorrupta, 

1 45-. 
Apantesis obliterata, 144. 

Apantesis ornata, description of larva, 

120. 
Apantesis parthenice, 1 16. 

" phalerata, 154. 

" phyllira, 149. 

" Quensellii, var. turbans, 143. 

Apantesis rectilinea, description of 

larva, 1 17. 
Apantesis superba, 145. 

" virg-o, 113. 

" " var. citrinaria, 114, 

" virgfuncula, larva, 114. 

" vittata, 153. 

Apantesis Williamsii, var. determinata, 

description of larva, 146. 
Aphidida? from New Mexico, 167. 

" List of Californian, 247. 

" table of genera, 247. 

Aphis Alamedensis, n. sp. , 251. " 
" ceanofhi, n. sp., 250. 
" mori, n. sp., 251. 
" table of species, 249. 
Aphrissa statira, 221. 
Apoidea from Montana, 222 (fig-s. ). 
Apple bud-borer, larva and pupa, 158 

(figrs.). 
Apterogynina;, table of g-enera, 204. 
Aptei-nmitiilla^ n. gen., 324, 2>?i'- 
Aquatic insects in February, 123. 
Aradus In/eolus, n. sp., 75, no. 
Argyroselenis, 284. 
AsHMEAD, W. H., articles by, 3, 39, 

49. 95. 155' 199. 2T,2„ 243, 303, 2,^2^ 

2,2,^- 
Asparagus beetle (12-spotted) in Con- 
necticut, 188. 
Asteroscopus = Brachionycha, 259. 
Atreus plebius = Paratrea plebeja, 207. 
Attaci, note on N. American, 109. 
Aulocara guanieri, 302. 

" rufum, 302. 
Aulocara, systematic position oi' the 

Orthopterous genus, 302. 



Bacot, A., article by, 44. 

BadynobcT?nina?, table of genera, 200. 

Ball, E. D., article by, 227. 

Banks, N., article by^ 2;^;^. 

Bees, new genera, 175, 176, 177, 

337- 



■MH 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV. 



Bees, new species, 162, 175, 268, 285. 

" some Nebraska, 334. 
Bethune, C. J. S., articles by, 51, 140, 

141, 266, 267, 293, 294, 344. 
Bird, H., article b}-, 91. 
Blakeitis, n. g^en., 327, 328. 
Blepharocerid^e, habits of, 58. 
Bouibiis atn'/hsciaius, n. sp., 224. 
" Coohyi, n. sp., 222. 
" leiicdiiiclas, n. sp. , 268. 
Book notices, 2^, 49, 140, 266, 293, 294, 

321, 344- 
Braulev, J. C, articles by, 47, 275. 
Brixton, VV. E., article by, 188. 
Brooks, T., article by, 292. 
Bntesia, n. gen., 306. 
Bl'ENO, J. R. de la T., articles by, 123, 

235- 
Butterfly notes from Toronto, 187. 



Cahu)ieuta Jolinsonii, n. sp., 233. 
Callidr)-as cipris, 221. 

" eubule, 221. 

" philea, 22 i. 

Callipterns, table of species, 248. 

" arundicolens, n. sp., 249. 

Calosoma Willcoxi, 89. 
Capsid, a new, 214. 
Caradrina drasterivides, n. sp., 13. 
Carneades = Pleonectopoda, 258. 
Carneadcs cinereopallidus, n. sp., 10. 

" maimes, n. sp., 131. 

" tronellus, n. sp., 11. 

Casey, Major, my last reply to : Was- 

mann, 74. 
Casey, T. L., article by, loS. 
Cassida viridis, it,, 89. 
Catalo^'ue of the Lepidoptera of N. 

America : Dyar, 48, 140, 237, 257. 
Catorala orba, n, sp., 343. 
Caidell, a. N., iirlicle by, 302. 
Cpnfrias, n. gen., 176. 

" Americanus, 176. 

" crigcronis, 176. 
Ceplialolhyniius^ n. g;on., 100, 105. 
Cepficn, n. gen., 176. 

" Toxanus, 176. 
Ceroplaslcs rubcns, 82. 
Chilocorus siniilis, 82. 
China, KiiliMiuilogical exploration in, 

70- 
Chlorotettix niglcollis, n. sp., 230. 
Chrysis inflata in New Mexico, 262. 
Chrysobothris Pin fa, n. sp., 67. 
Chr\sops procli\is, 244. 
Chyphotini, table of generti, 202. 



Clark, Austin H., article by, 219. 
Clarke, Warren T., article by, 247. 
Coccida?, Catalogue of : Mrs. Fernald, 

266. 
Coccidje, new records, 191. 

" new species, 64. 

" notes on, 22. 

Cockerell, T. D. a., articles by, 38, 

64, 167, 215, 217, 262, 342. 
Cockle, J. W., article by, 139. 
Coleoptera, list of Canadian, 239, 288, 

317- 
Coleoptera, new species from the 

Western United States, 67. 
Coleoptera, notes on, 89. 
Coleopterous conundrum, 183, 266. 
Colias philodice, white females, 187. 
Collecting in February, a day's, 123. 
Colour-blindness among Entomologists, 

206. 
CoOLEY, R. A., articles by, 48, 197, 
Coquillett, D. W., articles by, 20, 

189, 218, 255, 261, 272, 310. 
Corethra ciiicfipes, n. sp., 190. 

" new genus allied to, 189. 
Corvdalis cornuta, meristic variation 

in, 207 (fig.). 
Cosilidae, table of genera, 41. 
Cosmia = Xanthia, 259. 
Crawkord, J. C, articles by, 268, 334, 

337; 
Crioceris 12-punctata, 188. 
Crocigrapha Normani, life - history, 

17- 
Ctenucha Cressonana, 77. 

" " var. lutea, 77. 

" venosa, 77. 

Cucullia albida, 136. 

" serraticornis, 135. 
" solidaginis, 135. 
Cnle.v aurifcr, n. sp., 255. 

" canfafor, n. sp., 255. 
Culex consobrinus. Do we Know it ? 

208, 218, 264, 311. 
Culex Curriei, 312. 

" discolor, n. sp., 256. 

" impatiens, 208, 218. 

" inornatus, 208, 218, 264. 

" Kelloggii, n. sp., 211, 261, 311. 

" " larva, 311 (fig.). 

" nanus, n. sp., 256; 

" pinguis, 208, 218. 

" pipiens, 208, 218, 264. 

" punctor, 208. 

" tarsalis, 261. 

" testaceus, 209. 

" Willistoni, 261, 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV. 



349 



Culicid gfenus (new), related to 

Corethra, 189. 
Culicida; and their larva; from Pecos, 

New Mexico, 311 (figs.). 



Deilephila galii, larva, 109. 
Dendroctonus approximatus, 61. 

" frontalis, 59. 

" monticola, 59. 

" ponderosa, 59. 

" similis, 60. 

" valens, 61. 

Dimorphontutilla , n. gen., 2,2^, 331. 
Diptera, additions to Quebec list, 234. 

" from Arizona, 244. 
Dodge, G. M. article by, 78. 
Driotura gammeroidea, var. fnlva, n. 

var., 231. 
Driotura robusta, var. vittata, n. var., 

Dryophanta rydbcrgiana, n. sp., 217. 
DvAR, H. G., articles by, 48, 76, 88, 
^73. ^75' 3^'- 



Elidina?, table ot genera, 8. 

Embleton, Miss Alice L., 265. 

Entomological Club, A. A. A. S., re- 
pc>rt of the Secretary, 53, 79. 

Entomological Club, sketch of its 
history, 54. 

Entomological Record : Fletcher, 234. 

Entomological Society of Ontario, an- 
nual meeting, 267. 

Epeclinje, Synopsis of, 284. 

" table of genera, 284. 

Epeolus, table of species, 287. 

Ephestia Kuehniella, 216. 

Epismilia= Microweisea, 38. 

Errata, no, 213. 

Eucorethra, a genus of Culicida;, 272. 
" Underwoodi, 272. 

Eiigasfra epigcea, n. sp., 71. 

Eulecanium Folsomi, 193. 

Eulecanium pruinosum, var. Ker- 
moides, 196. 

Eidepistc Kcnrfotfi, n. sp., 76. 

Euretagrotis inattenta, 138. 

EuspinoUa, n. gen., 1,2^, 328. 

Euthrips tritici in New Mexico, 262. 

Evans, J. D., articles by, 239, 288, 317. 



Feltia Hudsonii, n. sp., 130. 

" obliqtia, n. sp., 129. 
Feralia Columbiana^ n. sp. , 9. 



Fernald, C. H., articles by, zt,^ 206. 
Fernald, H. T., articles by, 269, 333. 
Fernald, Mrs. C. H., articles by, 22, 

90. 
Fletcher, J., article by, 109. 
Forest-insect explorations, 59. 
French, G. H., article by, 343. 
FvLES, T. W., articles by, 2:},, 75, 234. 



Gastrophilus epilepsalis, 320, 2>c)2>- 
Gibson, Arthur, articles by, 17, in. 
Gnathias^ n. gen., 175. 

" citneatus, n. sp., 175, 176. 

" ova f us, n. sp., 175, 176. 

" table of species, 175. 

Grabhamia Curriei, 312. 

" viffata, n. sp., 313. 

" " larva, 315 (fig.). 

Graenicher, S., article by, 162. 
Grote, a. R., articles by, 77, 109, 139, 

207, 237, 257, 341. 
Grote, Professor A. R., death of, 294. 
Guerinius, n. gen., 100. 
Gvnandromorphism in Lucanus elaphus, 

203 (fig.). 



Hadena (Xylophasia) cerivana, 1 34. 

" " sora, n. sp., 133. 

Halictoides marginatus, 334. 

" maurus, 334. 

Halictus ahi'rraus, n. sp. , 33O. 

" amicus, var., 342. 

" galphisicr, n. sp., 342. 

" ovaliceps, 342. 
Harrington, W. H., articles by, 15, 

37. '"^9-. 
Hi'dychridiuni aniabilc, n. sp., 262. 

Hemaris tityus, larva, 45. 

Hem/f/n'/'fius, n. i^en., 101, 107. 

Hepialus argenteomaculatus, egg and 

young larva of, 340. 
Hessian Fly reared in laboratory, 316. 
HiNE, J. S., article by, 244. 
Holonomada, n. gen., 177. 

" table of species, 177. 

Hoiiiopnrui, J^assUicJi, n. sp., 2i?>-- 
Homoptera, new \'. American, 227. 
Hopkins, A. D., article by, 59. 
Hormisa = Litognatha, 237. 
House-boat collecting trip in China, 79. 
Howard, L. O., article by, 138. 

" " lecture at Toronto, 338. 

Hydroscia appassionata, 91. 

" purpurifascia, 92. 

Hyles euphorbia: larva, 45. 



350 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV 



H}menoptera, new Ph) tophag-ous, 233. 
Hvinenoptercs cl' Europe et d'Algerie, 

Les Mutillides: Andre, 49. 
Hypvlcepus Viereckii, n. sp., 47. 
Hypolimnas misippiis, 292. 



Insect Lite, Elementar}- Studies in : 

Hunter, 142. 
Insect World, Tiie : Nawa, 294. 
Insects used medicinally in China, 86. 
Isodontia apicalis, 269. 

" elegans, 269. 

" Azteca, 269. 

" exoniata^ n. sp., 270. 

" macrocephala, 269. 

Isodontia macrocephala, var. cincrea, 

n. var., 271, 2,1>Z. 
Isodontia tibialis, 269. 

" table of species, 269. 

Isosoma apterum, 333. 
" eremitum, 333. 
Isotiphia, n. gen., 43. 

nigra, n. sp., 43. 



Johnson, W. G., article by, 216. 
Joint- worm Parasite from Russia, 332. 



Keen, J. H., article by, 125. 
King, G. B., article by, 191. 
Kltigia?iiis, n. gen., 102. 
KfSNEZov, X. J., article by, 343. 



Lasiocampa quercus, larva, 43. 
Lepidoptera of Nortii America, List of: 

Dyar, 48, 140, 237, 257. 
Lepidoptera of N. America, List of : 

Smith, 1,2 I . 
Lepidojilera in British Columbiji, 275. 
Lepidosaphes versus Mytilaspis, 90. 
Leiitomydas venosus, 245, 
/A'lirospi/onitifilla, n. gen., 310. 
/.il>!irnia SlossoNi, n. sp., 231. 
i.ucanus elaiihus, Gjnandromorphism 

in, 205 (fig.). 
LyiJLMia comyntas, 1S7. 
" Scuclderii, 1S7. 
Lfifits Chaiiiioiii, n. sp. , 214. 
L\.MAN, H, IL, article by, 339. 



Mamestra laudabilis, life-history, 273. 

" oridd, n. sp. , 1 2. 

Maulati-, C. L., articles by, 53, 79. 



Mediterranean Flour-moth, 216. 
Megachile frugalis, 215. 

" inimica, 215. 

" mendica, 216. 

" montivaga, 215. 

" pruina, 215. 

" relativa, 216. 
Melissodes brevicornis, 334. 
Methocinae, table of genera, 155. 
Micro"d>cisca, n. nom., 38. 
Microweisea, N. American species of, 

38. 
Migration of butterflies, 219. 
Milesia bella, 246. 
Mintecouiiitilla, n. gen., 327, 329. 
Miscellaneous notes, 339. 
Moffat, J. A., articles by, 35, 66, 108, 

210. 
Morrill, A. W., articles by, 25 (plate), 

222. 
Mutillida; of Europe and Algiers : 

Andr^, 49. 
Mutillidse, table of subfamilies, 303. 
Mutillin^e, table of tribes, 304. 
Mutillini, table of genera, 323. 
Myiolcpta a 11 ri nolo, n. sp., 245. 
Myrmosidse, table oi' subfamilies, 199. 
Myrmosinee, table of tribes, 201. 
Myrmosini, table of genera, 201. 
M3'zinida?, table of genera, 4. 



Natural Histor}- of the British Lepi- 
doptera : Tutt, 21,, 44, 88. 
Ncciaropliora (igrinioniclla, n. sp., 168. 

" bacc/uiridis, n. sp. , 254. 

" C\tliJornica, n. sp., 254. 

" rontl/or/iisce, n. sp., 167. 

" Jideniella, n. sp. 169. 

" jasniini, n. sp., 252. 

" lutea, 167. 

" Ivrnpcrsici, n. sp., 253. 

" Maii'mi, n. sp., 169. 

" rliainiii, n. sp., 254. 

" rudbeckiae, 167. 

" rii(/l)cckiariii)i, n. sp., 168. 

" solidag'inis, 167. 

" table of species, 252. 

'' valcriaiiice, n. sp., 253. 

Needil\m, J. G., article by, 36. 
Nemeophila Scudileri, 339'. 
Neopasites heliopsis, 334. 

" Illinoiensis, 334. 

Neoplwtopsis, n. gen., 306. 
Neuronia = Epineuronia, 258. 
Nisuniadcx Llano, n. sp., 78. 
Nocttta Triiniaiii, n. sp., 128. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV. 



351 



Noctuids, ccrrections of Dr. Dyar's 

List, 237, 257. 
Noctuids, new, for 1903, — g, 127, 

(plate). 
Nomada grindelia;, 334. 

" table of species, 178. 

Nomadinae, s\-nopsis of, 172. 

" table of g-enera, 173. 



Oak-gall, a new, 217. 
Odontjeus obesus, 89. 
QLcanthiis Forbesi, n. sp., 260. 
Ologlyptus Texanus, n. sp., 72. 
Orthoptera of Indiana : Blatchley. 293. 
OsTEN Sacken, Baron C. R.: Record 

of my life-work in Entomology, 344. 
Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, Ento- 

molog'ical branch, 89. 



Pachygastria trifolii larva, 45, 88 (fig.). 
Pamphila Leonardus, 188. 
Pafijirgiiitis Ncbrascetisis, n. sp., 335. 

Plercei, n. sp., 335. 
Papaipenia, new histories in, 91. 
Papilio brevicauda, 340. 
Paraiiomia I'etiablesii, n. sp., 243. 
Pecos, X. Mex., ICntomology of, 342. 
Pedilophorus acuininatus, 180, 181. 
" ajneolus, 179, 181. 

" hespcriis, n. sp., 180, 182. 

" Lccunfci, n. sp., 180. 

" oblongus, 181. 

" subcanus, 182. 

Perdita maura, 334. 

" zebrata, 335. 
Peringueya, n. gen., 329. 
Phe?iacaspis, n. gen., 48. 

'' nyssa;, 48. 

Phenococcus Cockerelli, n. sp., 195. 
PJiclpsiiis rollifiis, n. sp., 227. 

" Francofiiana, n. sp., 228. 

" iipptiliis, n. sp., 227. 

" paiipcrciiliis, n. sp., 228. 
Phlceosinus punctatiis, 00. 
Phoebis argante, 221. 
Phor, n. gen., 177. 
" integer, 177. 
Photopsidini, table of genera, 304. 
Phyllodinus flabdlattis., n. sp., 22)2. 
Physorhiiius yiiccce, n. sp., 67. 
Pierida;, migration in Venezuela, 219. 
Pine trees, insects injuring, 59. 
Platylabus, Wesmael, the genus, 275. 
" table of species, 277 (figs.). 

" Litzcrncnsis, n. sp., 279, 282. 



Platylabus nietallicus, n. sp., 277, 280. 

Platyphora Lubbocki, 21. 

Podisma, genus, in Eastern North 

America, 295 (plate). 
Podisma glacialis, 295. 
Podisma glacialis Ca>iade?isis, new 

race, 300. 
Podisma variegata, 295. 
Pontaiiia Bozematii, n. sp., 197 (figs.). 
Preoccupied Names, 38, 90, 207, 213, 

_ 237, 258. 
Pristoinii/illa, n. gen., 329. 
Pi'otaitdiriiopsis, n. gen., 337. 

" fuscipennis, n.sp. , 337. 

Psanniiotliynnits, n. gen., )02, 106. 
Psciidcclnnts, n. gen., 99. 
Pseudanaphora nioiti, 76. 
Pseudanarta, authorship of, 257, 341. 
Pseiidelaphroptcra, n. gen., lor. 
Pseudoliphia, n. gen., 6. 
Psithyrus insularis, 225 (figs.). 

" lalifai'siis, n. sp. , 224 (figs.). 

Ptinida;, new species from Texas, 263. 
Puhinaria innumerabilis, subs p. 

Bel/u'li, n. subsp., 195. 
Pycuothynmis, n. gen., loi, 105. 
Pyrotn Dakolana, n. sp. , 73. 



QuAiNTANLE, A. L., article by, 61. 

Radossko7vski US, n. gen., 327, 328, 

Ranatra fusca, stritlulation and habits, 

235- 
Rancora albiriiwrcu, n. sp., 137. 

" albida, 136. 

" Jiritcei, n. sp., 136. 

" serraticornis, 135. 

" solidaginis, 135. 

" strigata, 135. 
Reed, Edmund Baynes, biographical 

sketch and portrait, 51. 
Rhagigasterina;, table of genera, 156. 
Rhopalosiphum Grabhami, n. sp., 342. 
Rhopalosoma Poeyi, 43. 

" the genus, 43. 

Rhopalosomidse, the family, 43. 
Robertson, C, articles by, 172, 284. 

Samia Californica, ah. parvimacula, 109. 
Sanderson, E. D., article by, 158. 
Sapygida;, table of genera, 3. 
Sarracenia (Pitcher-plant), insects 

found in, 91. 
Saunders, W. E., biographical sketch 

and portrait oi, i . 



352 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV. 



Sawfly, a now, 197 (fiys. ). 

Sa}", Thomas, the Tomb of, 94, 138. 

Sayoinyia, n. gen., 190. 

" punctipennis, 190. 

Scale insects in China, 82. 

ScHAEFFER, C, article by, 263. 

SCHWARZ, E. A., article by, 54. 

Scoliida;, table of subfamilies, 7. 

Scoliinse, table of g'enera, 7. 

Scopelosoma Colorado, 138. 

Sesia stellatarum larva, 45. 

Siavana rigida, n. sp., 14. 

Siricoidea, Arctic, 15. 

Slosson, Mrs. A. T., article b}-, 183. 

Smilia, the Coccinellid g-enus, 38. 

Smilia = Microweisea, 38. 

Smith, John B., articles by, 9, 127 
(plate). 

Spnecodog-astra Texana, 336. 

Spiders, Classification of North Ameri- 
can : Comstock, 294. 

SpilomutiUa^ n. tfen., 324. 

Spilot]iy>inus, n. g'en., 103, 104. 

Steg-anoptvcha pyricolana, life-history, 
158 (figs.). 

Stelis lateralis, 334. 

Stevenson, C, articles by, 89, 214. 

Stictococciis, n. gen., 64. 

" Sjostedti^ n. sp., 64. 

Stietchia — i\cerra, 258. 

SWENK, M. H., article by, 268. 



Tahamts liynliuipciinis, n. sp., 244. 
Tachardia anrinif'iaca, n. sp., 65. 
Telea polyphcnuis, n/;. flava, iio. 
Telea polyphemiis, spinning methods, 

1 39- . 
Tenthredinoidea, Arctic, 15. 
Tctntphotopsis, n. gen., 305. 
Ti'friiscoliii, n. gen., 8. 
T/iainnnfc/fix orbo)iafa, n. sp., 229. 

" Slicnnani, n. sp., 230. 

" ivaldana, n. sp., 229. 

Thecla Titus, a^'g of, 340. 
Theobald, F. V., articles b}-, 211, 311. 
Theobaklia incidens, 311. 
Tliynnid,-c, table oi subfamilies, 96. 
Thyiinidea, n. gen., 98, 104, 105. 
Th\nnina", table of genera, 97. 



Tiiyreopus latipes, aberration, 38. 
Tiphiidae, table of genera, 39. 
TiTL's, E. S. G., articles by, 213, 260. 
Tosquinet, Dr. Pierre-Jules, death 

of, 2. 
Tnchodesma pzilchella, n. sp., 264. 

" Texana, n. sp., 263. 

Triepeolus, table of species, 284. 

" 7nicropygiiis, n. sp., 286. 

Trifurcula, note on the generic title, 

139- 
Trigonophora=Habryntis, 259. 
Tutt's " British Lepidoptera," 23, 44, 



Vespoidea, classification of the super- 
family, 3, 39, 95, 15s, 199, 303, 

323-. 
Viereckia, n. gen., 324, 329. 



Walker, E. M., article by, 295 

(plate). 
Washburn, F. L., articles by, 316, 

320. 
Wasmann, E., article by, 74. 
Wasmann, Dr., a few last words to : 

Casey, 108. 
Wasp, male with female antenna;, 37. 
Wasps, classification of the Fossorial, 

Predaceous and Parasitic, 3, 39, 

95' '55. '99- 303. 3,^3,- 
Webster, F. M., article by, 94. 
Weith, R. J., obituary notice, 36. 
Wickham, H. v., articles by, 67, 179, 

205, 207. 
W'lLLlAMS, J. B., article by, 187. 



Xantliidiuni, n. gen., 177. 

" dentar'ue, n. sp., 178. 

" table of species, 177. 

Xoiomiitilla, n. gen., 330. 
Xiphydria crythrogaster, n. sp., 233. 
Xylophasia fcrens, n. sp., 134. 
Xvlotrechus 4-maculatus, 240. 



Zaspilothynniis, n. gen., 99, 107. 



Errati M. 
Page 251, line 3, for Alemedensis read Alaincdensis. 




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